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Reading Strategies 4, 5, and 6

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Title: Reading Strategies 4, 5, and 6


1

Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas

by Sue Z. Beers suebeers_at_netins.net
2
Top Ten Reasons You Know Youre a Teacher
  • You want to slap the next person who says, Must
    be nice to work 8 to 320 and have summers free.
  • You can tell if its a full moon without ever
    looking outside.
  • You think people should be required to get a
    govern-ment permit before being allowed to
    reproduce.

7. When out in public, you feel the urge to snap
your fingers at children you do not know and
correct their behavior.
3
Top Ten Reasons, continued
6. You encourage an obnoxious parent to check
into charter schools or home schooling.
5. Meeting a childs parent instantly answers
the question, Why is this kid like this?
4. You have no social life between August and
June.
3. You believe the playground should be equipped
with a Ritalin salt lick.
2. You cant have children because theres no
name you could give a child that wouldnt bring
on high blood pressure the moment you heard it
uttered.
4
And the 1 Reason You Know Youre a Teacher is
1. You believe shallow gene pool should have
its own box in the report card.
5
What is Literacy?
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Viewing
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • All have the same purpose COMMUNICATE KNOWLEDGE
    AND UNDERSTANDING.

6
Thinking in Social Studies
  • What are the categories or types of thinking
    that are routinely required in learning social
    studies content?

7
Thinking in Social Studies
  • Determine cause-and-effect relationships
  • Organize a sequence of events
  • Make inferences -- read between the lines
  • Understand processes
  • Determine relationships between ideas and people
  • Read graphics-based materials
  • Identify bias and separate fact from opinion

8
Teaching reading in social studies is about
teaching students how to use reading as a tool
for thinking and learning.
9
A Marsden Giberter
Glis was very fraper. She had dernarpen Farfles
marsden. She did not talp a giberter for him.
So, she conlanted to plimp a marsden binky for
him. She had just sparved the binky when he
jibbed in the gorger. Clorsty marsden! she
boffed. That s a crouistish marsden binky,
boffed Farfle, but my marsden is on Stansan.
Agsan is Kelsan. In that ruspen, boffed Glis,
I wont wank you your giberter until Stansan.
  • Why was Glis fraper?
  • What did Glis plimp?
  • Who jibbed the gorger when Glis sparved the
    blinky?
  • Why didnt Glis wank Farfle his giberter?

10
Why teach reading and writing in the content
areas?
  • What benefits would students gain being able to
    read and write about the content with greater
    understanding?

11
Strategic Reading
  • PRE-Reading
  • Clarify purpose for reading
  • Consider strategies and tools that can be used
    for the purpose
  • Preview material for contents, scope and
    organization
  • Activate prior knowledge
  • Formulate predictions and ask questions

12
Strategic Reading
  • DURING-Reading
  • Monitor progress do I understand this?
  • Engage with the content
  • Make connections
  • Note main ideas and details
  • Monitor reading style and strategies used
  • Revise predictions
  • Make inferences

13
Strategic Reading
  • AFTER-Reading
  • Evaluate how well they understood what they read
  • Summarize main ideas and details
  • Re-read and review for clarity
  • Think about how to demonstrate new understanding
  • Revise schema

14
How are you Connecting?
  • Learning Process
  • Instruction
  • Content
  • Kids

15
CLICK it KIDS
  • Are they ready to learn?
  • Do they have adequate background knowledge about
    the topic?
  • Are there personal problems that might get in
    the way of the learning?
  • What is their learning style(s)?
  • What interests them?
  • What level of skill do they have relative to the
    task?
  • Do they see the task as relevant and meaningful?

Kids dont care how much you know until they
know how much you care.
16
CLICK it LEARNING PROCESS
  • How prepared are students to learn?
  • How are students processing the knowledge and
    what evidence is there of their thought
    processes?
  • What thinking is involved in achieving the
    expected learning?
  • Are students evaluating their own effort /
    learning and do they have the skills to adjust
    their thinking when needed?
  • How is a joy of learning fostered?
  • Are students engaged in reflective activities?

The brain only pays attention to that which is
meaningfuland you cant learn something new if
you cant connect it to something you already
know.
17
CLICK it CONTENT
  • What is the essential / important learning? Is
    it the right stuff?
  • How will content be differentiated for students
    of varying ability?
  • How rigorous is the content?
  • Do all students have equal access to the
    curriculum?
  • What background knowledge or prerequisite skills
    are needed to learn the new content?
  • How can the content be connected to other topics
    / other subjects / life?
  • What will it look like when students master
    the content?

