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Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between Groups

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Title: Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between Groups


1
  • Improving Achievement and Closing Gaps Between
    Groups

The Principals Partnership Summer Institute,
Union Pacific
July, 2005

2
What Do We Know About Student Achievement?
3
12th Grade Achievement In Math and Science is Up
Somewhat
4
High School Achievement Math and Science
Source NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
5
In Reading, 12th Grade Achievement is Headed
Downward
6
HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT READING AND WRITING
7
What about different groups of students?During
seventies and eighties, much progress.
8
Gaps Narrow 1970-88NAEP Reading 17 Year-Olds
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
9
Gaps Narrow 1973-86NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year-Olds
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
10
Between 1988-90, that progress came to a haltand
gaps began to widen once again.
11
Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen NAEP
Math Scores, 17 Year-Olds
32
20
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
12
After 1988, Gaps Mostly Widen NAEP Reading, 17
Year-Olds
21
31
Source US Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends
in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC US
Department of Education, August 2000
13
How much of this learning took place during high
school?Students Make More Growth Grade 5 to
8 than Grade 9 to 12
14
Academic GrowthGrades 5-8, 9-12
15
Value Added in High School Declined During the
Nineties
16
Value Added Declining in High School Math...
Age 13-17 Growth
Source NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress
17
Still
Age 13-17 Growth
Source Main NAEP 1996, 2000
18
Reading Students Entering Better Prepared, But
Leaving Worse
Source NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress
19
Hormones?
20
Students in Other Countries Gain far More in High
School
21
TIMSS
22
Source NCES 1999-081R, Highlights From TIMSS
23
Source NCES 1999-081R, Highlights From TIMSS
24
PISA
25
US 15 Year-Olds Rank Near Middle Of The Pack
Among 32 Participating Countries 1999
26
2003 U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries
in Mathematics
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
27
Problems are not limited to our high-poverty and
high-minority schools . . .
28
U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the
Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
29
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the
Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing
Students
Students at the 95th Percentile
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
30
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29OECD Countries in the
Math Achievement of High-SES Students
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
31
One measure on which we rank high?Inequality!
32
Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Highly Variable
Of 27 OECD countries
Source OECD, Knowledge and Skills for Life
First Results From PISA 2000, 2001.
33
Where are we now?
34
Where Are We Now? 4th Grade Reading All Students
2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
35
By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
36
By Family Income NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
37
Where Are We Now? 8th Grade Math All Students
2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
38
By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 8th Grade Math 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
39
By Family Income NAEP 8th Grade Math 2003
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
40
These gaps begin before children arrive at the
schoolhouse door.
  • But, rather than organizing our educational
    system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it
    to exacerbate the problem.

41
By the end of high school?
42
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math
at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds
Source NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables
(online)
43
African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at
Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds
Source Source NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends
Summary Tables (online)
44
These patterns are reflected, too, in high school
completion, college entry and college graduation
rates.
45
Students Graduate From High School At Different
Rates, 2001 4-Year Graduation Rates
Source Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster, Public
High School Graduation and College Readiness
Rates in the United States, Manhattan Institute
for Policy Research, September 2003.
46
ADD IT ALL UP...
47
Of Every 100 White Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2001, in The Condition of Education 2002.
48
Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Survey,
1971-2001, In The Condition of Education 2002.
49
Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2001, In The condition of Education 2002.
50
Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native
Kindergartners
(24 Year Olds)
51
College Graduates by Age 26
Source Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public
Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post
Secondary, 1997.
52
WHY?
53
What We Hear Adults Say
  • Theyre poor
  • Their parents dont care
  • They come to schools without breakfast
  • Not enough books
  • Not enough parents . . .

