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Title: SE%20470%20Software%20Development%20Processes


1
SE 470Software Development Processes
  • James Nowotarski
  • 19 May 2003

2
Course Map
Overview . Introduction . History Content .
Rational Unified Process . Extreme
Programming Implementation . Tools, Training,
Roles . CMM, Metrics . Selection
Evaluation Briefings (Term Papers)
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
Week
Memorial Day
Assignments Quizzes
3
Todays Objectives
  • Recap the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
  • Understand key issues of methodology selection
    and evaluation
  • Discuss term papers (last chance)

4
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

5
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

6
CMM Levels
Initial (1)
7
Key process areas (KPAs)
Maturity levels
8
CMM Appraisal Method
Response Analysis
Team Selection
1
Findings based on the CMM
On-site visit Interviews document reviews
9
Appraisal Methods
  • Software Process Assessments (SPA)
  • Performed in open, collaborative environment
  • Focuses on improving the organizations software
    process
  • Now called CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal
    Process Improvement (CBA-IPI)
  • Software Capability Evaluations (SCE)
  • Performed in a more audit-oriented environment
  • Focuses on identifying risks associated with a
    contractor
  • Teams recommendation will help select
    contractors or set fees

10
CMM Issues in the Real-World
  • Level envy
  • Areas not addressed
  • Business strategy and linkage to IT
  • Operations, help desk, support
  • Management of the IT human resource
  • Application portfolio
  • Tools
  • Risk
  • Many question whether it is worth the effort to
    pursue levels 4 and 5

11
CMM Maturity Profile
August 2002
100
90
80
70
60
43.2
50
of Organizations
40
23.4
30
20
7.3
6.8
10
0
Repeatable
Defined
Managed
Optimized
Based on assessments from 1998-2002 of 1124
organizations
12
USA and Offshore Profiles
August 2002
100
90
80
70
60
50
47.4
of Organizations
37.6
40
25.3
30
23.3
22.0
13.2
14.0
20
10.0
10
5.3
2.0
0
Initial
Repeatable
Defined
Managed
Optimized
USA
Offshore
Based on 645 U.S. organizations and 479 offshore
organizations
13
CMM
Approximately 50 of the 70 or so
publicly-acknowledged Level 5 CMM-certified
organizations are in India
  • Marketing tool to win clients, who are based
    predominantly in US and Europe
  • Clients using Indian service providers should
    have certain key processes in place
  • service level agreements
  • identifying business requirements
  • scoping requirements
  • managing changes

14
Time to Move Up
100
Number of months to move to next maturity level
75
50
Largest observed value that is not an outlier
28
75th percentile
23
Recommended time between appraisals (18-30 mos)
22
25
17
Median (50th percentile)
25th percentile
Smallest observed value that is not an outlier
0
1 to 2
4 to 5
2 to 3
3 to 4
15
CMM-based Software Process Improvement (SPI)
  • Time and cost often exceed expectations
  • 18-24 months to advance 1 level
  • Can cost 2K per software engineer per year
  • 1-2 full-time resources (e.g., 5-10 in a
    500-person organization)
  • 2-4 of rest of organizations time
  • Difficult KPAs
  • Planning and tracking
  • Key success factors
  • Senior management is engaged
  • Participation and buy-in at all levels, including
    middle management and technical staff
  • Clearly stated, well understood SPI goals
  • Clear assignment of responsibility
  • SEPG staffed by highly respected people

16
Software Process Improvement Models
A number of models enable software development
organizations to compare their practices to a set
of best practices
IT specific models
  • ISO 15504
  • ISO 9000-3
  • TickIT

General models
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Six Sigma

17
Software Process Improvement Models
ISO 15504
  • International collaborative effort (including
    SEI)
  • Sparked by an investigative study sponsored by
    the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MOD)
  • Objective To develop a standard in the area of
    software process assessment
  • establish a common framework for expressing the
    process capability ratings resulting from a
    15504-conformant assessment
  • provide a migration path for existing assessment
    models and methods wishing to become
    15504-conformant

18
Software Process Improvement Models
The Integrated CMM (CMMI) has emerged as the
latest thinking from SEI
  • Over time, proliferation of CMMs
  • Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM)
  • Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM) (may
    or may not include software)
  • Integrated Product Development Capability
    Maturity Model (IPD-CMM)
  • Software acquisition
  • Many organizations wish to integrate improvement
    efforts across disciplines
  • Differences among these multiple models made
    integration difficult
  • SEI developed common framework to support
    integration of current and future
    discipline-specific maturity models
  • The common framework is called the Integrated CMM
    (CMMI)
  • Each CMMI model is designed to be used in
    concert with other CMMI models, making it easier
    for organizations to pursue enterprise-wide
    process improvement at their own pace