Preparing students for their future
18
CLICK it INSTRUCTION
  • Do activities match the learning that is
    expected?
  • How will classroom structure and grouping
    patterns be used?
  • What resources will be used?
  • How will the needs of all students be met
    (differentiation)?
  • Is the intended learning being measured? How is
    the assessment data used to guide instruction?
  • Do all students have equal opportunity in the
    classroom?
  • How is a climate of comfort, order and safety
    established?
  • Are the classroom activities / work the best use
    of time? Do they reflect best practice?

If teaching were the same as telling, wed all
be so smart we could hardly stand it. - Mark
Twain
19
READING
Reading is used to gather ideas Learning happens
when the new information is connected to the
learners own experience and background.
20
Reading is the key to success in all content
areas.
21
Components of the Reading Process
Classroom Environment Comfort, Order, Safety
The Learner Attitudes, Ability and Perceptions
  • Reading Task
  • Clarity
  • Purpose
  • Background Knowledge
  • Processing Strategies
  • Pre-reading
  • During-reading
  • Post-Reading
  • Text Features
  • Text Cues
  • Organizational Patterns
  • Text Selection

Research-Based Classroom Instruction
22
  • What about kids who cant read?
  • Students who struggle with reading KNOW they
    struggle with reading they know they lack the
    single most important tool for success in school
    and they know that not having that skill opens
    them to ridicule from peers and from teachers.
  • They do anything they can to distance themselves
    from the place and the people who will remind
    them that they cant read.

23
  • Kids who cant read
  • Non-readers would prefer to get into trouble
    for not doing their work rather than be
    embarrassed in front of their peers for doing it
    wrong.
  • They KNOW they cant read theyve known it
    for years.
  • Not all struggling readers sit at the back of
    the room, head down, bored lookgive the gifted
    student the right text and s/he can stumble over
    ideas, worry over words, get lost, and be
    confused about meaning.

24
ANYONE can struggle given the right text.
The struggle isnt the issue the issue is what
the reader does when the text gets tough.
25
HUH????
  • The amount of distributions from net investment
    income and net realized capital gains are
    determined in accordance with federal income tax
    regulations, which may differ from generally
    accepted accounting principles. These book/tax
    differences are either considered temporary or
    permanent in nature. Key differences are the
    treatment of short-term capital gains, foreign
    currency transactions, organization costs and
    other temporary differences. To the extent that
    these differences are permanent in nature, such
    amounts are reclassified within the capital
    accounts based on their federal tax-basis
    treatment temporary differences do not require
    reclassifications. To the extent distributions
    exceed net investment income and/or net realized
    capital gains for tax purposes, they are reported
    as distributions of paid-in capital.
  • Semi-Annual Report for ING Mutual Funds

26
What strategies do you use when you encounter
text you dont understand?
  • What strategies do your STUDENTS use when they
    encounter text they dont understand?

27
Aliterate
Those who CAN read, but who choose not to read.
28
We need to discover how a students unique brain
is wired for reading and writing and then use a
range of approaches that matches his or her
literacy style. - Thomas Armstrong
29
Rehearsal
Elaboration Organization
Long Term Memory
Short Term Memory
Taste Touch Sight Sound Smell
Sensory Input
Pay Attention
Retrieval
Working Memory
FORGOTTEN
30
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the
Reading Task
31
The Ability Factor
Groan Zone
Flow Zone
Difficulty of Text
Drone Zone
Student Ability
32
Finding Alternative Reading Materials
  • www.lexile.com

33
Instructional Reading Level
50 -100
1050 1000 900
75 Comp 90 Comp
34
Typical Reader and Text Measures by Grade
35
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the
Reading Task
36
The KEY PREDICTOR of reading success is the
students background knowledge.
37
Factors Affecting Student Performance on the
Reading Task
38
Students often know how to read, they just dont
use (or know how to use) effective strategies to
get the full meaning from the text they read.
39
Learning / Reading and Retention
Construct Meaning
Pre-Reading
Organize
During Reading
Time Spent
Store
After Reading
40
Independent Strategic Readers
  • Know how to make text make sense
  • Have strategies to use
  • Know how to struggle with text
  • Develop the patience and stamina to stick with a
    text
  • Know what is separating them from success with
    the text
  • Know what they should do to fix the problem

41
READING NEXT 15 Elements of Effective
Adolescent Literacy Programs
42
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction
  • Explicit strategies presented
  • New tools / strategies modeled
  • Many independent practices of tools and
    strategies
  • Students use tools and strategies independently
  • Multiple contexts for apply tools and strategies

43
1) Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction
(continued)
  • Student discussions about what is read
  • Asking students to explain their thinking
  • Wide variety of text available
  • Teachers model their own thinking
  • Lets look at how this might look in the
    classroom

44
Categories of Instructional Strategies That
Affect Student Achievement
45

INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS
  • Know how to approach new words and increase
    vocabulary.
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the
    reading.
  • Continually evaluate ones own understanding of
    what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text features, cues and organizational
    patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

46
A little story to make a big point
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Our mantra
  • an effective teacher knows where to hit with the
    right tool, at the right time, and with the right
    content to make learning happen.

