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Mental/Emotional Health Stress and Anxiety Disorders

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People who have mental and emotional disorders are typically violent. ... Anger- Feeling powerless and unfairly deprived, the person may lash out. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mental/Emotional Health Stress and Anxiety Disorders


1
Mental/Emotional Health Stress and Anxiety
Disorders
  • Chapter 7, 8, 9

2
Myth or Fact
  • People who have mental and emotional disorders
    are typically violent.
  • Mental and emotional disorders are true medical
    illnesses like heart disease
  • Most people can snap out of their depression
    if they try hard enough
  • Depression and other mental or emotional
    disorders do not affect children or adolescents

3
Myth or Fact
  • People are less likely to seek treatment for
    mental disorders than for physical disorders
  • People who talk about suicide should always be
    taken seriously.
  • Being treated for a mental or an emotional
    disorder means that an individual has failed in
    someway or is responsible for the problem
  • Getting help for a mental problem is difficult
    and expensive

4
Mental/Emotional Health
  • Mental/Emotional is the ability to accept
    yourself and others, adapt to and manage
    emotions, and deal with the demands and
    challenges you meet in life.
  • People with good Mental/emotional Health
    demonstrate the following characteristics.
  • Getting help for a mental problem is difficult
    and expensive.
  • Positive self-esteem- Your feelings of confidence
    and self esteem are directly related to your
    general level of wellness
  • Sense of Belonging- emotional attachment to
    family, friends, teachers, provides comfort and
    assurance.
  • Sense of Purpose- Recognizing your own value.
  • Positive Outlooks- Having hope about life, it
    reduces stress and increases your energy level.
  • Autonomy- Having the confidence to make
    responsible and safe decisions. Sense of
    independence

5
Maslows Hierarch of Needs
  • Abraham Maslow was a pioneer in psychology.
  • Maslow organized human needs in the form of a
    pyramid call the hierarchy of needs.
  • Hierarchy of needs- is a ranked list of those
    needs essential to human growth and development.

6
Level 5 Reaching Potential
Level 4 Feeling Recognized
Level 3 Belonging
Level 2 Safety
Level 1 Physical
7
Hierarch of Needs
  • Physical Needs- Survival needs such as food,
    water, sleep, and Shelter from the elements are
    among the need at the bottom of the pyramid.
  • Need for Safety- includes more than just
    safeguarding yourself against physical harm.
  • Need to be loved and to belong- Everyone needs
    to give love and to know that he or she is loved
    in return. Babies who are denied emotional
    attention may be stunted mentally.
  • Feeling Recognized- Most of us feel a need to be
    appreciated, to be personally valued by family,
    friends, and peers.
  • Reaching your Potential- Self-actualization is
    the striving to become the best you can
    be-includes having goals that motivates and
    inspire you. It means having the courage to make
    changes in your life in order to reach your goals
    and grow as a person.

8
Personality
  • Personality- is a complex set of characteristics
    that makes you unique.
  • Its what makes you different from everyone else
    and determines how you will react in certain
    situations.
  • Personality includes an individual's emotional
    makeup, attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors.

9
Personality
  • Personality and Heredity
  • Just like you inherit physical traits such as
    hair and eye color, you inherit some personality
    traits from your parents.
  • You still have control over your own
    personality.
  • Personality and Environment
  • Environment includes everything that surrounds
    you in your day-to-day life. Meaning your
    family, friends, peers, home, neighborhood, and
    school.
  • Modeling- observing and learning from the
    behaviors of those around you.
  • Personality and Behavior
  • The one aspect of your personality over which
    you have the most control is your behavior.
  • How you make decision, what decision you make,
    whether you recognize the consequences of those
    decisions,

10
Personal Identity
  • Personal Identity-is your sense of yourself as a
    unique individual.
  • To develop your personal identity includes
  • your interest
  • your likes and dislikes
  • your talents and abilities
  • your values and beliefs
  • your goals

11
Developmental assets
  • Developmental assets are the building blocks of
    development that help young people grow up as
    healthy, caring, and responsible individuals.
  • Support
  • Empowerment
  • Expectations
  • Constructive use of time
  • Commitment to learning
  • Positive Values
  • Social skills
  • Positive Identity

12
Healthy Identity
  • Recognize your strengths and weaknesses
  • Accept and take pride in your strengths and
    accomplishments.
  • Demonstrate Positive Values
  • Your values, beliefs and ideas about what is
    important in your life, guide your actions and
    influence the decisions you make.
  • Develop a purpose in your life
  • Having a sense of purpose means establishing
    goals and working to achieve them.
  • From MEANINGFUL relationships
  • Positive relationships provide one way to have a
    purpose in your life.
  • Relationships give you a support system as well
    as building confidence and develop a sense of
    security and belonging.
  • Contribute to the Community
  • Your community is an extended support system for
    you and your family, it provides services and
    resources to meet many of your needs. Giving
    back to the community is part of being a good
    citizen and it helps you feel a sense of
    accomplishment.
  • Avoid unhealthy risk behaviors
  • Risk taking is a normal part of growing up, such
    as engaging in sports, public speaking, making
    new friends, HOWEVER ATODs, or reckless driving
    can be dangerous and not necessary. Keep in mind
    the aspects of your identity, such as your
    values, that you are trying to uphold.