54
But if theyre right, then why are poor and
minority children performing so high in...
55
Some schools...
56
Central Elementary
  • Paintsville, KY

57
Central Elementary
  • 71 Low-Income
  • 99 White
  • Outperformed the district and state in 4th grade
    reading and 5th grade math in 2003
  • Made considerable gains in 4th grade reading and
    5th grade math scores

58
Making Gains at Central 4th Grade Reading
Source The Department of Education,
http//www.schoolresults.org/
59
Making Gains at Central 5th Grade Math
Source The Department of Education,
http//www.schoolresults.org/
60
West Manor Elementary Atlanta, GA
  • ?99 African American.
  • ?80 low-income
  • Outscored 98 of GA elementary schools in 2nd
    grade reading in 2002.
  • Outperformed 90 of GA elementary schools in 2nd
    grade math in 2002.

Source The Education Trust, Dispelling the Myth
61
Lapwai Elementary School, ID70 Native American
Source Idaho Department of Education
http//www.sde.state.id.us/Dept/
62
Hambrick Middle School,Aldine, TX
  • 94 African American and Latino (state 56)
  • 85 low-income (state 50)
  • Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas
    middle schools in both reading and math in both
    7th and 8th grades over a 3-year period.

63
Hambrick Middle SchoolMaking Gains, Narrowing
Gaps
Source Texas Education Agency,
http//www.tea.state.tx.us
64
Johnson County Middle School, Kentucky
  • 95 Low Income
  • Outperformed 2/3 of other Kentucky middle schools
    in both math and reading for three years in a row
    (2000-2002).
  • In 2002, performed better than about 90 of all
    KY middle schools in both math and reading.

Source The Education Trust, Dispelling the Myth
Online. Based on scale score in KY CATS
assessment system.
65
Norview High SchoolNorfolk, VA
  • 67 African American
  • 28 White
  • 2 Latino
  • 45 Low-Income
  • Outperformed the state and district in math and
    reading in 2003

66
High Achievement at NorviewHigh School Math, 2003
Source The Department of Education,
http//www.schoolresults.org/
67
High Achievement at Norview
Source The Department of Education,
http//www.schoolresults.org/
68
University Park High SchoolWorcester, MA
  • Grades 7-12
  • 70 poverty
  • 50 ELL
  • Most students enter at least two grade levels
    behind.

69
University Park Results 2004
  • Only one 10th grader didnt pass MA high school
    exit exam on first attempt (turned out, didnt
    attend the school).
  • 87 passed at advanced or proficient level.
  • Fifth most successful school in the state,
    surpassing many schools serving wealthy students.

70
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
71
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
72
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
73
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org).
74
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org). Data are from 2002.
75
Source Education Trust analysis of data from
National School-Level State Assessment Score
Database (www.schooldata.org). Data are from 2002.
76
Some districts...
77
Aldine, TX Raising Achievement for All While
Narrowing Gaps
Source Texas Education Agency-Academic
Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through
2001.
78
Aldine, TX Raising Achievement for All While
Narrowing Gaps
Source Texas Education Agency-Academic
Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through
2001.
79
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North CarolinaRaising
Achievement, Closing GapsGrade 3 Math
19
35
40
Source North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction, http//www.ncpublicschools.org
80
There is a 19 point gap between Poor African
American 4th graders in the District of Columbia
and Boston (roughly equivalent to 2 years worth
of learning)
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003 Trial Urban
District Reading Assessment.
81
There is a 28 point gap between Poor African
American 8th graders in Los Angeles and Houston
(roughly equivalent to 3 years worth of learning)
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003 Trial Urban
District Reading Assessment.
82
Scale Score
There is an 18 point gap between Los Angeles
and Houston (equivalent to almost 2 years worth
of learning)
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2002 Trial Urban
District Reading Assessment.
83
And some entire states...
84
4th Grade Math African American Gains Between
1992 and 2000
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
85
4th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1992 and 2000
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
86
Delaware Gains in Grade 4 Reading Outpace the
Nation, 1998-2002
Source USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
87
Big Differences Among States in the Performance
of the Same Group.
88
Black 8th Graders? NAEP MATH
89
Latino 8th Graders? NAEP MATH
90
Minority and/or poor students in some states
outperforming white and/or non-poor students in
others.
91
8th Grade Writing African Americans in Texas
Perform as Well or Better Than Whites in 7 States
Source NCES, National Assessment of Educational
Progress
92
(No Transcript)
93
What Students Say Yes, some blame themselves.
But they also say...
  • some teachers dont know
  • their subjects
  • counselors underestimate our
  • potential
  • principals dismiss concerns
  • expectations wretchedly, boringly low.