19
CMMI
CMMI integrates process improvement models for
product and service development and maintenance
  • Incorporates and extends
  • Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM)
  • Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM)
  • Integrated Product Development Capability
    Maturity Model (IPD-CMM)
  • Supplier sourcing
  • CMMI-SW model released August 2002
  • SW-CMM to be sunsetted by end of 2003 (stay
    tuned)
  • Whats different about CMMI-SW
  • Stronger linkage to business objectives and
    customer needs
  • Greater alignment with relevant ISO standards
  • Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process
    Improvement (SCAMPISM) V1.1 as a replacement for
    CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal Process
    Improvement (CBA IPI) and Software Capability
    Evaluation (SCESM)
  • Objective To develop a standard in the area of
    software process assessment
  • establish a common framework for expressing the
    process capability ratings resulting from a
    15504-conformant assessment
  • provide a migration path for existing assessment
    models and methods wishing to become
    15504-conformant

20
CMMI
  • Whats different about CMMI-SW
  • Stronger linkage to business objectives and
    customer needs
  • Greater alignment with relevant ISO standards
  • Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process
    Improvement (SCAMPISM) V1.1 as a replacement for
    CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal Process
    Improvement (CBA IPI) and Software Capability
    Evaluation (SCESM)
  • New process areas
  • New names for maturity levels
  • Still outside scope of CMMI
  • People CMM (P-CMM)
  • Software Acquisition CMM (SA-CMM)

21
CMMI
  • New names for maturity levels

Level Old New
1 Initial Initial
2 Repeatable Managed
3 Defined Defined
4 Managed Quantitatively Managed
5 Optimizing Optimizing
22
CMMI
For more information
  • http//www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/02.r
    eports/02tr029.html (600 page pdf)

23
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

24
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

25
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

26
Methodology Selection Process
Methodology Selection Process
Objective Identify best solution to meet stated
business need while minimizing cost and risk
27
1. Pre-RFP
  • Also known as Requirements Definition
  • Preliminary analysis for management (not given to
    vendor)
  • Serves as basis for Request for Proposal (RFP)
    and evaluation criteria
  • May be a simple presentation (small firm) or a
    formal report
  • Most important step in the system procurement
    process

28
1. Pre-RFP
  • Factors to consider
  • Organization and project sizes
  • Locations/Degree of distribution
  • Diversity of application developers
  • IT culture
  • Cost/Budget
  • Request for Information (RFI)
  • Vendors are called/consultants consulted/research
    conducted
  • Breadth of alternatives is identified
  • Vendors identified to participate in future
    stages

29
1. Pre-RFP
Sections of the Pre-RFP Report
  • Problem statement
  • Current state
  • Gaps
  • Risks
  • Alternative solutions
  • Ratings (of each alternative)
  • Range of costs and benefits
  • Recommended alternative and rationale

30
1. Pre-RFP
Categories of Methodology Providers
  • Developed and delivered by consultants
  • Software tool vendors
  • Industry consortia or other groups

31
2. RFP
  • Blueprint
  • Confirms in detail the exact requirements stated
    in both business and technical terms
  • Limited distribution (e.g., 3-5 vendors)
  • Protect confidentiality
  • Keep selection process manageable

32
2. RFP
Sample Contents of an RFP
  • Business need/Requirements
  • Statement of Work to be done
  • Methodology characteristics
  • Implementation plan
  • Training strategy
  • Maintenance and support
  • Cost/Budget
  • Procedural details
  • Form and structure of proposal
  • Schedule (meetings, demos, selection)
  • Key contacts
  • Selection criteria

33
2. RFP
When should an RFP be used?
  • Multiple solutions available that will fit the
    need
  • Multiple vendors can provide the same solution
  • Corporate policy requires it

34
2. RFP
Advantages of Using an RFP
  • RFP team develops better understanding of their
    needs from both a technical and business
    perspective
  • Compels vendors to create competitive solutions
  • Does not favor one vendor over another (in
    theory)
  • Everybody singing from same hymn book
  • Vendors working from same set of rules and
    requirements
  • Facilitates evaluation of competitive solutions
  • Provides a foundation on which to base a more
    rigorous evaluation of a vendor

35
3. Proposal Submissions
  • Forums to answer vendor questions (written, oral)
  • Vendor conferences before proposal submission
  • Response content and format
  • Sometimes requires "proof" statements, such as
    "This feature was implemented 12 months ago and
    is currently installed at 10 sites. Names and
    addresses are provided in the reference section."

36
4. Proposal Evaluations
  • Business and Technical Solutions
  • Rating scale (0unresponsive, . . .,
    5exceptional)
  • Vendor qualifications (site visits, reference
    checks)
  • Preliminary cost, value, and risk analysis
  • Cost proposal may be a separate document from
    technical proposal
  • Vendor demo
  • Personnel assignment
  • May be a two-stage process, with only a short
    list of 2-3 vendors doing demos and making best
    and final offers
  • Question Who are the key stakeholders in this
    process?

37
4. Proposal Evaluations
In selecting a vendor, there are major management
and technical considerations
Management considerations
  • Ability and track record of vendor to meet
    commitments?
  • Satisfaction levels of vendors current
    customers, particularly long-term customers?
  • Vendors track record for providing support?
  • Any litigation pending against vendor?
  • Is the vendor financially stable?

