Government and Policymaking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Government and Policymaking PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 2049bb-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Government and Policymaking

Description:

Separation of powers among branches. Executive ... Two separate agencies of government. Executive and legislative, separately elected ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:10
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 14
Provided by: jennife154
Learn more at: http://people.uncw.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Government and Policymaking


1
Government and Policymaking
2
Policymaking
  • The point at which proposed policy programs
    (outcomes of interest aggregation) become law.
  • What does it take for such programs to become
    policy (make the transition from a proposed
    course of action to the adopted course of action?)

3
Decision Rules
  • What are the decision rules across political
    systems that move interest aggregation to adopted
    policy?
  • Constitutions typically contain the decision
    rules
  • A set of rules and principles concerning decision
    making, rights, and the distribution of authority
    in a political system
  • Can be written or based in custom, legal
    precedent
  • A set of customs and practices

4
Decision Rules
  • The basic rules governing the decision making
    process
  • Creation of offices and assignment of
    responsibility and authority to these entities
  • Examples
  • U.S. Congress committee system, two houses with
    differing rules, rules about reconciliation, etc.
  • British House of Commons simple majority rule,
    cabinet dominance

5
Constitutions
  • A fundamental political act
  • Sets out the rules of the game
  • Functional authority
  • Geographic distribution of authority
  • Most political systems have them, notable
    exception Britain
  • Highly developed set of customs and conventions
    supported by ordinary statute
  • Important role of political culture

6
European Union
  • Constitutional development has not emerged from
    crisis
  • idea for the union originated in effort to
    prevent future war)
  • Decision Rules have evolved over the course of 40
    years
  • Impacts 27 countries
  • 495.5 million citizens

7
Geographic Distribution of Government Power
  • Decision rules vary along three dimensions
  • Geographic distribution of authority
  • Federal systems separate spheres of authority
  • Unitary systems national authority
  • Confederal systems state authority
  • Separation of powers among branches
  • Executive
  • Various names and duties, ceremonial, head of
    state, head of government, individual or
    collective
  • Two forms of representative government
  • Presidential and parliamentary
  • Legislatures
  • Bicameral, unicameral
  • Limitations on government authority

8
Democracy vs Authoritarianism
  • Policy making functions vary most dramatically
    between these two types of systems
  • Competitive elections bring people into policy
    process
  • Elites dominate the policy making process in
    authoritarian systems and possibility for
    non-elite access is low
  • Democratic transition??

9
Democratic Presidential Regime
  • Two separate agencies of government
  • Executive and legislative, separately elected
  • Branches selected for fixed terms
  • Neither may easily unseat the other
  • Each with specific power in the constitution

10
Parliamentary Regime
  • Interdependent executive and legislative branches
  • Only legislature directly elected
  • Neither branch has a fixed term in office both
    (typically) can be voted out of office at any
    time
  • Confidence relationship between Cabinet and
    majority (eliminates divided government)
  • If majority votes no confidence PM and cabinet
    resign
  • PM power to dissolve legislature -- elections
  • Cabinet collective leadership of the executive
    branch derived from the legislature
  • Chaired by a prime minister, head of government
    and selects the other members

11
Mixed Systems
  • Semipresidential
  • President and legislature separately elected
  • But president may dissolve legislature
  • Cabinet may be appointed by president but may be
    dismissed by legislature
  • A variety of arrangements for shared control
    exist
  • France, Russia

12
Limits on Governmental Power
  • Provision of civil rights
  • Protections guaranteed by government
  • Rights of citizenship
  • Establishment of courts
  • Judicial review judicial limitation of
    governmental authority
  • Independent versus non independent
  • Amending procedures

13
Comparing Structures and Functions
  • Assemblies
  • Cabinets
  • Elite Recruitment
  • The Bureaucracy
  • Professionalism
  • Implementation and enforcement
  • May also articulate and aggregate and all but
    form policies
  • leave no child behind Donna Shalala
    Childrens Defense Fund
About PowerShow.com