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Remarks on Education and the Grid


Computer Science Syracuse, Florida State, Indiana. Main area of research last 20 years ... Dust Map. Galaxy Density Map. Grids in a Nutshell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Remarks on Education and the Grid

Remarks on Education and the Grid
  • Geoffrey Fox Professor of Computer Science,
    Informatics, Physics
  • Pervasive Technology Laboratories
  • Indiana University Bloomington IN 47401
  • http//
  • http//

Grid Computing Making The Global Infrastructure
a Reality
  • Based on work done in preparing book edited
    with Fran Berman (director NPACI) and Anthony
    J.G. Hey (leader of core UK e-Science program),
  • ISBN 0-470-85319-0
  • Hardcover 1080 Pages
  • Published March 2003
  • http//
  • Last chapter is on education and the Grid

Who is Geoffrey Fox?
  • Undergraduate degree in math, PhD Theoretical
    Physics at Cambridge University
  • Theory, Experiment, Computation, Phenomenology
    of particle physics Caltech for 20 years
  • Worked with Feynman, Hey, Wolfram
  • Dean for educational computing and associate
    provost for computing Caltech Professor of
    Physics department chair
  • Developed parallel computers for science
  • Computer Science Syracuse, Florida State, Indiana
  • Main area of research last 20 years
  • Interdisciplinary work in computational science
    with many fields Earth Science/Biology at
  • Chief technologist Anabas corporation (WebEx done
  • Technology for distance education on the Grid
  • Will teach class from Indiana to Jackson State
    State next semester
  • Informatics, Computer Science, Physics at Indiana
  • Pervasive Technology Lab Information technology
    initiative at Indiana University funded by Lilly
  • Director Community Grids Laboratory

e-Business e-Science and the Grid
  • e-Business captures an emerging view of
    corporations as dynamic virtual organizations
    linking employees, customers and stakeholders
    across the world.
  • The growing use of outsourcing is one example
  • e-Science is the similar vision for scientific
    research with international participation in
    large accelerators, satellites or distributed
    gene analyses.
  • The Grid integrates the best of the Web,
    traditional enterprise software, high performance
    computing and Peer-to-peer systems to provide the
    information technology infrastructure for
  • A deluge of data of unprecedented and inevitable
    size must be managed and understood.
  • People, computers, data and instruments must be
  • On demand assignment of experts, computers,
    networks and storage resources must be supported

So what is a Grid?
  • Supporting human decision making with a network
    of at least four large computers, perhaps six or
    eight small computers, and a great assortment of
    disc files and magnetic tape units - not to
    mention remote consoles and teletype stations -
    all churning away. (Licklider 1960)
  • Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving
    in dynamic multi-institutional virtual
  • Infrastructure that will provide us with the
    ability to dynamically link together resources as
    an ensemble to support the execution of
    large-scale, resource-intensive, and distributed
  • Realizing thirty year dream of science fiction
    writers that have spun yarns featuring worldwide
    networks of interconnected computers that behave
    as a single entity.

  • e-Science is about global collaboration in key
    areas of science, and the next generation of
    infrastructure that will enable it. This is a
    major UK Program
  • e-Science reflects growing importance of
    international laboratories, satellites and
    sensors and their integrated analysis by
    distributed teams
  • CyberInfrastructure is the analogous US initiative

Grid Technology supports e-Science and
Classic Grid Architecture
Content Access
Middle Tier Brokers Service Providers
Middle Tier becomes Web Services
Users and Devices
e-Business and (Virtual) Organizations
  • Enterprise Grid supports information system for
    an organization includes university computer
    center, (digital) library, sales, marketing,
  • Outsourcing Grid links different parts of an
    enterprise together (Gridsourcing)
  • Manufacturing plants with designers
  • Animators with electronic game or film designers
    and producers
  • Coaches with aspiring players (e-NCAA or e-NFL
  • Customer Grid links businesses and their
    customers as in many web sites such as
  • e-Multimedia can use secure peer-to-peer Grids to
    link creators, distributors and consumers of
    digital music, games and films respecting rights
  • Distance education Grid links teacher at one
    place, students all over the place, mentors and
    graders shared curriculum, homework, live