94
What Do We Know About The Places that are
Improving Results?
95
Element 1 They Make No Excuses. Everybody
Takes Responsibility for Student Learning.
96
Element 2 They Do Not Leave Anything About
Teaching and Learning to Chance
97
Historically, most of the really important
decisions about what students should learn and
what kind of work was good enough left to
individual teachers.
98
Result? A System That
  • Doesnt expect very much from MOST students and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students
    than others.

99
Students can do no better than the assignments
they are given...
100
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
A frequent theme in literature is the conflict
between the individual and society. From
literature you have read, select a character who
struggled with society. In a well-developed
essay, identify the character and explain why
this characters conflict with society is
important.
101
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on
Martin Luther Kings most important contribution
to this society. Illustrate your work with a
neat cover page. Neatness counts.
102
High Performing Schools, Districts
  • Have clear and specific goals for what students
    should learn in every grade, including the order
    in which they should learn it
  • Provide teachers with common curriculum,
    assignments
  • Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure
    progress
  • ACT immediately on the results of those
    assessments.

103
Element 3 High Performing Schools, Districts
Insist on Rigor All the Way Up the Line
104
Most High School Grads Go On To Postsecondary
Within 2 Years
Source NELS 88, Second (1992) and Third (1994)
Follow up in, USDOE, NCES, Access to
Postsecondary Education for the 1992 High School
Graduates, 1998, Table 2.
105
College Freshmen Not Returning for Sophomore Year
Source Tom Mortensen, Postsecondary Opportunity,
No. 89, November 1999
106
Transcript Study single biggest predictor of
college success isQUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
  • Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S.
    Department of Education.

107
But college prep curriculum has benefits far
beyond college.
108
Students of all sorts will learn more...
109
Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep
Courses
Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th
grade achievement.
Source USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the
United States Toward the Year 2000, in Issue
Brief Students Who Prepare for College and
Vocation
110
They will also fail less often...
111
Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure
Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low
level course, and eighth-grade reading
achievement quartiles
Source SREB, Middle Grades to High School
Mending a Weak Link. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
112
And theyll be better prepared for the workplace.
113
Leading districts, states making college prep the
default curriculum.
114
Element 4. High Performing Schools, Districts
Provide Extra Instructional Time to Students Who
Need It.
115
When Kids Are Behind, Schools Must Provide More
Instruction and Support
  • Kentucky provides extra time for struggling
    students in high-poverty schools
  • Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and 8th
    graders who need more support

116
And if you dont live in a smart state?
  • Many schools, districts finding ways to double,
    even triple, amount of time spent on literacy,
    math.

117
How?
  • First, they work very hard to minimize
    interruptions.

118
The Full Year Calendar
119
Less Summer Vacation
120
Less Weekends, Holidays, Summer Vacation
121
Less Professional Development Days Early
Dismissal/Parent Conferences
122
Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving
Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hannukkah, Awards,
Assembles, Concerts
123
Less State and District Testing
124
Bottom Line
  • Roughly 13-15 Eight-Hour Days Per Subject Per
    Year

125
For starters, consider taking some of that time
back!
126
  • Second, they weigh the impact of various
    scheduling options BEFORE acting.

127
Instructional Time Per Course
128
College Prep as Percent of Total Instructional
Time
129
Bottom Line
  • Students who take, say, math or English in 6
    period day schedule, get one full year of
    additional instruction over those who take 4
    years in block schedule.

130
If students who arrive behind need extra
instruction, then
131
Element 5 They KNOW That Good Teachers Matter
More Than Anything Else
132
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
133
LOW ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN TN GAIN MORE WITH
EFFECTIVE TEACHERS One Year Growth
Sanders and Rivers, Cumulative and Residual
Effects of Teachers on Future Academic
Achievement, 1998.
134
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
135
1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
136
TN Graduation Exams
  • Students who fail 4th grade exam are six times
    more likely to pass the exit exam if they have
    four highly effective teachers in a row, compared
    to those who have four low-effectiveness teachers
    in a row.