51
Its what teachers do with the time that makes
the difference!
An example from Strategy 8
52

INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS
  • Know how to approach new words and increase
    vocabulary.
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the
    reading.
  • Continually evaluate ones own understanding of
    what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text features, cues and organizational
    patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

53
Thinking About Vocabulary
  • How important is vocabulary instruction in social
    studies?
  • How do you determine the vocabulary that is most
    important for students to really know?
  • What does it mean to know a word.

54
Social Studies Vocabulary
Words represent concepts -- they are labels that
represent ideas. The more words students know,
understand and can apply accurately, the easier
it is for them to make connections in their
reading -- to make sense out of the text.
55
The Importance of Vocabulary Skills
Vocabulary knowledge affects comprehension.
Methods that encourage students to actively
construct meanings help students learn and retain
word meanings longer.
The less cognitive energy students must spend
figuring out the words on the page, the more
energy they can spend figuring out what the text
means.
56
Vocabulary Research
  • Effective vocabulary instruction requires active
    and positive student participation. (Carr
    Wixson, 1986)
  • Personal engagement with a new word can lead to
    deep processing of meaning. (Dole, Sloan
    Trathen, 1995)
  • Researchers have named vocabulary knowledge as
    the most important factor in reading
    comprehension. (White, Sowell Yanagihara, 1989)

57
The Relationship Among Time Spent Reading,
Reading Achievement, and Vocabulary Acquisition
of Fifth Graders
Anderson, R., Wilson, P. and Fielding, L (1988)
Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their
Time Outside of School. Reading Research
Quarterly, Vol. 23 pp. 285-303.
58
Indirect vs. Direct Instruction of Vocabulary
Words
  • 7-14 meaningful exposures to a word before it
    become part of your working vocabulary
  • Best to explicitly teach the key vocabulary of
    the content area

59
But which words???
  • McRELs list of critical content-specific words
  • Represent the most important ideas -- need to
    understand at deeper level
  • Frequency in the text
  • Have a different meaning for the subject area
    than in everyday usage

60
How to teach the words???
  • Front-load meaning - prior instruction increases
    understanding by 33
  • Descriptions and examples
  • Create symbols or pictures to represent the word
    -- gains 34 percentile higher
  • Categorize words -- associations among related
    concepts
  • Limit the of words taught to those that
    represent key concepts
  • Teach common prefixes, suffixes, roots

61
So what about context clues?
  • Context clues can be helpful in figuring out what
    a word means
  • But be careful

62
Fill in the Blanks
The questions that p________ face as they raise
ch_______ from in________ to adult life are not
easy to an________. Both fa________ and
m_________ can become concerned when health
problems such as co_________ arise any time after
the e_______ stage to later life. Experts
recommend that young ch________ should have
plenty of s_________ and nutritious feed for
healthy growth. B________ and g________ should
not share the same b________ or even sleep in the
same r________. They may be afraid of the
d_______. - from the work of Rachel
Billmeyer
63
Howd you do???
The questions that poultrymen face as they raise
chickens from incubation to adult life are not
easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can
become concerned when health problems such as
coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to
later life. Experts recommend that young chicks
should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious
food for healthy growth. Banties and geese
should not share the same barnyard or even sleep
in the same roost. They may be afraid of the
dark. - Based on the work of Rachel Billmeyer
64
Why not look up the word in the dictionary?
  • Think about what happens when a student looks up
    a word.
  • Define the word up

65
A two-letter word that has more meaning than any
other word UP
Its easy to understand UP, meaning toward the
sky or at the top of the list, but when we waken
in the morning, why do we wake UP? At a meeting,
why does a topic come UP? Why do we speak UP and
why are the officers UP for election and why is
it UP to the secretary to write UP a report? We
call UP our friends. We use it to brighten UP a
room, polish UP the silver, we warm UP the
leftovers and clean UP the kitchen. We lock UP
the house and some guys fix UP the old car.
66
The word UP
At other times, the little word has real special
meaning. People stir UP trouble, line UP for
tickets, work UP an appetite, and think UP
excuses. To be dressed is one thing but to be
dressed UP is special. And this UP is
confusing A drain must be opened UP because it
is stopped UP. We open UP a store in the morning
but we close it UP at night. We seemed to be
pretty mixed UP about UP!
67
The Word UP
To be knowledgeable of the proper uses of UP,
look UP the word in the dictionary. In a desk
size dictionary, the word takes UP almost 1/4th
of a page and definitions add UP to about
thirty. If you are UP to it, you might try
building UP as list of the many ways UP is used.
It will take UP a lot of your time, but if you
dont give UP, you may wind UP with a hundred or
more. When it threatens to rain, we say it is
clouding UP. When the sun comes out we say it is
clearing UP.
68
The Word UP
When it rains, it wets UP the earth. When it
doesnt rain for awhile, things dry UP. One
could go on and on, but Ill wrap it UP, for now
my time is UP, so Ill SHUT UP!
69
  • So what are the alternatives?

