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National Assessment Systems:

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by monitoring student learning at the classroom, school, province and national levels ... No direct consequences vis- -vis test results. Looser coupling between ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: National Assessment Systems:


1
National Assessment Systems
  • Lessons Learned from International Experience
  • by Luis Benveniste

2
Overview
  • International perspectives on student assessment
  • Why have Southern Cone countries espoused
    national assessment systems?
  • Conclusions

3
Objectives of Assessments 1. To Promote
Educational Quality
  • by monitoring student learning at the classroom,
    school, province and national levels
  • by linking results back to educators and
    policymakers to inform instructional and
    curricular reform
  • by promoting high national standards for student
    performance
  • by promoting clear expectations for school level
    performance

4
Objectives of Assessments 2. To Inform Policy
Making
  • by evaluating the impact of specific policies or
    interventions
  • by using results to design compensatory policies
  • by identifying variables associated with student
    learning

5
Objectives of Assessments 3. To Foster Greater
Efficiency and Accountability
  • by linking student achievement results to
    incentives for teachers, schools, districts or
    provinces
  • by fostering public accountability and
    transparency
  • by informing parents and families about school
    performance and promoting choice

6
Objectives of Assessments 4. To Inform Student
Selectivity
  • by using tests to place students in a certain
    track or school
  • by using results to select who progresses to the
    next level
  • by using tests to determine if a student can
    graduate
  • Singapore Examinations and Assessment Board

7
International Assessments
  • Comparative perspectives on achievement levels by
    subject
  • Analyze effects of country policy differences
  • Build regional networks to share knowledge and
    strengthen local capacity

8
International Assessments SACMEQ
  • Consortium of fifteen Ministries of Education in
    Southern and Eastern Africa
  • Two major cross-national studies and a third
    under development
  • Training modules

9
International Assessments PASEC
  • Member countries of CONFEMENFrancophone Africa
  • Cohort studies of student achievement
  • Thematic studiese.g. contract teachers or
    teacher pre-service training

10
Impact of International Assessments TIMSS
  • United States Lower performance relative to
    Asian countries in 1995, 1999 and 2003 math and
    science
  • A curriculum that is a mile long and an inch
    deepLack of opportunities for children to
    construct meaning
  • US vs. East Asian educational model
    collaborative teaching, in-depth conceptual
    curriculum, parental involvement
  • Results provided momentum to curriculum overhaul
    and standards-based reform

11
Overview
  • International perspectives on student assessment
  • Why have Southern Cone countries espoused
    national assessment systems?
  • Conclusions

12
Southern Cone Countries
13
National Assessments Comparative Overview
14
National Assessments Comparative Overview
15
Political Context Chile
  • Political context at inception of testing
  • Municipal decentralization and privatization
    (voucher system)
  • Promote consumer accountability
  • Promote market competition and choice

16
Political Context Chile
  • Assessment characteristics SIMCE
  • Universal test in Grades 4 and 8
  • Public dissemination of school level outcomes
  • Parental outreach strategies
  • Rankings by school (within socio-economic
    banding)
  • Promotion of school level responsibility over
    testing outcomes

17
Political Context Chile
  • Linking test scores to education resourcing
  • Targeting the Poor ? Assessment results as an
    avenue for channeling compensatory funding
    (materials and technical assistance) to low
    performing schools (P-900 Program)
  • Providing financial incentives to improve teacher
    performance ? National Evaluation System of
    School Performance (SNED) awards salary bonus to
    teachers in high performing schools

18
Targeting the Poor Chiles P-900 Program
  • Equity focus -- Compensatory program for lowest
    scoring (900) schools in the SIMCE test
  • Open to public and subsidized schools
  • Three-year formal commitment
  • Technical assistance educational resources
  • Annual Action Plan

19
Targeting the Poor Chiles P-900 Program
  • SIMCE as a starting point for diagnosis
  • Comprehensive approach
  • Teacher professional development
  • Targeted support to students at-risk
  • Pedagogic counseling and guidance
  • Distribution of educational materials and
    classroom library
  • Integration of classroom and home environment
  • Creation of School Management Team

20
Targeting the Poor Chiles P-900 Program
21
Incentives for Performance Chiles SNED
  • National Evaluation System of School Performance
    (SNED)
  • ?
  • SIMCE assessment data as a means to
  • Link improved teacher performance to teacher
    compensation
  • Reward school practices which contribute to
    student learning
  • SNED award is equivalent to a one-month salary

22
Incentives for Performance Chiles SNED
  • SIMCE accounts for 65 of SNED score
  • Effectiveness Raw SIMCE score in Math and
    Spanish
  • Value Added Average SIMCE score gain
  • Other parameters
  • Equality of opportunities (retention rates
    integration projects)
  • Working conditions (full staffing substitute
    teachers)
  • Initiative (pedagogical activities, school
    development plan)
  • Parent-teacher integration