13
Self-Esteem
  • When you have a healthy identity, you will
    experience increase self-esteem and a higher
    level of mental/emotional health.
  • Self-esteem comes from understanding that you
    are unique and valuable human being.
  • To increase self-esteem and develop a positive
    outlook on life, it is essential to see events
    realistically.
  • For example, a students who has just failed an
    exam may think that she is stupid and will always
    fail.
  • Constructive Criticism- non-hostile comments
    that point our problems and encourage
    improvement.

14
Emotions
  • Emotions are signals that tell your mind and
    body how to react.
  • Emotions are sometimes referred to as feelings,
    emotions are your responses to certain thought
    and events.
  • Emotions affect all sides of your health
    triangle.
  • Joy can prompt the release of brain chemicals
    that cause you to experience warmth and a sense
    of well being
  • Fear can trigger physical changes, including
    increase perspiration, a rise in heart rate, and
    tightening of muscles.
  • Fight or Flight response
  • Strong emotions like anger can cause both
    physical and mental responses.

15
Identifying Your Emotions
  • Sometimes you know exactly what you are feelings
    and why.
  • Sometimes you may experience emotions that seem
    to have no apparent cause.
  • Hormones- is a chemical secreted by your glands
    that regulates the activities of different body
    cells.
  • May cause you to swing quickly between extreme
    emotions such as depression.
  • Mixed emotions, such as when you feel both
    jealous of and happy for a friends, also can be
    challenging.

16
Identifying Your Emotions
  • Happiness
  • pleased or that you feel good or carefree
  • Sadness
  • healthy reaction to difficult events. Caused from
    disappointment, a loss or rejected.
  • Love
  • Strong affection, deep concern and respect
  • Empathy
  • Is the ability to imagine and understand how
    someone else feels.
  • Fear
  • Fear is an emotional response to tangible and
    realistic dangers.
  • Guilt
  • Guilt is an emotional experience that occurs
    when a person realizes that he or she has
    violated a moral standards or values.
  • Anger
  • Common reaction to being emotionally hurt or
    physically harmed.
  • hostility is the intentional use of unfriendly
    or offensive behavior, can be particularly
    damaging, not only to others but also to the
    hostile person.

17
Dealing with Emotions in Positive Ways
  • Important to evaluate methods of communicating
    feelings and practice healthful ways of
    expression
  • Negative ways of dealing with feelings do
    nothing to solve problems.
  • Exaggerating emotions for effect pretending that
    feeling are not there at all or intentionally
    hurting another person which expression feeling
    can worsen the situation and create new problems

18
Responding to Your Emotions
  • Look below the surface of the problem.
  • consider whether or not the situation to which
    you are reacting will matter tomorrow, next week,
    or next year.
  • Dont take action on a strong feeling until you
    have considered all the possible consequences of
    your actions.
  • Use positive feelings to inspire yourself.
  • If a negative feeling doesnt go away, seek help
    from a parent, another trusted adult, or a health
    care professional.

19
Managing Difficult Emotions
  • Use Defense Mechanisms
  • Are the mental processes that protect individuals
    from strong or stressful emotions and situations
  • suppression- is holding back or retraining, can
    provide a temporary escape from an unpleasant
    situation.
  • Handling Fear
  • Identify the fear. Analyzing the situation that
    causes the fear often helps. Some fear is
    healthy and natural only when fear is irrational
    or incontrollable should you consider it a
    problem.
  • Dealing with Guilty
  • Can be a very destructive emotion.
  • You need to find the underlying source and
    address it.
  • Discuss the situation with friends or family can
    help.
  • Managing Anger
  • Most difficult emotions to handle.
  • Constructively dealing with anger is similar to
    dealing with guilt.
  • You need to find the underlying source and
    address it.