38
4. Proposal Evaluations
In selecting a vendor, there are major management
and technical considerations (cont.)
Technical considerations
  • Ability and track record of vendor to meet
    technical challenges of project?
  • Level of vendors expertise in your industry
    (e.g., Financial Services)? With your type of IT
    organization?
  • Quality of vendors past work? Are metrics
    available?

39
What does a methodology product consist of?
  • Content
  • building blocks (processes, deliverables, etc.)
  • pre-defined routes
  • Delivery vehicle (e.g., browser)
  • Tools for authoring and publishing content
  • Tools for applying the methodology to a specific
    project
  • project planning and estimating tools
  • process management tools
  • project management tools
  • Deliverable templates tightly coupled with a
    development and/or execution platform
  • Training and support
  • Maintenance

40
Small groups
Identify criteria to be considered in each of the
following categories when considering methodology
products for your organization
  • Content
  • Methodology tools
  • Fit with development tools
  • Deployment and Support
  • Vendor
  • Cost

41
Small groups
Examples Content - Which life cycle models
are supported? - Does the methodology support
component-based development?
42
5. Vendor Selection
  • Vendor site visits
  • Weighted score method
  • Final cost, value, and risk analysis
  • Costs
  • -- one-time vs. recurring
  • -- fixed vs. variable
  • Benefits
  • -- tangible vs. intangible

43
6. Procurement Methods
  • Purchase
  • not that popular because of fear of obsolescence
  • longest-term commitment of these 3 methods
  • Subscription
  • usually 12-36 months in duration
  • often done with an option to buy

44
7. ROI Analysis
  • Metrics to justify investment in methodology
    remains a weak link
  • Vendors supply very little help for customers
    developing ROI models for methodology
  • Managers must commit to developing custom cost,
    benefit, and risk models to justify their
    methodology investments

45
8. Contract Negotiation
  • Dos
  • Include vendor responses to RFP in the contract
  • Consider intellectual property issues
  • Leverage outside expertise in negotiations
  • Provide incentives/penalties
  • Donts
  • Buy vaporware instead of proven solutions
  • Purchase low bid unless the value is there
  • Settle on final offer prematurely

46
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

47
Methodology Selection Project
  • The Course of Action (the selection of the system
    development process) is driven by
  • Content factors the result to be achieved
  • Context factors internal and external influences

48
Decision Tree
Asset-Based
Buy
Buy vs. Build
Asset
Asset vs. Non- Asset
Legacy
Build
Legacy
Technology Generation
Non-Asset
Agile vs. Traditional
Netcentric
See Table 1 Context 1
See Table 2 Context 2
See Table 3 Context 3
See Table 4 Context 4
49
Table 1 - Buy versus Build
  • Content Factors

50
Context 1 - Buy versus Build
  • Context Factors
  • Is a suitable package available?
  • Availability of tools (development tools,
    plug-ins, etc.)
  • Previous success with system development process
  • Management understanding of and commitment to one
    of the approaches

51
Table 2 - Asset versus Non-Asset
  • Content Factors

52
Context 2 - Asset versus Non-Asset
  • Context Factors
  • Is suitable asset available?
  • Availability of tools (development tools,
    plug-ins, etc.)
  • Availability of asset-experienced resources
  • Previous success with system development process
  • Management understanding of and commitment to one
    of the approaches

53
Table 3 - Technology Generation
  • Content Factors

54
Context 3 - Technology Generation
  • Context Factors
  • Availability of tools (development tools,
    plug-ins, etc.)
  • Previous success with system development process
  • Need for the client to be considered leading edge
  • Management understanding of and commitment to one
    of the approaches

55
Table 4 - Agile vs. Traditional
  • Content Factors

56
Context 4 - Agile vs. Traditional
  • Context Factors
  • Availability of tools (development tools,
    plug-ins, etc.)
  • Previous success with system development process
  • Experience with object technology
  • Need for the client to be considered leading edge
  • Result will be used as an asset
  • Management understanding of and commitment to one
    of the approaches

57
Words of Caution
  • A system development process is not
    all-exclusive. In all probability the project
    will use concepts, tasks, deliverables from more
    than one system development process
  • One project, however, will follow primarily one
    system development process
  • For specific projects some factors may not apply,
    or additional factors can have an influence on
    the decisions.

58
Todays agenda
  • Topic Duration
  • CMM Recap 15 minutes
  • CMM Jeopardy 45 minutes
  • CMM Quiz 35 minutes
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Organization 50 minutes
  • Methodology Selection Project 20 minutes
  • Project Methodology Adequacy 15 minutes

59
Project Methodology Adequacy
Key Questions
  • Content
  • Was there an adequate set of systems development
    methodology and standards to guide project
    activities?
  • What existed?
  • Was it adequate?
  • Deployment
  • Was the set of systems development methodology
    and standards rolled out to developers so that
    they had awareness and understanding of how to
    use them?
  • Usage
  • Did project personnel adhere to the standards and
    methodology?

60
Next Class June 2
  • First half of term papers to be presented

61
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