23
Incentives for Performance Chiles SNED
  • Financial awards directed to entire teaching team
    to encourage collaboration
  • Address discrimination against disadvantaged
    students
  • Clear criteria established on expected behaviors
    and desirable school characteristics
  • Schools compared to others with similar
    geographic and socioeconomic characteristics
  • Fair and transparent system

24
Promoting Consumer Choice and Accountability
Chile
  • Public dissemination of school level outcomes
  • Parental outreach strategies through media
  • Rankings by school (within socio-economic
    banding)
  • Promotion of school level responsibility over
    testing outcomes

25
Political Context Uruguay
  • Political context at inception of testing
  • Centralized educational system
  • Assessment as a means to pursue consolidation of
    social equity
  • Reference to Argentine and Chilean experience
    assessment practices

26
Political Context Uruguay
  • Assessment characteristics UMRE
  • Universal test in Grade 6, but controlled sample
    for Grade 3
  • Confidentiality of school level data
  • Teacher outreach strategies
  • Focus on equity and socio-cultural variables
    rather than student achievement scores per se
  • Accent on State responsibility over testing
    outcomes

27
Uruguay Building Consensus
  • Teacher Unions concerns
  • Categorization/stigmatization of schools
  • Usage for teacher incentives/punishments or merit
    pay schemes
  • Promotion of private over public education
  • Promotion of market-oriented reforms

28
Uruguay Building Consensus
  • Educators concerns
  • Concerns over external organization and
    application
  • Competition to the inspectorate
  • Appropriateness of standardized/multiple choice
    instruments
  • Concerns over fairness of using same test for
    all SES contexts

29
Uruguay Overcoming resistance
  • When UMRE appeared, we had a brick on each
    hand. I was ready to kill them. I had all my
    justifications against them ready. Little by
    little they convinced us. Now, after all that
    has happened and as we get more results, they
    convince us even more. It is OK that the test is
    obligatory. It has been a valuable experience.
  • A representative from the Association
  • of Private Education Establishments

30
Uruguay Governments strategy
  • Focus goals of assessment system
  • (Re)tailor national assessment priorities prior
    to launching UMRE
  • Espouse a participatory approach
  • Extensive prior information campaign
  • Involve educators in design process
  • Creation of a diverse Advisory Board

31
Uruguay Governments strategy
  • Managing the stakes of assessment
  • Emphasize State responsibility in education
    quality
  • Limited distribution of school scores
  • Create a climate that focused on pedagogical
    dimension of testing
  • Mobilize inspectorate as support network to
    foster pedagogical reflection

32
Uruguay Governments strategy
  • Contextualize student achievement in relation to
    socio-cultural variables
  • Equity objectives Link assessment to specific
    compensatory/support activities
  • Focus on lessons from effective schools from
    low SES contexts
  • Leveling playing field between public and private
    sectors

33
Uruguay Presentation of Results
Percentage of Students by Performance in Math
and Sociocultural Context
34
Overview
  • International perspectives on student assessment
  • Why have Southern Cone countries espoused
    national assessment systems?
  • Conclusions

35
Pitfalls of Testing
  • Risks of High-Stake Scenarios
  • The stigma of results
  • Poor results lead to frustration among teachers
    who may feel disempowered to bring about change
  • Stigmatizes low performing schools, leading to
    the "flight" of better students, leading to
    further segregation in educational services

36
Pitfalls of Testing
  • Risks of Low-Stake Scenarios
  • Educators pay little attention to the test
  • Assessment comes and goes
  • No changes in school or classroom behavior
  • "Lost opportunity" to reflect on student
    achievement, classroom pedagogy or school
    administration

37
Some Concluding Remarks
  • High-stake assessment systems
  • Foster public accountability
  • Performance incentive systems
  • Prompt close alignment with tests
  • Motivate changes in school/classroom
    behavior
  • But may also have negative consequences, such
    as teaching to the test
  • Prompt political resistance

38
Some Concluding Remarks
  • Low-stake assessment systems
  • Limited accountability
  • No direct consequences vis-à-vis test results
  • Looser coupling between ed practices and tests
  • Can weaken backwash effect of testing
  • Onus is on Government to foster greater test
    data use, leading to changes in teaching and
    learning

39
Good Assessment Systems
  • Underscore educational goals desired
  • Highlight challenges in student achievement,
    classroom pedagogy and school administration
  • Provide a framework to map change, design
    necessary interventions and redirect resources at
    school and classroom levels

40
Teacher comments Uruguay
  • On the basis of the exam results, we developed
    a plan for the following year. For instance, the
    discussion over problem resolution was very
    important for us in order to go deeper into this
    issue, to work more on reasoning. I dont know
    if this took us further away from the official
    curricular program, but ... Also, weve been
    working on the language curriculum in teacher
    meetings. In these sessions we analyzed some of
    the test items.

41
  • Thank You
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