20
Stress
  • Stress is the reaction of the body and mind to
    everyday challenges and demands.
  • Perception is the act of becoming of events that
    cause stress.
  • One way to manage stress is to change how you
    perceive and react to events that cause it
  • Stress is not necessarily good or bad, it can
    have positive or negative effects.
  • Good/Positive- Performing better under the
    stress of competition.
  • Bad/Negative- Losing sleep because of a flight
    with a loved one

21
What Causes Stress?
  • Stressor- is anything that causes stress.
  • Biological Stressors
  • Such as illness, disabilities, or injuries
  • Environmental Stressors
  • Such as poverty, pollution, crowding, noise, or
    natural disasters
  • Cognitive (Thinking) Stressors
  • Such as the way you perceive a situation or how
    it affects you and the world around you.
  • Personal Behavior Stressors
  • Such as negative reactions in the body and mind
    caused by using ATODs or lack of physical
    activity
  • Life Situation Stressors
  • Such as death, separation or divorce of parents
    or having trouble in relationships with peers.

22
The Bodys Stress Response
  • The two major body systems, the Nervous system
    and the Endocrine system, are active during the
    bodys response to stressors.
  • Alarm
  • First stage in the stress response. Body and
    mind go on high alert.
  • Resistance
  • Second stage in the stress response. Your body
    adapts to the rush created by alarm and reacts to
    the stressors. This is the stage in which you
    fight or take flight
  • Fatigue
  • Physical fatigue-results when the muscles work
    vigorously for long periods, often leading to
    soreness and pain.
  • Psychological fatigue- can result from constant
    worry, overwork, depression, boredom, isolation,
    or feeling overwhelmed by too many
    responsibilities.
  • Pathological fatigue-is the tiredness brought
    on by overworking the bodys defenses in fighting
    disease.
  • Prolonged or repeated stress can lead to stress
    related illnesses causes by the changes that take
    place in your body during these three stages

23
Stress and your Health
  • Physical Effects
  • Headache
  • Asthma
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Weakened immune system
  • Mental/Emotional and Social Effects
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Mood Swings
  • Risk of substance abuse

24
Chronic Stress
  • Chronic Stress- stress associated with long-term
    problems that are beyond a persons control.
  • Could last for months
  • Symptoms include upset stomach, headache,
    insomnia, changes in appetite, and feeling
    anxious.
  • Strategies for controlling Chronic Stress
  • Engage in physical activity
  • Look for support from friends and family
  • Find a hobby or activity that relaxes you
  • Avoid ATODs

25
Ways to Manage Stress
  • Plan Ahead
  • Get Adequate Sleep
  • Get Regular Physical Activity
  • Eat Nutritious Food
  • Avoid ATODs
  • Stress management skill- are skills that help an
    individual handle stress in a healthful,
    effective way. Techniques include
  • Redirect your energy
  • Relax and laugh-relaxation response is a state
    of calm that can be reach if one or more
    relaxation techniques are practiced regularly.
  • Keep a positive outlook.
  • Seek out support

26
Anxiety
  • Anxiety is the condition of feeling uneasy or
    worried about what may happen.
  • Symptoms include
  • feelings of fear
  • perspiration, trembling, restlessness, or muscle
    tension
  • rapid heat rate, lightheadedness, or shortness
    of breath
  • Managing Anxiety
  • Stress management techniques, such as
    redirecting your energy or doing relaxation
    exercises, can be used to reduce the day to day
    anxieties of life.

27
Depression
  • Depression is a prolonged feeling of
    helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness, is much
    stronger than the occasional sad mood and is not
    as easy to manage.
  • Reactive Depression
  • is a response to a stressful event, such as
    death.
  • Major Depression
  • is a medical condition requiring treatment.
  • More severe and last much longer than reactive
    depression.
  • Could develop from reactive depression
  • Symptoms of Teen Depression irritable or
    restless mood
  • withdrawal from friends
  • A change in appetite or weight
  • feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • a sense of hopelessness
  • Many people experience a few of these symptoms
    once in a while its normal, Its not normal to
    experience several of them at the same time for
    two weeks or more

28
Resiliency
  • Resiliency
  • is the ability to adapt effectively and recover
    from disappointment, difficulty, or crisis.
  • Resilient people are able to handle adversity in
    healthful ways and achieve long term success.
  • Having some of the development assets will
    likely strengthen a persons resiliency.
  • Factors that Affects Resiliency
  • External Factors- Include your family, your
    school, and your family.
  • Internal Factors-
  • Commitment to learning
  • Positive values
  • Social awareness
  • Positive identity
  • Protective Factors

29
Mental Disorders
  • Mental disorders are illnesses of the mind that
    can affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
    of a person, preventing him or her from leading a
    happy, healthful, and productive life.
  • Mental disorders are classified as either
    organic or functional.
  • Organic disorder is caused by a physical illness
    or an injury that affects the brain.
  • Functional disorder has a psychological cause
    and does not involve brain damage. These
    disorders may result from heredity, stress,
    emotional, conflict, fear, ineffective coping
    skills, or other conditions.
  • Four Type of disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Conduct Disorders
  • Personality Disorders