70
Reflecting on Vocabulary Opportunities
  • What activities do I ask students to do to learn
    the vocabulary terms?
  • Generate own explanations/descriptions
  • Create nonlinguistic/visual representations
  • Ask questions to help generate information
  • Other
  • What opportunities to I provide to ensure
    periodic review?
  • How do I monitor how well they know the terms?
  • How do I help those struggling with
    terms/phrases?

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Vocabulary Cheat Sheet
  • TYPE words in ALPHABETICAL order on one half of
    page (folded vertically)
  • Write a quick description of the word in as few a
    words as possible (one line only)
  • Use word recognition chart to front-load the
    words prior to students reading the assignment

73
Word Play The Research to Support It
  • Word play is motivating and an important
    component of the word-rich classroom.
  • Word play calls on students to reflect
    metacognitively on words, word parts, and
    context.
  • Word play requires students to be active learners
    and capitalizes on possibilities for the social
    construction of meaning.
  • Word play develops domains of word meaning
    relatedness as it engages students in practice
    and rehearsal of words.

74
Game Categories
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1) Have strategies to use when encountering new
words.
  • What READERS can do
  • Use clues to help define the word
  • Try to connect the unknown word to
    words/ideas/concepts they know
  • Use available resources (e.g. glossary,
    thesaurus, dictionary)
  • Know they must use the new word about 7 times in
    the next few days
  • Create a definition in their own words
  • Create a mental or visual image of the word
  • Identify key characteristics of the word
  • Identify examples and non-examples
  • Periodically review their understanding of the
    word

76
1) Have strategies to use when encountering new
words.
What TEACHERS can do
  • Provide a consistent structure for attacking the
    new word.
  • Make connections with students prior knowledge
    by telling stories or creating descriptions that
    explain the definition.
  • Identify key characteristics of the word.
  • Front load the vocabulary by sharing the words
    at the beginning of the new unit.
  • Insist that students learn the meanings of
    prefixes, suffixes, and roots that are used often
    in their content area.
  • Talk about how this strategy can help the
    students become independent strategic readers.

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Reading Tools
  • What It Is and What Its Not
  • Vocabulary Wheels
  • Five Step Process
  • My Personal Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary Ball

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INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS
  • Know how to approach new words and increase
    vocabulary.
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the
    reading.
  • Continually evaluate ones own understanding of
    what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text features, cues and organizational
    patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

91
The Reading Assignment
  • Do students know WHAT to read?

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The Reading Assignment
  • Do students know WHAT to read?
  • Do students know WHY theyre reading (purpose)?

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The Reading Assignment
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The Reading Assignment
  • Do students know WHAT to read?
  • Do students know WHY theyre reading (purpose)?
  • Are students prepared? WHAT do they BRING TO
    the reading?

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Reading Tool
  • Reading Assignment Plan (RAP)

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To increase student understanding of the content
area, help them become better readers of content
area text.
100
8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
  • Have strategies to use when encountering new
    words.
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the
    reading.
  • Continually evaluate own understanding of what is
    read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text cues and features and text organization
    to aid understanding.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

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Think About Prior Knowledge
  • How do students prior knowledge and experiences
    in social studies affect their current learning?
  • How do you know what students already know about
    the topic to be studied?
  • How are prior knowledge and motivation connected?
  • How do you address misconceptions or lack of
    prerequisite / background knowledge?

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Readers construct meaning from the information
the author provides in the text and the
information they bring to the text.
Text Meaning
External Text (Author)
Internal Text (Reader)
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Prior Knowledge and Schemata
In the early 1860s, A____________ issued the
Emancipation _________. This order freed
millions of s_______. The C_________ had the
authority to enforce this order. Emancipation
alone did not give the former s_________ a new
life. Decades of economic hardship and unequal
rights continued. A____________ plan was
supported by many R_____________.
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What schema did you use?
In the early 1860s, Alexander II issued the
Emancipation Edict. This order freed millions of
serfs. The Czar had the authority to enforce
this order. Emancipation alone did not give the
former serfs a new life. Decades of economic
hardship and unequal rights continued.
Alexanders plan was supported by many Russians.
From Teaching Reading in Social Studies by
Doty, Cameron and Barton
111
The brain searches for familiar patterns in new
information.
The brain only pays attention to meaningless
information for a short time if it cannot make
sense out of it, it will not process the
information further.
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ATTENTION!!!
Anything that captures students attention and
gets their minds engaged, has the potential to
produce learning. No attention / engagement NO
LEARNING.
To what do your students pay attention?
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Activating prior knowledge
  • Think about the topic
  • Preview the passage and text cues
  • Ask questions about the topic
  • Present an issue or situation
  • Use advanced organizers to guide the development
    of appropriate schema

