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The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls

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How does the entry of NGO schools affect the educational outcomes of girls in Bangladesh? ... Enrollment in pjk and cj and ? in Y ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls


1
The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls Educational
Outcomes in Bangladesh
  • Pataporn Sukontamarn
  • London School of Economics
  • November 29, 2004

2
Outline
  • Research question and motivation
  • Theoretical framework
  • Background and data
  • Empirical analysis
  • Conclusions

3
Research Question
  • How does the entry of NGO schools affect the
    educational outcomes of girls in Bangladesh?
  • Does the entry of NGO schools increase girls
    enrollment relative to boys?
  • Characteristics of NGO and state schools that
    affect girls enrollment
  • How does attending an NGO school affect test
    scores?

4
Motivation
  • 1. Rapid increase in girls enrollment rates in
    recent years
  • gt Gender equity in primary enrollment
  • 2. Heavy involvement of NGOs in the provision
    of non-formal primary schools
  • 1.4 million children
  • Aim poorest children (non-enrolled or dropout)
  • Many different characteristics

5
Theoretical framework
  • Show how NGO schools might affect girls
    enrollment as compared to boys
  • Schooling decision in cost-benefit framework
  • Main assumption disutility of sending a child to
    school, which differs by gender and by school type

6
  • Max B(xs) psjk U(Y-ckj-xs) (1)
  • xs
  • B() benefits of education
  • U() utility from consumption
  • s male (m), female (f)
  • k no school (0), gov. sch. (g), NGO sch.
    (n)
  • j village j
  • xs expenditure on education of child s
  • psjk disutility of sending child s to school
    k in village j
  • Y income
  • ckj opportunity cost of time of going to
    school k

7
  • Assumptions
  • B() increasing concave in xs
  • U() increasing concave in Y
  • pfgj gt pmgj pmnj pfnj
  • cgj gt cnj
  • Let xj(Y) be solution to (1) and V(Y) be
    maximum value function
  • Enrol a child if
  • V(Y) - U(Y) gt 0

8
  • Results
  • Enrollment ? in pjk and cj and ? in Y
  • Let Yjk be threshold level Y above which a
    household will enrol child j in school k, then
  • Ymnj Yfnj lt Ymgj lt Yfgj
  • NGOs contribute to increase in enrollment of
    boys and girls, with stronger effects for girls
  • Assume NGOs target households Y lt Ytg
  • Suppose Ymn Yfn lt Ymg lt Ytg lt Yfg
  • Gender gap disappears for the poor, but exists
    for the rich

9
Background
  • BRAC largest NGO (1.2 million out of 1.4)
  • BRAC schools
  • One-room school built inside village
  • 33 children 1 teacher
  • Over 90 of teachers female
  • Class time decided by parents teacher
  • 3-year cycle covering 3 years of gov. school
    curriculum

10
Data
  • Education Watch 1998
  • 3 survey instruments
  • (1.) Household Survey Questionnaire
  • (42,584 households, 31,092 children)
  • (2.) Assessment of Basic Competencies
  • (ABC) (3360 children)
  • (3.) School Observation Checklist
  • (885 schools)

11
Empirical analysis
  • (1.) Entry of NGO schools and girls
  • enrollment
  • (2.) School characteristics that affect girls
  • enrollment
  • (3.) Test scores

12
Entry of NGO schools and girls enrollment an
overview
13
(1.1) Exposure to NGO schools and enrollment
(11-20 years old)
  • Pr(Sij 1) a0 a1EXPij a2GirlEXPij a3Cij
  • a4GirlCij a5Girl a6Vj error term
  • where,
  • Sij 1 if individual i in village j was
    enrolled
  • at time of survey, and 0 otherwise
  • EXPij 1 if individual i in village j was
    exposed to an NGO school in the village
  • Girl the dummy variable for being a girl
  • Cij a vector of child and family
    characteristics
  • Vj village fixed effects

14
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15
(1.2) Involvement of NGO schools and enrollment
(6-10 years old)
  • For each child, define
  • the involvement of non-formal schools in a
    village
  • number 6-10 yrs old in NGO schools
  • number 6-10 yrs old enrolled in school
  • excluding the child from the sample
  • the involvement of government schools in a
    village is similarly defined

16
  • Pr(Sij1) a0 a1Nij a2GirlNij a3Gij
    a4GirlGij a5Cij a6GirlCij
  • a7Girl a8 Aj a9Vcj
    error term
  • where,
  • Girl dummy variable for being a girl
  • GirlNj shows the difference in the effects that
    the involvement of NGO schools has on the
    enrollment of girls as compared to boys

17
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18
(1.3) Extensions
  • - Rural versus Urban
  • - BRAC target versus non-target
  • Definition
  • BRAC target households with less than
    0.5 acre of land and at least one person
    engaged in manual labor for at least 100
    days per year

19
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20
(2) School characteristics that affect girls
enrollment
  • Pr(Sij 1) a0 a1Ncj a2GirlNcj a3Gcj
    a4GirlGcj a5Cij a6GirlCij a7Girl a8Aj
    a9Vcj error term
  • where,
  • Ncj a vector of aggregate village-level
    characteristics of NGO schools in village j
  • Gcj a vector of aggregate village-level
    characteristics of government schools in village
    j

21
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22
(4) Test scores
  • Yij a0 a1Tij a2GirlTij a3Cij
    a4GirlCij a5Vj error term
  • where,
  • Yij represents
  • (i) whether a child passed the ABC test or not,
    and
  • (ii) test scores of life-skills, reading,
    writing, and
  • numeracy sections
  • Tij dummy variable for the type of school that
    the
  • child was attending at the time of survey

23
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24
Conclusions
  • The entry of NGO schools significantly increases
    girls enrollment relative to boys.
  • It is mainly in the rural areas that NGO schools
    appear to have strong effects.
  • The effects of NGO schools are stronger for BRAC
    target households compared to non-target
    households.

25
  • The main characteristics of NGO schools that
    appear to encourage girls enrollment high
    percentage of female teachers and having PTAs
  • Attending NGO schools shows significant effects
    on ABC test scores.
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