30
Types of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders- a condition in which real or
    imagined fears are difficult to control.
  • Phobia- Strong and irrational fear of something
    specific, such as high places or dogs. People
    with phobias do everything they can to avoid the
    object of their fear.
  • Obsessed Compulsive Disorder- is trapped in a
    pattern of repeated thoughts or behaviors.
  • Panic Disorder- Sudden, unexplained feelings of
    terror. Panic attacks are accompanied by
    symptoms such as trembling, a pounding heart,
    shortness of breaths.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-is an illness,
    often with an organic cause, that involves mood
    extremes that interfere with everyday living

31
Types of Mental Disorders Mood Disorders
  • Mood Disorders- Is an illness, often with an
    organic cause, that involves mood extremes that
    interfere with everything living
  • Clinical Depression- Chemical imbalance that a
    person cannot overcome without professional help.
  • Bipolar Disorder-(manic-depressive disordered)
    is marked by extreme mood changes, energy levels,
    and behavior.
  • Eating Disorders

32
Types of Mental Disorders Conduct Disorders
  • Conduct Disorders- a pattern of behavior in
    which the rights of others or basic social rules
    are violated.
  • Schizophrenia
  • is a severe mental disorder in which a person
    loses contact with reality.
  • Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, and
    thought disorders.
  • Causes are a combination of genetic factors and
    chemical and structural changes in the brain.
  • This disease affects both men and woman and
    usually first appears between ages of 18-35.

33
Types of Mental Disorders Personality Disorders
  • Personality refers to an individuals unique
    traits and behavior patterns.
  • People with this disease think and behave in
    ways that make it difficult for them to get along
    with others.
  • Antisocial Disorder- People with this disorder
    tend to be irritable, aggressive, impulsive, and
    violent.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder- People with
    this disorder frequently experience a series of
    trouble relationships.
  • Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder- People
    with this disorder are often uncooperative. They
    resent being told what to do. Yet they relay on
    others directions.

34
Suicide
  • Suicide- the most drastic of all measures, is
    the act of intentionally taking ones own life.
  • Most suicide thoughts, behaviors, and actions
    are expressions of extreme distress, not bids for
    attention.
  • More than 90 of the people who kill themselves
    are suffering from depression or another mental
    disorder or are abusing alcohol or drugs.
  • Multiple Suicides are a series of suicides
    occurring within a short period of time and
    involving several people in the same school or
    community.

35
Preventing Suicide
  • Although most thought about committing suicide
    are impulsive and temporary the unfortunate
    consequence death or debilitating injury is
    permanent. More than 90 of the people who kill
    themselves are suffering from depression or
    another mental disorder or are abusing alcohol or
    drugs.
  • Warning Signs
  • Figure 9.2

36
Helping Others
  • Suicidal people often believe that their death
    will not matter.
  • It is critical to show concern and empathy for
    someone who is talking about suicide.
  • Initiate a meaningful conversation- showing
    interest and compassion for a person is key.
    Listen, be patient and understanding.
  • Show support and ask questions- Remind the
    person that most problem have solutions.
  • Try to persuade the person to seek help-
    Encourage the person to talk with a parent,
    counselor, therapist, or trusted adult.

37
Therapy Methods
  • Psychotherapy- is an ongoing treatment between a
    patient and a mental health professional.
  • Behavior therapy- is a treatment process that
    focuses.
  • Cognitive therapy- is a treatment method
    designed to identify and correct distorted
    thinking patterns that can leas to feelings and
    behaviors that may be troublesome,
    self-defeating, or self destructive.
  • Group therapy- involves treating a group of
    people who have similar problems and who meet
    regularly with a trained counselor.

38
Death and Grief
  • Coping is dealing successfully with difficult
    changes in your life.
  • Grief response an individuals total response to
    a major loss.
  • Mourning is the act of showing sorrow or grief.

39
The Grieving Process
  • Denial -A person does not believe the loss has
    occurred
  • Emotional Release- These reactions come with
    recognition of the loss and often involve periods
    of crying, which is important to the healing
    process
  • Anger- Feeling powerless and unfairly deprived,
    the person may lash out.
  • Bargaining- As the reality of the loss becomes
    clear, the person may promise to change if only
    what was lost can be returned.
  • Depression- Beyond the natural feelings of
    sadness, feeling of isolation, and hopelessness
    occur as the person.
  • Remorse- The person may become preoccupied with
    thoughts about what he or she could have done to
    prevent the loss or make things better.
  • Acceptance- The stage can involve a sense of
    power, allowing the person to face reality.
  • Hope- Eventually the person reaches a point when
    remembering becomes less painful and he or she
    begins to look ahead to the future
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