Strategy 2 Connect new knowledge to make
personal meaning.
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The KEY PREDICTOR of successful comprehension
is BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE.
How do you help students prepare for the reading
task?
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How do we help students connect
  • Pre-Reading What do I already know or think I
    know about the topic?
  • During Reading How does what I am learning make
    sense with what I already know?
  • After Reading What new learning did I gain from
    the text? What did I read about that I didnt
    know before?

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2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge
to make personal meaning.
  • What READERS can do
  • Be aware that their prior knowledge is important
    to understanding the text
  • Seek new ways to connect new knowledge to what
    they already know
  • Read widely from multiple sources
  • Constantly increase background knowledge
    experiences
  • Take a few seconds before reading to review what
    is already known
  • Demonstrate interest in multiple topics
  • Read and discuss often to deepen their
    understanding
  • Share ideas with another person about what is
    known about the topic prior to reading

117
2) Connect new knowledge to existing knowledge
to make personal meaning.
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Provide multiple opportunities for students to
    read
  • Encourage students to share their experiences
  • Use graphic organizers to help students make
    connections
  • Use brainstorming to identify prior knowledge
    and interests or experiences
  • Plant seeds in early units to create prior
    knowledge
  • Share content-specific vocabulary at the
    beginning of the unit
  • Give opportunities for students to see how
    things are alike and different
  • Encourage students to re-read when they dont
    understand, stopping to think about how the
    reading relates to their own life and experience
  • Provide reflective journals with prompts or
    questions to help student connect their learning
    with their prior knowledge

118
Reading Tools
  • How Sure Are You
  • Connections, Points and Questions
  • Ready-Set-Go-Whoa
  • Comparison Matrix Chart
  • Making an Analogy
  • A Rose by Any Other Name
  • Four Quadrants

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INDEPENDENT STRATEGIC READERS
  • Have strategies to use when encountering new
    words.
  • Connect new knowledge to make meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the text.
  • Continually evaluate my own understanding.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text cues, features and organization.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

139
Why do we want students to think ahead to what
might be coming?
  • Review facts
  • Motivation / Investment of self
  • Higher order thinking
  • Combine prior knowledge
  • Make inferences
  • Pay attention to the text
  • Others?

140
3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the
reading.
  • What READERS can do
  • Summarize often what has happened and predict
    what might come next.
  • Use clues in the reading as well as the
    structure of the text to help make the
    predictions.
  • Make use of cues like pictures, graphs, and
    charts to help identify whats next in their
    reading.
  • Turn subheadings into questions to predict what
    will be coming.
  • Do a 60- to 90-second scan of the reading
    material before reading to determine the big
    ideas that will be included.
  • Think about how their own biases and ideas might
    affect how they read the text.

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3) Think ahead to what might be coming in the
reading
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Use reading tools at the beginning of the unit
    to help focus new learning
  • Create a purpose for their reading
  • Help students create questions about the topic
  • Ask questions after student read a section in
    order to shape their thinking for the remainder
    of the reading
  • Help the students generate a hypothesis about
    the topic so they can test it as they read
  • Ask students to construct support for their
    predictions
  • Point out text features that will help students
    predict what they might be reading

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Reading Tools
  • Thinking Through the Reading Assignment
  • Ready-Set-Go-Whoa
  • My Own Perspective
  • Reading Assignment Plan
  • True or False? I Predict It is
  • Discussion Seeds
  • My Personal Vocabulary List

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The Big Six National Reading Panel
  • Monitoring comprehension metacognition
  • Using graphic and semantic organizers
  • Answering questions
  • Generating questions
  • Recognizing story/text structure
  • Summarizing
  • But there are some missing

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5 Missing Pillars of Reading Instruction
  • Access to interesting texts and choice in text
    read
  • Matching kids with appropriate text
  • Reading and writing has a reciprocal positive
    effect
  • Classroom organization Limit whole class
    teaching
  • Availability of expert tutoring

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8 Strategies for Reading
  • Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of
    unknown words
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the text.
  • Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what has been read.
  • Use text features and organizational patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

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Thinking in Social Studies
  • What are the categories or types of thinking
    that are routinely required in learning social
    studies content?