Some Important Styles of Grids
  • Computational Grids were origin of concepts and
    link computers across the globe high latency
    stops this from being used as parallel machine
  • Knowledge and Information Grids link sensors and
    information repositories as in Virtual
    Observatories or BioInformatics
  • More detail on next slide
  • Community Grids focus on Grids involving large
    numbers of peers rather than focusing on linking
    major resources links Grid and Peer-to-peer
    network concepts
  • Semantic Grid links Grid, and AI community with
    Semantic web (ontology/meta-data enriched
    resources) and Agent concepts

Peer to Peer Grid
Service Facing Web Service Interfaces
User Facing Web Service Interfaces
Peer to Peer Grid
A democratic organization
Information/Knowledge Grids
  • Distributed (10s to 1000s) of data sources
    (instruments, file systems, curated databases )
  • Data Deluge 1 (now) to 100s petabytes/year
  • Moores law for Sensors
  • Possible filters assigned dynamically (on-demand)
  • Run image processing algorithm on telescope image
  • Run Gene sequencing algorithm on compiled data
  • Needs decision support front end with what-if
  • Metadata (provenance) critical to annotate data
  • Integrate across experiments as in
    multi-wavelength astronomy

Data Deluge comes from pixels/year available
SERVOGrid Solid Earth Research Virtual
Observatory will link Australia, Japan, USA
Repositories Federated Databases
Sensor Nets
Streaming Data
Grids for Geoscience
Analysis and Visualization
Loosely Coupled Filters
Closely Coupled Compute Nodes
SERVOGrid Requirements
  • Seamless Access to Data repositories and large
    scale computers
  • Integration of multiple data sources including
    sensors, databases, file systems with analysis
  • Including filtered OGSA-DAI (Grid database
  • Rich meta-data generation and access with
    SERVOGrid specific Schema extending openGIS
    (Geography as a Web service) standards and using
    Semantic Grid
  • Portals with component model for user interfaces
    and web control of all capabilities
  • Collaboration to support world-wide work
  • Basic Grid tools workflow and notification

Virtual Observatory Astronomy Grid Integrate
Dust Map
Visible X-ray
Galaxy Density Map
Grids in a Nutshell
  • Grids are by definition the best of HPCC, Web
    Services, Agents, Distributed Objects,
    Peer-to-peer networks, Collaborative environments
  • Grid applications are typically zero or one very
    large supercomputers, lots of conventional
    machines, with unlimited data and/or people
    supporting an electronic (virtual) community
  • Data sources and people are latency tolerant
  • Multiple supercomputers (or clusters) on same
    Grid as in TeraGrid/ETF largely for sharing of
    data and by people
  • Grids are supported by Global Grid Forum, W3C,
    OASIS setting standards
  • Grids are a service oriented architecture
    hiding irrelevant details
  • Services are electronic resources communicating
    by messages
  • Message based architecture gives scalable loosely
    coupled component model

A typical Web Service
  • In principle, services can be in any language
    (Fortran .. Java .. Perl .. Python) and the
    interfaces can be method calls, Java RMI
    Messages, CGI Web invocations, totally compiled
    away (inlining)
  • The simplest implementations involve XML messages
    (SOAP) and programs written in net friendly
    languages like Java and Python

Payment Credit Card
Web Services
WSDL interfaces
Warehouse Shipping control
WSDL interfaces
Web Services
Typical Grid Architecture
User Services
Portal Services
Application Service Libraries
Application Customization
Application Service
Application Service
System Services
System Services
System Services
Core Grid
Raw (HPC) Resources
What does Community Grids Lab do?
  • New curricula for Grids (next semester) taught
    using Grid technology
  • Underlying Grid messaging technology supporting
    reliable communication
  • Grid Portals built with re-usable components
  • Application Grids for Earth Science/Biocomplexity/
    supercomputer users
  • Integration of handheld devices with the Grid
  • Audio-video conferencing and collaboration with a
    Grid architecture
  • Multimedia on the Grid http//www.undergroundfilm

