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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//www.wilderness.net/index
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

2
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3
Thousands of tired, nerve-shaken, over-civilized
people are beginning to find out that going to
the mountains is going home that wilderness is a
necessity that mountain parks and reservations
are useful not only as fountains of timber and
irrigating rivers, but as fountains of life.
-John Muir
4
Wilderness Considerations for Fire Resource
Advisors
Wilderness Fire Resource Advisor Training 2007
5
PERCEPTIONS and ASSUMPTIONS
All Wilderness Resource Advisors
6
PERCEPTIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
All Firefighters
7
Wilderness Fire Managementis a Balancing Act
  • Wilderness and Fire Management Goals are the
    same.
  • Allow fire to play a natural role in the
    ecosystem to the greatest extent possible.
  • Manage fire in wilderness to minimize risk to
    resources outside wilderness

8
Wilderness Fire Managementis a Balancing Act
Necessary fire management activities
Wilderness resource protection needs
9
Objectives
  1. Become familiar with wilderness law and policy
    and the role of fire management in wilderness .
  2. Understand the wilderness resource and how
    decisions are made related to fire management in
    wilderness.
  3. Examine the wilderness challenges for the Fire
    Resource Advisor task.
  4. Provide tools to be used in wilderness fire
    management.

10
The Wilderness Act of 1964 P.L. 88-577
  • After 8 years of debate in Congress
  • 66 different rewrites of the bill
  • 18 public hearings that generated over 6,000
    pages of testimony

11
Signed by President Johnson on September 3, 1964
12
National Wilderness Preservation System -
Percentage by Agency
5
19.8
33.2
42
13
Definition of WildernessSection 2(c)
  • affected primarily by the forces of nature
  • mans work substantially unnoticeable
  • outstanding opportunities for solitude or
    primitive recreation
  • managed to preserve natural conditions

14
Wilderness Stewardship means
  • Manage for ecological health and integrity
  • Provide opportunities for a wilderness experience
  • Minimize human caused
    impacts
  • Provide education and
    information about the
    wilderness resource,
    values, and benefits

15
Wilderness Management Direction Section 2 (a)
  • ... shall be administered in such a manner as
    will leave them unimpaired for future use and
    enjoyment as wilderness
  • provide for the protection of these areas, the
    preservation of their wilderness character.

16
Wilderness Management Agency Responsibility
Section 4 (b)
  • each agency shall be responsible for
    preserving the wilderness character of the area
    and shall so administer such area for such other
    purposes for which it may have been established
    as also to preserve its wilderness character.
  • The managing agencies must preserve wilderness
    character.
  • It is the over-riding criteria for all decisions,
    including those involving fire management.

17
The Four Statutory Qualities of Wilderness
Character
  • Undeveloped
  • Untrammeled
  • Natural
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a
    primitive and unconfined type of recreation
  • A National Framework for Monitoring Wilderness
    Character, 2006
  • http//www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuseWC

18
The Four Statutory Qualities of Wilderness
Character
  • Undeveloped
  • Untrammeled
  • Natural
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a
    primitive and unconfined type of recreation
  • A National Framework for Monitoring Wilderness
    Character, 2006
  • http//www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuseWC

19
Untrammeled UnhinderedNot being subject to
human controls and manipulations that hamper the
free play of natural forces.
- Howard Zahniser, Principal author of The
Wilderness Act
20
FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER
  • Untrammeled

Wilderness is generally unhindered and free from
intentional modern human control or manipulation
Threats to this setting Suppression and
prescribed fire
Wilderness setting
21
EXAMPLES OF MANIPULATION TO RESTORE NATURAL
CONDITIONS IN WILDERNESS
Reducing fuels to restore natural fire regimes
and fire effects
22
FOUR STATUTORY QUALITIES OF WILDERNESS CHARACTER
  • Natural

Wilderness ecological systems are substantially
free from the unintentional effects of modern
civilization
Threats to this setting Suppression and
suppression activities
Wilderness setting
23
Fire Control vs. Fire Management
24
Fire and Wilderness
This used to be called a disaster.
25
Wilderness Fire Damage or Natural Event?
  • Catastrophic Fire
  • Stand Replacing Fire
  • Ground Fire
  • High Intensity
  • Low Intensity

A natural part of the ecological process and
wilderness
26
Wilderness Natural Appearing or Wild ?
  • Long-term fire suppression is an example of
    large-scale manipulation of natural conditions.
  • Fire use creates, for some visitors, a less
    natural appealing or less scenic landscape