Rivers, June. The Impacet of Teacher Effects on
Student Math Competency. Univ of TN, 1999
137
Teachers, in other words, matter big time.
138
Most teachers--like most other professionals--can
get more and more effective.
139
Accordingly, smart states, districts do two
important things
  • STOP drive-by workshops
  • invest in intensive, focused
  • professional development.

140
In the meantime, though, weve got to work
toward a more equitable distribution of teachers.
141
Virtually every high poverty school has
some spectacularly wonderful teachers, but...
142
Classes in High Poverty High Schools More Often
Taught by Misassigned Teachers
Teachers who lack a major or minor in the
field Source National Commission on Teaching and
Americas Future, What Matters Most Teaching for
Americas Future (p.16) 1996.
143
Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority
Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned
Teachers
Source Jeannie Oakes. Multiplying Inequalities
The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking
on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and
Science (Rand 1990)
144
Poor and Minority Students Get More
Inexperienced Teachers
Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
High and low refer to top and bottom
quartiles. Source National Center for Education
Statistics, Monitoring Quality An Indicators
Report, December 2000.
145
High-Poverty Schools Get More Low-Scoring
Teachers
Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on
SAT/ACT. High-poverty schools have 2/3 or more
students eligible for reduced-price
lunch. Source Education Week, Quality Counts
2001, January 2001.
146
Illinois Distribution of School TQI by School
Percent Minority
  • Very high percent minority schools are likely to
    have very low school TQIs.
  • There is little difference in TQI distribution
    below the highest minority quartile (i.e. below
    about 60 minority).

147
African American Students More Likely To Have
Least Effective Teachers (Tennessee)
Percentage
Sanders, William L. and Rivers, Joan C.
Cumulative And Residual Effects of Teachers on
Future Student Academic Achievement, 1996, Table
2, p. 10.
148
Devastating Impact
149
If we had the courage and creativity to change
these patterns?
150
By our estimates from Texas schools, having an
above average teacher for five years running can
completely close the average gap between
low-income students and others. John Kain and
Eric Hanushek
151
Finally, just a word about NCLB.
152
Law is by no means perfect. But results to date
show encouraging improvements, especially in
elementary grades.
153
North CarolinaRaising Achievement, Closing Gaps
Grade 4 Math
16
24
7
Source North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction, http//www.ncpublicschools.org
154
North CarolinaRaising Achievement, Closing Gaps
Grade 7 Reading
17
27
28
Source North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction, http//www.ncpublicschools.org
155
DelawareRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade
5 Reading
8
26
30
Source Delaware Department of Education,
http//www.doe.state.de.us
156
IllinoisRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade
5 Math
16
35
31
Source Illinois State Board of Education,
http//www.isbe.state.il.us
157
OhioRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade 6
Reading
30
39
40
158
FloridaRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade 4
Reading
26
38
35
Source Florida Department of Education,
http//www.fcatresults.com
159
VirginiaRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade
3 Math
15
26
22
Source Virginia Department of Education,
http//pen.k12.va.us
160
PennsylvaniaRaising Achievement, Closing
GapsGrade 8 Reading
35
43
Source Pennsylvania Department of Education,
http//www.pde.state.pa.us/
161
MichiganRaising Achievement, Closing GapsGrade
8 Math
37
42
Source Michigan Department of Education,
http//www.michigan.gov/mde
162
MassachusettsRaising First-Time Pass RatesMCAS
Exit Exam
Source Massachusetts Department of Education,
http//www.doe.mass.edu
163
The Education Trust
  • Download this Presentation
  • And
  • Register for the Education Trust Annual Closing
    the Gap Conference, November 3-5,
  • Washington, DC
  • www.edtrust.org
  • Washington, DC 202-293-1217
  • Oakland, CA 510-465-6444
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