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CHAPTER 4 Marketing Information and Research: Analyzing the Business Environment Offline and Online

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Title: CHAPTER 4 Marketing Information and Research: Analyzing the Business Environment Offline and Online


1
CHAPTER 4Marketing Information and Research
Analyzing the Business Environment Off-line and
Online
M A R K E T I N G
Real People, Real Choices Fourth Edition
Michael R. Solomon Greg W. Marshall
Elnora W. Stuart
2
Chapter Objectives_1
  • Understand the role of the Marketing Information
    System and the Marketing Decision Support System
    in marketing decision making
  • Describe the marketing research process
  • Understand the differences among exploratory,
    descriptive, and causal research, and describe
    some research techniques available to marketers

3
Chapter Objectives _2
  • Describe the different types of data collection
    methods and types of samples that researchers use
  • Understand the growing use of online research

4
Figure 4.1 Making and Delivering Value
5
Knowledge is Power
  • A Marketing Information System (MIS) determines
    what information managers need and then gathers,
    sorts, analyzes, stores, and distributes relevant
    and timely marketing information to system users
  • 3 components of MIS
  • data
  • computer hardware and software
  • MIS experts

6
Figure 4.2 The Marketing Information System
7
Marketing Information System
  • Internal Data System - internal system for
    communication (e.g., intranet)
  • Marketing Intelligence - method to get
    information about the environment
  • Marketing Research - process of collecting,
    analyzing, and interpreting data about customers,
    competitors, and the business environment to
    improve marketing effectiveness

8
Marketing Research Data
  • Syndicated research reports
  • secondary data collected and compiled by firms on
    a regular basis and sold
  • Custom research reports
  • primary data collected to provide answers to
    specific questions

9
Ford
Ford conducts extensive market research
on consumers car preferences
10
Figure 4.3 MDSS
11
MDSS
  • Includes analysis and interactive software that
    allows managers to conduct their own analyses
  • Table 4.1 presents some examples of questions
    that might be considered by an MIS versus an MDSS

12
Differences in MIS and MDSS
  • MIS
  • What were our company sales of each product
    during the last month and the last year?
  • MDSS
  • Have our sales declines simply reflected changes
    in overall industry sales or is there some
    portion of the decline that cannot be explained
    by industry changes?

13
Search for Gold Data Mining
Customer Acquisition
Customer Retention
Customer Abandonment
Market Basket Analysis
14
Figure 4.4 Steps in the Research Process
Define the Problem
Determine Research Design
Choose Data Collection Method
Design the Sample
Collect the Data
Analyze and Interpret Data
Prepare the Research Report
15
Step 1 Define the Problem
  • Specify the research objectives
  • Identify the consumer population of interest
  • Place the problem in an environmental context

16
Mercedes-Benz
Based on research, Mercedes decided to soften its
image
17
Step 2 Determine the Design
  • Can the information be acquired from existing
    data?
  • If so, secondary data sources will be utilized
  • If not, primary research will be necessary

18
Figure 4.5a Research Design
19
Internet Sites for Marketing Research
20
Figure 4.5b Research Design
21
Exploratory Research
  • Generally provides qualitative data
  • May take several forms
  • Consumer interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Case studies
  • Ethnography
  • Projective techniques

22
Exploratory Research
DuPont asked consumers to develop a
collage about their feelings
23
Delve
Delve is one of many companies specializing in
qualitative research services
24
Descriptive Research
  • Large samples
  • Quantitative data

Longitudinal
Cross-sectional
25
Causal Research
  • Cause-and-effect relationships
  • Independent Variables
  • Dependent Variables
  • Experimental design allows researchers to control
    possible explanations for the effect

26
Step 3 Choose the Data Collection Method
  • Communication
  • Mail questionnaires
  • Telephone
  • Face to face
  • Online questionnaires
  • Observation
  • Personal
  • Mechanical

27
Mail Questionnaires
  • Advantages
  • Respondents feel anonymous
  • Low cost
  • Good for ongoing research
  • Disadvantages
  • Slow return speed
  • Low response rates typical
  • Inflexible questionnaire
  • Length of survey is limited