27
Fire and Wilderness Natural role
The fire and the effects of the fire
Erosion-sedimentation
Smoke-air quality
28
The Wilderness Act Agency Responsibility
Section 4 (d)
  • such measures may be taken as may be necessary
    in the control of fire subject to such
    conditions as the Secretary deems desirable.
  • The managing agencies have discretion for how
    fire in wilderness is managed
  • The National Fire Policy and agency fire and
    wilderness management policy describe
    implementation

29
The Wilderness ActAgency Responsibility Section
4 (c)
  • no temporary road
  • no use of motor vehicles, motorized equipment or
    motorboats
  • no landing of aircraft
  • no form of mechanical transport
  • no structure or installation

EXCEPT
30
The Wilderness ActAgency Responsibility Section
4 (c)
  • except as necessary to meet the minimum
    requirements for the administration of the area
    for the purpose of this Act
  • The minimum requirements and minimum tool
    provision of the Act.
  • Applies to fire management activities.

31
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

32
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

Step 1 Is administrative action needed?
  • Do you really need to do something?
  • Could another strategy avoid the need for
    unnecessary effects to wilderness?

33
Determining the Minimum Tool
  • Step 2 What is the minimum necessary management
    action?
  • If it is necessary to take action
  • what is the minimum necessary tool or method that
    will have the least impact on wilderness
    resources and values?

34
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement
  • 1) Determining if any action is necessary
  • 2) Selecting the method, tool, or tactic which
    represents the minimum necessary administrative
    action.

35
Determining the Minimum Requirement
  • The minimum requirement analysis is a two step
    process

The Minimum Requirements Decision Guide (MRDG) is
a commonly used process for making these
decisions. http//www.wilderness.net/mrdg/
36
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement for Fire Management
  • The Minimum Requirements Decision Guide (MRDG) is
    not designed for use in emergency situations
  • A lengthy analysis is not always possible or
    desirable in fire emergency situations.

37
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirement
  1. Incorporate wilderness management objectives and
    the minimum requirements decision process into
    programmatic fire management planning
  2. Develop GO/NO GO checklists and decision trees
    that will aid in the emergency decision making
    situations that arise.
  3. Make use of the proper authority (who in the
    agency can make the decision).
  4. Document the rationale and the decision to track
    the process and improve future decision making.

Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
38
Wilderness Fire ManagementDetermining the
Minimum Requirementand Documenting the Decision
  • Examples
  • BWCAW Matrix and Reporting Form
  • Medicine Bow Routt NF
  • Approval for Motorized Equipment in Wilderness
    in Support of Fire Management Activities
  • 3) Wallowa-Whitman NF
  • Approval for Motorized Equipment in Wilderness
  • 4) Other examples ???

Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
39
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Method of transport

40
Preferences for Limiting ImpactsLong term
impacts vs. short term disturbances
  • Aircraft use (if necessary)
  • Preferred
  • Aircraft flights
  • Helicopter landings and/or sling loads in natural
    openings
  • Least acceptable
  • New constructed helispots

41
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Suppression activities

42
Preferences for Limiting ImpactsLong term
impacts vs. short term disturbances
  • Suppression activities (if necessary)
  • Preferred
  • Natural fuel breaks
  • Cold trailing
  • Burnouts and backfires
  • Wetlines and pumps
  • Least acceptable
  • Constructed fireline

43
Wilderness ManagementDetermining the Minimum
Requirement
  • Example - Spike and coyote camps

44
The Minimum Tool vs. the Minimum RequirementWhat
really matters?
45
Other Concerns for Wilderness Fire Management
Subdivisions on the Wilderness boundary
  • Threats to lives and property outside wilderness
  • Challenges for restoring the natural role of fire
    and fire use

46
Wilderness Fire Management Information and
Education
47
Wilderness and Fire
  • The effects of fire in wilderness should be
    considered neither good nor bad.
  • In fire dependent ecosystems, fire is a
    critically important part of the natural process.

48
Wilderness and Fire
  • Unnecessary, negative impacts from suppression
    are not part of the natural condition.
  • Always ask, is this action really necessary?
  • Manage fire in wilderness using only the minimum
    necessary actions, tools, and methods.

49
Use information and education to
  • Provide feasible alternatives to meet both
    wilderness and fire goals
  • Capitalize on a teachable moment for wilderness
  • Explain why it matters based on actual effects to
    the wilderness resource
  • 4. Use The Authority of the Resource
    communication technique

50
The Authority of the Resource
  • The Authority of the Resource is a communication
    technique that allows the message to be delivered
    as the right thing to do for the wilderness
    resource.
  • The communication is not focused on law and
    policy as the primary reason for strategy or
    tactics.

