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Japans Nuclear Energy Policy : Nuclear Allergy Countrys Dependence on Nuclear

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Title: Japans Nuclear Energy Policy : Nuclear Allergy Countrys Dependence on Nuclear


1
Japans Nuclear Energy Policy Nuclear Allergy
Countrys Dependence on Nuclear
  • 2007 Critical Issues Forum
  • Teacher Development Workshop
  • Topic Nuclear Renaissance Benefits vs Risks
  • Nov. 15-17, 2007
  • Masako Toki, CNS Research Associate

2
Japans Basic Nuclear Policy
  • Atomic Energy Basic Law, 1955
  • -- Peaceful use of nuclear energy
  • Three Non-Nuclear Principles, 1968
  • Compliance with international regime
  • Joined NPT in 1976
  • Active player in strengthening the global regime

3
Background
  • The only country that suffered from nuclear
    devastation
  • Almost no indigenous energy sources
  • Large energy consumption with scarce natural
    resources
  • More than 80 of energy imported
  • Efforts to minimize dependence on current
    imports.
  • Increasing reliance on nuclear energy

Aug.6, 1945, Hiroshima, 140,000 killed
Aug.9, 1945, Nagasaki, 74,000 killed
4
Japans Nuclear Energy Facts
  • First commercial nuclear power reactor began
    operation in mid 1966
  • Japan imports nearly all of its energy resources
    including uranium.
  • Over 30 of its power needs are supplied by
    nuclear energy.
  • Projected to be 37 in 2009, 41 in 2014
  • 55 Nuclear power reactors across the country
    produce approximately 50 gigawatts of energy (2
    under construction, 11 planned. )

5
Source Japan Atomic Energy Agency
6
Legal Basis
  • The Atomic Energy Basic Law 1955
  • Article 2 (Basic policy)
  • The research, development and utilization of
    atomic energy shall be limited to peaceful
    purposes, aimed at ensuring safety and performed
    independently under democratic management, the
    results therefrom shall be made public to
    contribute to international cooperation.
  • NPT
  • Japan signed the NPT in 1970, and acceded in 1976
  • Reluctance to join the NPT at first mainly due to
    its discriminatory nature, internal debates over
    possible nuclearization, and concern over nuclear
    energy
  • Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation and
    disarmament remains unchanged since its
    accession.
  • Bilateral agreement on peaceful use
  • US, UK, France, China, Australia, and Kazakhstan

7
Brief History of Nuclear Program and Policy
  • Atoms for Peace speech by Eisenhower in 1953.
  • Started nuclear research program in 1954
  • Atomic energy basic law 1955
  • Inauguration of the Atomic Energy Commission 1956
  • The Science Technology agency, Japan Atomic
    Energy Research Institute, and Atomic Fuel
    Corporation were established under the law
  • Imported its first commercial nuclear power
    reactor from the UK.
  • Light water reactors, boiling water reactors, or
    pressurized water reactors have been constructed.
    (began commercial operation in 1970).
  • By the end of the 1970s, Japanese industry
    (Hitachi, Toshiba, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry
    developed the capacity to design and construct
    LWR. Exports to other countries.)
  • Nuclear energy has been a national strategic
    priority since 1973 (Oil Shock)

8
Promoting Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy through
Pop-culture?
  • Animation (Manga)Astro Boy????? (Mighty Atom)
  • Produced in 1952, became one of the most popular
    TV series in Japan (1963-1966)
  • The boys name is Atom Incredible strength, a
    number of special abilities, with the heart of
    gold. His energy source is Nuclear Power.
  • This Nov., he was appointed to an Ambassador for
    Safe Oversea Trip by the Ministry of Foreign
    Affairs in Japan
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vD4HVYZhohGw
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgtAvZXuHbNU

9
Current Policy of Japans Nuclear Power Program
  • Kyoto Protocol 2002
  • Japan would heavily rely on nuclear energy to
    achieve greenhouse gas emission reduction,
  • Promoting nuclear fuel cycle
  • On the Nuclear Fuel Cycle by Japans Atomic
    Energy Commission, Aug 5, 2003. A broad overview
    of the nuclear fuel cycle and guidelines
  • New Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy by
    Japan Atomic Energy Commission, October 11, 2005
  • Continue to have nuclear power as a major element
    of electricity production
  • Develop fast breeder reactors in order to improve
    uranium utilization dramatically
  • Steady promotion of measures for geological
    disposal of high level radioactive waste
  • Promote nuclear energy to the public

10
Major Nuclear Power Plant accidents
  • 1995 Monju (Fukui prefecture) (Prototype Fast
    Breeder Reactor, shut down since the 1995 sodium
    leak and fire accident
  • 1999 Tokaimura, Three workers received high
    doses of radiation. Two died.
  • 2003 17 TEPCO plants shut down over falsified
    safety records
  • 2004 Mihama, 5 workers were killed by steam from
    corroded pipe
  • July 2007 Kashiwazaki Kariya, damaged by
    earthquake

11
Japans Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy
  • Japan is pursuing a closed nuclear fuel cycle.
  • Resource-poor Japans need to recycle uranium,
    semi domestic energy source.
  • Currently, Japans spent nuclear fuels have been
    reprocessed in the UK and France
  • Tokai reprocessing plant since commencing pilot
    operation in 1977. But small amount. (200 ton
    per year)
  • Construction of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities
    in Rokkasho Village.