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Thinking in Social Studies
  • Determine cause-and-effect relationships
  • Organize a sequence of events
  • Make inferences -- read between the lines
  • Understand processes
  • Determine relationships between ideas and people
  • Read graphics-based materials
  • Identify bias and separate fact from opinion

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Teaching reading in social studies is about
teaching students how to use reading as a tool
for thinking and learning.
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Strategy 4 Continually Evaluate Own
Understanding
Students must monitor their comprehension while
they read. They must determine key ideas, ask
questions, reread what is unclear, note
similarities and differences and take notes.
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We Learn by Doing . . .
  • . . . if we reflect on what we have done.
  • John Dewey

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Metacognition is important!
  • Do students know WHY they are using the tools?
  • Much ado about nothing
  • Action without understanding no learning
    /retention

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What inferences can you make from this passage?
He put down 10.00 at the window. The woman
behind the window gave him 4.00. The person
next to him gave him 3.00, but he gave it back
to her. So, when they went inside, she bought
him a large bag of popcorn.
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Even students who exhibit all the overt signs of
success typically do not display an adequate
understanding of the materials and concepts with
which they have been working. (Cannot use in a
new or unanticipated situation).
-- Howard Gardner
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Fragile Knowledge is knowledge that students
either dont remember after the test or dont
know how to use.
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If teaching were the same as telling, wed all
be so smart we could hardly stand it.
-- Mark Twain
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4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of
what theyve read
  • What READERS can do
  • Connect what they just read to their prior
    knowledge
  • Support their point of view as well as the
    points of view of others
  • Find and describe errors in their own thinking
    as well as in the information they read
  • Stop and think often in order to test their
    own understanding
  • Recognize when the text does not make sense and
    use various strategies to increase their
    understanding
  • Question their understanding of the material on
    a frequent basis
  • Use tools to help them remember to reflect
    frequently on how well they understand the text

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4) Continually evaluate their un-derstanding of
what theyve read
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Give students multiple opportunities to classify
    and categorize new information, justifying their
    reasons
  • Provide opportunities for students to summarize
    key learnings
  • Encourage students to re-read if they are having
    trouble understanding text
  • Provide alternative note-taking, including the
    creation of visuals
  • Question students often throughout the reading,
    prompting them to evaluate their own
    understanding and support it with details and
    information
  • Allow students to talk and to write about their
    learning
  • Help students develop the ability to create good
    questions about the information in the text

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Reading Tools
  • Pause and Reflect - p. 290
  • Stop and Spin - Volume 2
  • In With the Old, Out With the New 92
  • The Problems Solved

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8 Strategies for Reading
  • Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of
    unknown words
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the text.
  • Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what has been read.
  • Use text features and organizational patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

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Think about image-making
  • What visuals or other images do students have
    access to in your social studies text?
  • In what ways do or can you have students create
    images and non-linguistic representations of what
    they are learning?
  • How do the images help reinforce learning?

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Students who lack ability . . .
  • to create visual images when reading often
    experience comprehension difficulties.
  • They cannot describe the pictures in their minds
    as they read.

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And the research says . . .
  • Learners who were instructed to create mental
    images of events learned two to three times as
    much as learners who read aloud the sentences
    repeatedly. (Anderson, 1971)
  • When taught to generate mental images as they
    read, students experience greater recall and
    enhanced abilities to draw inferences and make
    predictions.
  • (Gambrell, 1981 Gambrell Bales, 1986
    Pressly, 1976 Sadoski, 1983, 1985_

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Students may need . . .
  • . . . to be prompted repeatedly to focus on
    their mental images or television in the mind,
    as a way to monitor comprehension.
  • Teachers also need to teach and model fix-up
    strategies for student to use.

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Oops Instead of developing images,
  • . . . students may be using their mental
    energy to decode words or may lack vocabulary or
    background knowledge.
  • External visual images can provide background
    knowledge and memory pegs to help students see
    what is happening and unlock meaning.

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The pictures and words must match!
  • When text and pictures dont match, the
    illustrations can interfere with comprehension
    and reduce learning.

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Using Visual Images
  • Not all students can use visual imagery to
    support comprehension.
  • Students may need to be prompted to use imagery
    or may need to be taught how to create mental
    images.
  • Model imagery strategies to students. Describe
    what you see in your mind as you read.
  • From A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words, Anne
    Nielsen Hibbing and Joan L. Rankin-Erickson The
    Reading Teacher, May 2003.