Education Planning Toolbox at
http//www.wilderness.net/toolboxes/
51
Use (MIST)
MIST Minimum Impact Suppression
Techniques MIST Minimum Impact Strategies and
Tactics MIST Most Intelligent Sensible Tactics
52
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
53
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Guiding Principles
  • First and foremost is
  • Firefighter and public safety is the first
    priority in every fire management activity.

54
Continuing to suppress natural fires, causes a
significant alteration to natural conditions.
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
  • Replicates natural conditions
  • Creates edge effects
  • Recycles
  • Adds to diversity
  • Creates fuel breaks

55
Suppression actions can have a significant impact
to the resource.
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
  • Suppression activities
  • Unnatural fuel conditions

56
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Guiding Principles
  • The second principle is
  • The role of wildland fire as an essential
    ecological process and natural change agent will
    be incorporated into the planning process.

57
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Guiding Principles
  • The third principle is
  • Fire management plans, programs, and activities
    support land and resource management plans and
    their implementation.

58
Federal Wildland Fire Policy Application to
Wilderness
  • Land Management Plans (LMP)
  • Fire Management Plans (FMP)
  • Provide wilderness input to help address the
    opportunities for natural fire in wilderness.
  • Ensure that wilderness law and policy is included
    in planning and implementation.
  • Help create the direction for management of fire
    in wilderness

Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
59
Wilderness Considerations Roles for the
Wilderness Resource Advisor
  • The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • Fire Management Toolbox
  • http//www.wilderness.net/toolboxes

60
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • PURPOSE
  • The purpose of this document is to provide
    wilderness managers with a checklist of topics,
    issues and concerns to consider when involved in
    preparation or review of the
    LMP or FMP.

61
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning The
  • 1. WILDERNESS ACT (P.L. 88-577)
  • Is the LMP consistent with or does the LMP
    specifically cite the relevant statutes from the
    Wilderness Act of 1964 or subsequent wilderness
    legislation?

62
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 2. WILDERNESS POLICY
  • Does the LMP specifically cite the relevant
    direction for fire in wilderness from agency
    policy?
  • the natural role of fire
  • use of prescribed fire

63
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 3. AREA/REFUGE/FOREST/PARK PLAN LANGUAGE
  • Is there appropriate language in the LMP that
  • addresses the natural role of fire
  • considers the full range of management responses

64
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 4. DESIRED CONDITION
  • Does the LMP have goals for fire in wilderness
    consistent with the desired condition and the
    Wilderness Act?
  • Additionally, does the LMP address the desired
    outcome to preserve natural conditions ?
  • wilderness generally appears to have been
    affected primarily by the forces of nature with
    the imprint of human work substantially
    unnoticeable

65
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 5. MULTI-JURISDICTION
  • Does the FMP address multi-jurisdictional issues
    and coordination needs to facilitate appropriate
    wilderness fire management?

66
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 6. ASSIGN A RESOURCE ADVISOR
  • Does the FMP require assignment of a Wilderness
    Resource Advisor (WRA) to wilderness fires under
    the Delegation of Authority letter

67
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 7. FIRE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
  • Does the FMP address the objective to conduct all
    fire management actions in wilderness in a manner
    compatible with overall wilderness management
    objectives?

68
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 8. MINIMUM IMPACT STRATEGIES AND TACTICS (MIST)
  • Does the FMP address MIST guidelines specific to
    your wilderness
  • bear food storage or other safety concerns
  • listed species
  • invasive species
  • archaeological sites
  • other???

69
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 9a. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT PROCESS
  • Does the FMP recognize that fire management
    related exceptions for temporary roads or
    structures, or use of motorized equipment or
    mechanical transport must be
  • (1) the necessary and required action for
    administration of wilderness
  • (2) the action that has the least adverse
    effects on wilderness as directed in the
    Wilderness Act, Section 4(c)?

70
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 9b. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT PROCESS
  • Does the FMP utilize a Motorized Equipment
    Mechanical Transport Evaluation and Approval
    Process?

71
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 10. BURNED AREA EMERGENCY REHABILITATION (BAER)
  • Does the FMP address the objectives for
    conducting BAER in wilderness?
  • Under what circumstances would there be any
    restoration measures other than natural recovery?
  • What are the standards for seeding, mulching,
    erosion control, etc.?

