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America Becomes A Colonial Power

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Title: America Becomes A Colonial Power


1
America Becomes a Colonial Power
2
Why did America join the imperialist club at the
end of the 19c?
3
Economic Growth
4
1. Commercial/Business Interests
U. S. Foreign Investments 1869-1908
5
  • Sugarcane Plantation, Hawaii (p. 605)

6
Changing times - Arguments for US expansion
  • Economic - overproduction and surplus needed new
    markets
  • US business abroad increased call for government
    involvement
  • Banana Republics

7
1. Commercial/Business Interests
American Foreign Trade1870-1914
8
2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan ? The Influence of Sea Power on
History 1660-1783
9
Changing times - Arguments for US expansion
  • American Security overseas
  • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (Alfred
    T. Mahan)
  • Importance of a nations navy
  • 1880s - first battleships
  • 1890 - Naval Act - to build a larger fleet

10
  • Alfred T. Mahan (p. 608)

11
American Security
12
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White MansBurden
The Hierarchyof Race
13
The American Moral Obligation (a new White
Mans Burden)
14
4. Religious/Missionary Interests
American Missionariesin China, 1905
15
5. Closing the American Frontier
16
Changing times - Arguments for US expansion
  • The American Spirit Culturally
  • Closing the Frontier limit development of
    American character Needed to expand.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Frederick Jackson Turner (frontier thesis)
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Anglo-Saxon civilization
  • Josiah Strong (minister)
  • Albert Beveridge (Senator)
  • Could extend civilization to heathen
    (un-Christian peoples)
  • Social Darwinists
  • Survival of the Fittest Civilizations

17
American Empire
18
Hawaii "Crossroads of the Pacific"
19
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church first built in the late 1820s
20
U. S. View of Hawaiians
Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849
by virtue of economic treaties.
21
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
22
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
  • 1875 Reciprocity Treaty
  • 1890 McKinley Tariff
  • 1893 Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising
    against Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of
    Hawaii in 1894.

23
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
24
Hawaii
25
Japan
26
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan 1853
The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
27
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
28
Gentlemans Agreement 1908
  • A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports
    tolaborers entering the U.S.
  • Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude
    Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by
    other countries.
  • The U.S. government got theschool board of San
    Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate
    Asians in separateschools.
  • 1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement.

29
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1912
  • Senator Henry CabotLodge, Sr. (R-MA)
  • Non-European powers,like Japan, would
    beexcluded from owningterritory in the
    WesternHemisphere.

30
Japan
31
Alaska
32
Sewards Folly 1867
7.2 million
33
Sewards Icebox 1867
34
Alaska
35
Cuba
36
Causes of the Spanish-American War
37
The Imperialist Tailor
38
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
39
Valeriano Weylers Reconcentration Policy
40
Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish
the pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
41
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley
    administration.
  • Imperialist and American nationalist.
  • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair!
  • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

42
The Rough Riders
43
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
44
The Spanish-American War (1898)That Splendid
Little War
How prepared was the US for war?
45
A Splendid Little War
46
  • The Battle of San Juan Hill (p. 618)

47
Cuba
48
The Philippines
49
The Spanish-American War (1898)That Splendid
Little War
50
Dewey Captures Manila!
51
De Lôme Letter
  • Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.
  • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and
    abidder for the admirationof the crowd,
    besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to
    leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on
    good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.

52
Is He To Be a Despot?
53
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Leader of the FilipinoUprising.
  • July 4, 1946Philippine independence

54
William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the
Philippines
Great administrator.
55
Our Sphere of Influence
56
The Treaty of Paris 1898
  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island ofGuam.
  • The U. S. paid Spain20 mil. for
    thePhilippines.
  • The U. S. becomesan imperial power!

57
Treaty of Paris (1898)
58
After the Spanish-American War in the Philippines
59
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and
    WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.

60
Debating Imperialism
  • Anti-Imperialists
  • A moral and political argument Expansionism was
    a rejection of our nations founding principle of
    liberty for all.
  • A racial argument Imperialism was just another
    form of racism.
  • An economic argument Expansion involved too many
    costs. Maintaining the armed forces required
    more taxation, debt, and possibly even
    compulsory, or required, military service. In
    addition, laborers from other countries would
    compete for jobs with U.S. workers.
  • Pro-Imperialists
  • Imperialism offered a new kind of frontier for
    American expansion.
  • A new international frontier would keep Americans
    from losing their competitive edge.
  • Access to foreign markets made the economy
    stronger.
  • In 1907, President Roosevelt sent the Great White
    Fleet, part of the United States Navy, on a
    cruise around the world to demonstrate U.S. naval
    power to other nations. American citizens clearly
    saw the advantages of having a powerful navy.