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Using Nonlinguistic Models
  • Graphic organizers
  • Mental images
  • Physical models
  • Kinesthetic representations
  • Pictographic representations

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Creating Images Pictographs
  • The Battle of Trenton

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The Continent Song
North America (left arm up) Europe (point to
nose with right arm) Asia (right arm up) Africa,
Africa (hands around waist) South America
(point to left knee) Australia (point to right
knee) Antarctica, Antarctica (point to left
knee)
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Whats the Intended Learning?
  • . . . Now what is the graphic organizer that
    would help my students get to that intended
    learning?

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Seven Considerations for Evaluating Graphic
Organizers
  • The graphic organizer is a mental tool to aid
    comprehension . . . Not an end in itself.
  • A gradual transition from teacher-directed
    graphic organizer activities to independent use
    is best.
  • The process of creating, discussing, sharing, and
    evaluating a graphic organizer is more important
    than the organizer itself.
  • Adapted from Bromley, K., Irwin-DeVitis,
    L., and Modlo, M. (1995). Graphic Organizers (p
    28), New York Scholastic.

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Seven Considerations for Evaluating Graphic
Organizers
  • The discussion that accompanies the creation or
    interpretation of a graphic organizer is crucial
    to the learning process.
  • There are many ways to represent the same
    information in a graphic organizer.
  • Encourage students to evaluate the benefits of
    graphic organizers in their own learning.
  • Some students will find graphic organizers more
    beneficial than others.
  • Adapted from Bromley, K., Irwin-DeVitis, L., and
    Modlo, M. (1995). Graphic Organizers (p 28), New
    York Scholastic.

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Planning Tool for Graphic Organizers
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5) Create images of what is being read.
  • What the READER can do
  • Know that a picture is truly worth a thousand
    words!
  • Create images in their minds or on their papers
  • Create pictures to summarize their learning
  • Select appropriate graphic organizers to
    summarize the details and information in their
    reading
  • Use visual organizers to connect their new
    learning to their background knowledge

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Create images of what is being read.
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Become familiar with various graphic organizers
    in order to offer the appropriate one(s) to help
    students achieve the intended learning
  • Provide models of graphic organizer and guided
    practice in how to use them
  • Model the use of visuals and graphic organizers
  • Provide various graphic organizers that allow
    for choice but also assist the students in
    organizing the new learning
  • Use models and charts in the classroom
  • Use clips from videos that emphasize or
    demonstrate key learnings
  • Share students work by displaying it

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Reading Tools
  • Note-Taking Using Both Sides of the Brain - p.
    274
  • Picture It - Volume 2
  • Thinking in Words and Images
  • I Spy!
  • The Five Step Process

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8 Strategies for Reading
  • Develop new vocabulary and figure out meanings of
    unknown words
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the text.
  • Evaluate ones own understanding of what is read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what has been read.
  • Use text features and organizational patterns.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

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Strategy 6 Periodically Summarize What Is Read
Students often have difficulty comprehending and
retaining the large amount of information
presented. They are unable to determine the most
important ideas of a section or chapter.
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The Thermodynamics of Hell
The following is an actual question given on
a University of Washington chemistry mid term.
Bonus Question Is Hell exothermic (gives off
heat) or endothermic (absorbs heat)?
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Most of the students wrote proofs of their
beliefs using Boyle's Law, (gas cools off when it
expands and heats up when it is compressed) or
some variant.   One student, however, wrote the
following
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First, we need to know how the mass of Hell is
changing in time. So we need to know the rate
that souls are moving into Hell and the rate they
are leaving. I think that we can safely assume
that once a soul gets to Hell, it will not leave.
Therefore,no souls are leaving.  As for how many
souls are entering Hell, let's look at the
different religions that exist in the world
today. Some of these religions state that if you
are not a member of their religion, you will go
to Hell. Since there are more than one of these
religions and since people do not belong to more
than one religion, we can project that all souls
go to Hell.
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With birth and death rates as they are, we
can expect the number of souls in Hell to
increase exponentially.   Now, we look at the
rate of change of the volume in Hell because
Boyle's law states that in order for the
temperature and pressure in Hell to stay the
same, the volume of Hell has to expand
proportionately as souls are added.   This gives
two possibilities
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1. If Hell is expanding at a slower rate than
the rate at which souls enter Hell, then the
temperature and pressure in Hell will increase
until all Hell breaks loose.
2. If Hell is expanding at a rate faster than
the increase of souls in Hell, then the
temperature and pressure will drop until Hell
freezes over.
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So which is it?  If we accept the postulate given
to me by Teresa Morrison during my freshman year,
"...that it will be a cold day in Hell before I
go out with you," and take into account the fact
that I still have not succeeded in going on a
date with her, then 2 cannot be true, and thus I
am sure that Hell is exothermic and will not
freeze.  
The student received the only A grade given.
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6) Periodically summarize what is read and
learned
  • What READERS can do
  • Identify key issues and main ideas in the
    content area
  • When looking at a lot of information, determine
    the important ideas and then summarize those
    ideas in their own words
  • Identify most important concepts, facts, or
    ideas and delete those that have little or no
    importance or connection
  • Identify or create topic sentences about their
    reading
  • Draw conclusions and make generalizations
  • Provide supporting details
  • Gather new learning from clues provided by text
    structure
  • Practice alternative styles of note-taking