72
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 11. RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS
  • Does the FMP (Wilderness Polygon) address
    specific wilderness resource concerns such as
    fire management effects to the wilderness
    resource such as
  • heritage/cultural
  • wildlife and fisheries
  • hydrology and soils
  • invasive species
  • threatened, endangered, or sensitive species
  • other issues unique to the wilderness

73
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 11. RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS
  • Does the FMP (Wilderness Polygon) address
    specific wilderness resource concerns for
    Outfitter and Guide (commercial services)
    operations, recreation, and public safety ?

74
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 12. IMPROVEMENTS
  • Does the FMP list or reference improvements such
    as grazing allotments fences, administrative
    sites, bridges, stock tanks, etc.?
  • Does the FMP provide objectives for these
    improvements during fire management activities?

75
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 13. WATER LOCATIONS
  • Does the FMP identify water sources
    inside/outside wilderness that are to be
    used/avoided for water dips?

76
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 14. HELISPOTS and FIRE CAMPS
  • Does the FMP identify helispots and spike camps
    locations outside of wilderness, whenever
    feasible ?
  • Does the FMP identify existing helispots and
    spike camps locations inside wilderness ?

77
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 15. FMP REVIEW AND REVISION
  • Does the FMP identify a wilderness staff role for
    review and revision of the FMP annually ?

78
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • 16. LINE OFFICER APPROVAL
  • Does the FMP identify the agency administrators
    (line officers) who have authority for the
    approval of motorized or mechanical use per
    agency direction ?

79
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • PART II Management Efficiency
  • Pre-planning information to gather
  • Training needed

80
The Wilderness Checklist for Fire Planning
  • Fire Management Toolbox
  • http//www.wilderness.net/toolboxes

81
Agency Policy Fire Management in Wilderness
 
Fire Management Toolbox at http//www.wilderness.
net/toolboxes/
82
  • Wilderness Resource Advisor Tips
  • Know your role with the Incident Mgmt. Team,
    Agency Administrator, and others.
  • Be prepared to stand up and present your case for
    wilderness.
  • Understand the effects of fire and fire
    management activities in wilderness.
  • Allow and assist fire managers to do what they
    should, not what they could.
  • Be a credible wilderness advocate, not a zealot.

83
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85
BLM Policy 8560.35 A
  • Fire suppression measures and techniques must be
    used which achieve the wilderness management
    objectives with the minimum adverse impact on the
    wilderness resource.
  • Methods and equipment which least alter the
    landscape or disturb the land surface are best.

86
FWS Policy 6 RM 8.8b C.
  • While an aggressive approach to wildfire control
    on certain wilderness areas may be in order, the
    methods utilized should be the minimum tool.

87
Forest Service Policy 2320
  • Conduct all fire management activities within
    wilderness in a manner compatible with overall
    wilderness management objectives.
  • Give preference to using methods and
    equipment that cause the least
  1. Alteration of the wilderness landscape.
  2. Disturbance of the land surface.
  3. Disturbance to visitor solitude.
  4. Reduction of visibility during periods of visitor
    use.
  5. Adverse effect on other air quality related
    values.

88
Forest Service Policy 2320
  • Locate fire camps, helispots, and other temporary
    facilities or improvements outside of the
    wilderness boundary whenever feasible.
  • Rehabilitate disturbed areas caused by
    suppression activities within wilderness to as
    natural an appearance as possible.

 
89
NPS General Mgmt. Policy
  • Fire management or suppression activities
    conducted within wilderness, including the
    categories of designated, recommended, potential,
    proposed, and eligible areas, will be consistent
    with the minimum requirement concept identified
    in Chapter 6 (of the General Management Policies)
    and Directors Order 41 Wilderness Preservation
    and Management.

90
NPS Policy - Directors Order 41
  • The park's fire management and wilderness
    management plans must identify and reconcile the
    natural and historic roles of fire in the
    wilderness, and will provide a prescription for
    response, if any, to natural and human-caused
    wildlfires.

91
Wilderness Fire Management PolicyObjectives
  • Whenever possible, scrutinize the use of motor
    vehicles, motorized equipment, mechanical
    transport, and aircraft in support of suppression
    activities.

92
Wilderness Fire Management PolicyObjectives
  • Whenever possible, scrutinize the use of motor
    vehicles, motorized equipment, mechanical
    transport and aircraft in support of suppression
    activities.
  • Activities that may have longer-term impacts,
    such as retardant drops, line construction, and
    dozer lines should be minimized.

93
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