61
Cuban Independence?
  • Teller Amendment (1898)
  • Platt Amendment (1903)
  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
    foreign powers that would endanger its
    independence.
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
    necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
    govt.
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
    naval and coaling station.
  • Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

Senator Orville Platt
62
American Public Opinion
  • Most Americans favored US Expansion
  • Conquest of Western US complete
  • Extend influence (not conquer) to other nations

63
Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
64
The Philippines and the Spanish-American War
65
Puerto Rico
66
Puerto Rico 1898
  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
  • PR became an unincorporated territory.
  • Citizens of PR, not of the US.
  • Import duties on PR goods
  • 1901-1903 ? the Insular Cases.
  • Constitutional rights were not automatically
    extended to territorial possessions.
  • Congress had the power to decide these rights.
  • Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were
    legal!

67
Puerto Rico 1898
  • 1917 Jones Act.
  • Gave full territorial status to PR.
  • Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the
    US.
  • PRs elected theirown legislators governor to
    enforcelocal laws.
  • PRs could NOT votein US presidentialelections.
  • A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to
    vote for PR in the House.

68
Panama
69
Panama The Kings Crown
  • 1850 - Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
  • 1901 - Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.
  • Philippe Bunau-Varilla,agent provocateur.
  • Dr. Walter Reed.
  • Colonel W. Goethals.
  • 1903 - Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.

70
Panama Canal
TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
71
Panama
72
The Panama Canal
73
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
ultimately require intervention by some civilized
nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe
Doctrine may force the United States, however
reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
or impotence, to the exercise of an international
police power .
74
The Roosevelt Corollary
75
Speak Softly,But Carry a Big Stick!
76
Roosevelts Big Stick Diplomacy
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will
    go far. Roosevelt used this old African proverb
    to guide his foreign policy.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    The United States will act as an international
    police power in the Western Hemisphere and
    intervene to prevent intervention by other
    powers.
  • Roosevelt in Latin America Under Roosevelt, the
    United States often intervened in Latin America.
  • Roosevelt in Asia Roosevelt wanted to preserve
    an open door to trade with China. He won a Nobel
    peace prize for negotiating a peace settlement
    between Russia and Japan.

77
China
78
Stereotypes of the Chinese
Immigrant
Oriental Chinese Exclusion Act, 1887
79
The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
  • 55 Days at Peking.

80
The Open Door Policy
  • Secretary John Hay.
  • Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.
  • Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by
    any one foreign power.

81
TheOpen Door Policy
82
America as a Pacific Power
83
Open Door in China
84
America's New Role
85
The Cares of a Growing Family
86
Constable of the World
87
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
88
The Great White Fleet 1907
89
The Great White Fleet
90
Foreign Policy After Roosevelt
  • William Howard Taft
  • Elected President in 1908
  • Taft believed in maintaining influence through
    American investments, not military might.
  • This policy was called dollar diplomacy.
  • The United States reached new heights of
    international power under Roosevelt and Taft.
  • However, the policies of both Presidents also
    created enemies in Latin America and a growing
    international resentment of U.S. intervention.
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Under Wilson, the United States applied more
    moral and legalistic standards to foreign policy
    decisions.
  • Wilsons policy drew the United States into the
    complex and bloody Mexican Revolution.
  • Wilsons moral diplomacy did not work well in
    Mexico. Many lives were lost, and U.S. financial
    interests lost ground.
  • U.S.Mexico relations were strained for many
    years.

91
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Improve financialopportunities for American
    businesses.
  • Use private capital tofurther U. S.
    interestsoverseas.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

92
Expansionism
93
Mexico
94
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and
    puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against
    Huerta.
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

95
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
Emiliano Zapata
Pancho Villa
Venustiano Carranza
Porfirio Diaz
Francisco I Madero
96
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

97
Searching for Banditos
General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in
1914.
98
U. S. Global Investments Investments in Latin
America, 1914
99
U. S. Interventions in Latin America 1898-1920s
100
Uncle Sam One of the Boys?
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