Why Grids for Education
  • Education is a classic distributed organization
  • New multi-disciplinary curricula in emerging
    fields (information technology, informatics,
    biocomplexity, nanotechnology) require
    distributed experts interacting with mentors and
  • Grids support component model for content
    allowing re-use of research services in education
  • Education fits the service model for both
    process and Curriculum
  • Education wants rich integration of data sources
    and people and some computing Grids can do this
  • Grids democratize resources as enable universal
    (ubiqitous) access
  • In terms of geographic distribution, level (K-12
    through lifelong learning) and disparate clients
  • Grids support the Internet generation
  • WebCT, Blackboard, Placeware, WebEx, Groove,
    Learning Management systems all have natural Grid

SERVOGrid for Education Content
Streaming Data
Field Trip Data
Repositories Federated Databases
Sharing Grid Services
Analysis and Visualization
Discovery Services
Loosely Coupled Filters
Coarse grain simulations
Grid Learning Model
  • Education and Research Grids share some services
    both for content and process
  • For example collaboration services are largely
  • Research will use much larger simulation engines
    to get high resolution results
  • Maybe a researcher uses a CAVE to visualize
    education a Macintosh
  • But both can share data services but run through
    different filters to select for precision
    (research) or pedagogical value (education)
  • Education has digital textbook frontend to
    resources of the research Grid
  • Both use same workflow technologies to link
    services together

Grid Services for the Education Process
  • Learning Object XML standards already exist
  • Registration
  • Performance (grading)
  • Authoring of Curriculum
  • Online laboratories for real and virtual
  • Homework submission
  • Quizzes of various types (multiple choice, random
  • Assessment data access and analysis
  • Synchronous Delivery of Curricula including
    Audio/Video Conferencing and other synchronous
    collaborative tools as Web Services
  • Scheduling of courses and mentoring sessions
  • Asynchronous access, data-mining and knowledge
  • Learning Plan agents to guide students and

Implementing Grids for Education I
  • Need to design a service architecture for
  • Build on services from broader fields
  • Need some specific EducationML specifying
    services and properties
  • Note IMS (http// and ADL
    have a lot of education property metadata but no
  • Need more use of standards outside education but
    much of IMS can be used
  • Use services where-ever possible but only if

Implementing Grids for Education II
  • Build a Education Grid prototype addressing
    content and process
  • Focus education grid on a curriculum area (using
    Grids!) such as Geoscience or even
    e-Science/Information Technology/Science
  • Re-use Grid services in systems area (portals,
    security, collaboration ..) and from application
  • What research Grid services can be re-used what
    need to be significantly changed or customized
  • Develop some Education process services
  • Supply leadership in use of CyberInfrastructure/Gr
    ids in education
  • Feed Education needs to CyberInfrastructure and
  • Perform a requirement analysis analogous to Gap
    Analysis http//
  • Develop curriculum in Grids, e-Science and

  • Grids/CyberInfrastructures are inevitable and
  • Education can benefit from Grids and vice-versa
  • Can expect Web Services, P2P networks and Grids
    to merge with a common set of general principles
    but different implementations with different
    scaling and functionality trade-offs
  • We will be flooded with data, information and
    purported knowledge
  • One should be preparing Grid strategies
    understanding relevant Web and Grid standards and
    developing new domain specific standards
  • Note many existing (standards) efforts assume
    client-server and not a brokered service model
    these will need to change!
  • Enough is known that one can start today with

  • The following additional points were made in
  • Connect to Citizen Science as at
    http// and projects like SETI_at_Home
  • Role of Science museums on a Grid
  • Role of Grid services to provide knowledge
    transformations for education or research
  • Use resources-on-demand and so knowledge
    broadly available if resources supplied as a
    national facility
  • Does Grid technology enhance or mitigate the
    digital divide
  • Need to explain role of teachers in an Education
    Grid and train them to take it
  • Explain difference between Internet and the Grid
  • Describe role of Access Grid type technology
  • Some new textbooks have embedded URLs