28
Telephone Interviews
  • Advantages
  • Fast
  • High flexibility in questioning
  • Low cost
  • Limited interviewer bias
  • Disadvantages
  • Decreasing levels of cooperation
  • Limited questionnaire length
  • Consumers screen calls

29
Face-to-Face Interviews
  • Advantages
  • Flexibility of questioning
  • Long questionnaires possible
  • Can help explain questions
  • Can use visuals
  • Disadvantages
  • High cost
  • Interviewer bias possible
  • Time requirements are high

30
Telephone Interviews
Telephone interviews may take place from a call
center and use CATI equipment
Video Burkes use of telephone interviewing
31
Online Questionnaires
  • Advantages
  • Instant data collection
  • Flexible question patterns
  • Low cost
  • No interviewer bias
  • Access regardless of geographic location
  • Disadvantages
  • Unclear who is responding
  • No assurance of honesty
  • Limited questionnaire length
  • Limitations inherent with self-selected samples

32
Observation
Personal Observation
Unobtrusive Measures
Mechanical Observation
33
Garbologists Search for Clues
34
Completion Tests for Kids
35
Data Quality
Validity
Reliability
Representativeness
36
Step 4 Design the Sample
Probability
Non-Probability
37
Probability Samples
Simple Random
Stratified
Systematic Random
38
Non-Probability Samples
Convenience
Quota
39
Step 5 Collect the Data
  • Implementation phase
  • Special issues in data collection
  • Gathering Data in Foreign Countries
  • Single-Source Data

40
Checkout Scanners
Checkout scanners enable marketers to collect
single-source data
41
Step 6 Analyze and Interpret Data
  • Enter, clean, and code data
  • Choose appropriate techniques for analysis
  • Interpret analysis

42
Harris Interactive
Marketing researchers carefully analyze data to
better understand profiles of customer groups
43
Step 7 Prepare the Research Report
Executive Summary
Description of Research Methods
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusions/ Recommendations
44
Online Research
  • Online Tracking
  • Cookies
  • Testing, Questionnaires, and Focus Groups

45
Online Tracking
  • The Internet offers the ability to track and
    monitor consumers while they surf
  • Several behaviors can be monitored
  • What sites are visited?
  • How long did the visitor stay?
  • What types of information did they collect at the
    site?
  • Where did they go after they left?

46
Coremetrics
  • Coremetrics specializes in tracking the online
    behavior of all visitors to their clients Web
    sites

47
Cookies
  • Cookies are text files inserted on a users hard
    drive by an Internet site
  • Cookies allow for details of a Web visit to be
    stored and tracked with future visits
  • For marketers, cookies allow a way of observing
    behavior and customizing Web sites and offerings
    to specific users
  • For consumers, cookies represent a trade-off
    between privacy and customization

48
MCI
In focus groups and interviews about online
shopping, consumers consistently rate security
their number one concern
49
Online Surveys
50
Online Surveys
51
Online Activities/Experiments
52
Purposes of Internet Research
Develop new products
Estimate market response
Assess attitudes
Test markets
53
Limitations of Online Research
  • Representativeness of the population
  • Self-selection bias
  • Influence from hackers
  • Threats of competitive intelligence

54
Issues for Discussion_1
  • What is the impact on legitimate researchers when
    marketers disguise themselves as market
    researchers in order to attempt to sell
    something?
  • Should marketers be allowed to conduct research
    with young children?
  • Are you willing to share personal information
    with marketing researchers? How much are you
    willing to tell?

55
Issues for Discussion_2
  • What is your overall attitude toward marketing
    research? Is it beneficial from the consumers
    perspective?
  • Some firms use data mining to identify and
    abandon customers who are not profitable. What do
    you think of such practices? Is it ethical?

56
Issues for Discussion_3
  • Do consumers have the right to own data about
    themselves? Should governments limit the use of
    the Internet for data collection?
  • Do you think marketers should have the right to
    go through consumers or competitors garbage? Is
    it ethical?
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