12
Plutonium Production Program
  • Committed to development of a self-sufficient
    plutonium-based nuclear fuel cycle. utmost
    importance
  • Construction of Fast Breeder Reactors and
    reprocessing facilities. Fast breeder reactors
    will be introduced commercially by 2050
    (currently, only prototype exists)
  • Establishment of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited
    (JNFL) for a large reprocessing plant 1980.
  • Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant construction
  • Plutonium stockpile enough for 10,000 weapons.
  • Separated Pu5.9 tons in Japan and 37.8 tons in
    overseas as of the end of Dec. 2005 (Japan Atomic
    Energy Agency)

Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju
Experimental Fast Breeder Reactor Joyo
13
Rokkasho Plutonium Reprocessing Plant
  • First commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant
    in Japan, and first in a NNWS.
  • Began active testing on March 31, 2006 after many
    delays much policy debate.
  • Rokkasho spent fuel recycling complex plans to
    have five facilities
  • A reprocessing plant
  • A MOX fuel fabrication facility (planned)
  • A uranium enrichment facility
  • A high level radioactive waste storage and
    management center
  • A low level radioactive waste disposal center
  • Increasing concerns
  • plan to separate and stockpile up to 8 MT of
    plutonium annuallythe equivalent of 1,000
    nuclear bombs each yearcalls into question
    Japan's commitment to strengthening the NPT
  • The facility would undermine international
    efforts to discourage other countrieslike Iran
    and North Koreafrom pursuing nuclear fuel cycle
    facilities that could be used for nuclear weapons
    programs.

14
Rokkasho nuclear facilities

Reprocessing Plant
Spent Fuel Receiving and Storage Facilities
Source Japans Nuclear Power
15
Rokkasho Nuclear Facilities
Uranium Enrichment Plant
Low level radioactive disposal center
Mox fabrication plant
Source Japans nuclear power program, Federation
of Electric Power companies of Japan
Vitrified Waste Storage
16
Transportation of Nuclear Materials
Source Japans nuclear power program, Federation
of Electric Power companies of Japan
17
Japans Policy toward Multilateral Nuclear Fuel
Cycle
  • Highly suspicious of
  • proposals for Multilateral
  • Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle.
  • How MNA contributes to nonproliferation?
  • Also concern over the restriction of peaceful
    uses of nuclear energy.
  • Japan is extremely sensitive about the
    restriction of energy resources

18
Japans efforts in strengthening nuclear
disarmament and nonproliferation regime.
  • Full compliance with IAEASafeguards
  • IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and
    Additional Protocol
  • Strengthen IAEA Safeguards
  • Nuclear Safety
  • Nuclear Security (Physical Protection)
  • Development of proliferation resistant nuclear
    technology
  • Management of spent fuel and radioactive waste
    disposal
  • Human resource development
  • Early entry into force of the CTBT
  • Early commencement of negotiations on the FMCT
  • Submission of draft resolution for disarmament to
    the UNGA
  • Assisting denuclearization of the FSU
  • Contribution to the G-8 Global Partnership
    against the spread of WMD
  • Strengthening export controls, assistance to
    countries in the region
  • GNEP
  • Japans proposal to the IAEA
  • Bilateral agreements

19
Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)
  • Japan is in the nuclear fuel supply side of the
    GNEP
  • US-Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan
  • Cooperation of nuclear energy R D to advance new
    technologies
  • Collaboration on policies and programs supporting
    new NPP in the US and Japan
  • Establishment of and intl nuclear fuel supply
    assurance mechanism
  • Joint collaboration to support safe and secure
    expansion of nuclear energy in interested
    countries while promoting nonproliferation

20
Industrial Aspect
  • Restructuring of Nuclear Industry
  • Toshiba Westinghouse
  • Hitachi GE
  • Areva Mitsubishi
  • Pursuit of active policy of uranium export
  • Japan- Kazakhstan

21
Conclusion Japans dual objectives Total
Elimination of Nuclear Weapons vs. Peaceful Use
of Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear powerindispensable, but not a panacea
  • Recover gain public trust Transparency and
    dialogue
  • Consistent negative public perception to nuclear
    energy.
  • Still need alternative energy sources, but for
    the foreseeable future, necessary?

22
Resources
  • Japan Atomic Energy Agency, http//www.jaea.go.jp/
    english/index.shtml
  • Japan Atomic Energy Commission,
    http//www.aec.go.jp/jicst/NC/eng/index.htm
  • Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan,
    http//www.nsc.go.jp/english/english.htm
  • Nuclear Industrial Safety Agency,
    http//www.nisa.meti.go.jp/english/index.htm
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs Atomic Energy
    webpage, http//www.mofa.go.jp/policy/energy/index
    .html
  • Japans Nuclear Power Program, http//www.japannuc
    lear.com/
  • Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, http//www.jnfl.co.jp/
    english/index.html
  • Council for Nuclear Fuel Cycle,
    http//www.cnfc.or.jp/index_e.html
  • Citizens Nuclear Information Center,
    http//cnic.jp/english/index.html
  • World Nuclear Association, Nuclear Power in
    Japan, http//www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf79.htm
    l
  • Thinking the Unthinkable Japanese nuclear power
    and proliferation in east Asia,
    http//www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications
    /briefing_papers/japanreport.php
  • Japans Plutonium Reprocessing Dilemma,
    http//www.armscontrol.org/act/2005_10/Oct-Japan.a
    sp
  • Federation of Electronic Power Companies of
    Japan, http//www.fepc.or.jp/english/
  • Nuclear Information, http//kakujoho.net/e/index.h
    tml
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