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6) Periodically summarize what is read and
learned
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Demonstrate and discuss text structure and how
    it can be used to guide the intended learning
  • Provide chunks of reading from which the
    students can delete the unimportant, identify the
    important, summarize the key learning, and add
    details for support
  • Use graphic organizers that will lead students
    to the intended learning
  • Provide prompts or questions that will help
    students focus on the summary of their assigned
    reading
  • Remind students to stop and think often
    through their reading
  • Provide students with alternative styles of
    note-taking

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Reading Tools
  • Chain Reaction - p. 206
  • Alphabet Soup - 186
  • Comparison Matrix Chart - p. 226
  • Give Me a Hand - Volume 2
  • One Step at a Time
  • Toss Em in the Sack
  • My Week of Reading in a Phrase
  • Supporting the Main Idea
  • Just for Chem Lab
  • Summary Pyramid
  • Shed Some Light on It

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Give Me A Hand

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8 Reading Strategies for Improved Comprehension
  • Have strategies to use when encountering new
    words.
  • Connect new knowledge to make personal meaning.
  • Think ahead to what might be coming in the
    reading.
  • Continually evaluate own understanding of what is
    read.
  • Create images of what is read.
  • Periodically summarize what is read.
  • Use text cues and features and text organization
    to aid understanding.
  • Have a plan for how to approach the reading task.

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Thinking About Text Features
  • What features of your text help students
    understand content? What makes it difficult?
  • How can understanding text features help students
    learn the content better?
  • How can a social studies teacher help students
    use text features to gain a greater understanding
    of what is read?

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Improving reading comprehension Make sure
students understand
  • Difference between narrative text and
    informational text
  • Organizational patterns used (i.e. cause-and
    effect vs. sequential)
  • How to use text features such as pictures,
    graphs, headings, subheadings, etc.
  • How to find materials that are appropriate to
    their reading ability level

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Students often read vastly different kinds of
texts the same way and ignore the textual cues
that would help them develop a clearer
understanding.
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Text / Text Features
  • Reading level
  • Structure / Organization of the
    text

Text cues and features
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Pre-Reading with Text
  • Read title and picture captions What do you
    think you will read about?
  • Look for bold-faced vocabulary words Give your
    best-guess definition for each.
  • Make an outline from the text using headings and
    subheadings. Fill in details as you read.
  • List the visual aids used in the text What new
    ideas or questions do you have after studying
    them?

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Pre-Reading with Text
  • Write three questions you hope / think will be
    answered as you read.
  • Make three predictions about what the text is
    about based on the title.
  • Determine the focus (purpose) for the reading.
  • Read the summary paragraph. Then look for
    supporting information as you read.

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Pre-Reading with Text
  • Using clues from the text, list what you already
    know or think you know about the topic before you
    start to read.
  • Make predictions about the new learning you will
    have from reading the text.

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Using Text Organization
  • Time Order
  • Order of Importance
  • Classification Order
  • Location Order or Description
  • Cause-Effect Order
  • Comparison / Contrast Order

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7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text
organization
  • What READERS can do
  • Look for clues in the text to help their
    understanding, including headings, subheadings,
    bold-faced and italicized words
  • Identify the organizational pattern and predict
    how it is tied to the intended learning
  • Look for key words that predict the
    organizational pattern
  • Recognize that pictures in the text are there to
    help provide clues to the reading
  • Use tools (e.g. glossary, bibliography, index,
    etc.) in their text to increase their
    understanding of the reading
  • Turn the heading and subheadings into questions
    to focus their reading
  • Become familiar with the text cues provided by
    the author

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7) Use textual cues, visuals, and text
organization
  • What TEACHERS can do
  • Introduce students to the text for the class by
    providing a talk aloud that introduces the
    structure and clues provided by text features
  • Introduce activities to become familiar with the
    various parts of the book
  • Look carefully at graphs and charts to identify
    key information
  • Assist students in turning headings and
    subheadings into questions that can focus their
    reading
  • Practice using text features, such as the
    glossary and index
  • Use organizers at the beginning of the unit to
    focus students on the big picture
  • Consider the use of highlighting text to
    indicate main ideas

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Reading Tools
  • Thinking About My Text
  • Thinking Through the Reading Assignment
  • Reading Assignment Plan

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