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Title: A Graphic Overview Enhancing School Improvement: Addressing Barriers to Learning and Re-engaging Students


1
A Graphic OverviewEnhancing School
ImprovementAddressing Barriers to Learning and
Re-engaging Students
2
  • We just missed the school bus.
  • \ Dont worry. I heard the
    principal say
  • \ no child will be left
    behind.
  • /

3
  • About this Resource
  • This is part of a set of 7 power point sessions.
    For each session, there are also a package of
    handouts (online in PDF) that cover the material.
    Many of these handouts provide additional details
    on a given topic.

4
  • Feel free to use the power point slides and the
    handouts as is or by adapting them to advance
    efforts to develop a comprehensive system of
    learning supports.

5
Session Topics
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
    Imperative
  • for School Improvement?
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • An intervention perspective
  • III. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • An infrastructure perspective

6
Session Topics
  • IV. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • A policy perspective
  • V. Whats Involved in Getting from Here to There?
  • VI. Engaging and Re-engaging Students with an
    Emphasis on Intrinsic Motivation
  • VII. Concluding Comments

7
Session I
  • Why is a System of
  • Learning Supports Imperative for
  • School Improvement?

8
  • Topics Covered
  • gtSome Major Concerns
  • gtLenses for viewing school improvement efforts
  • gtSchool improvement planning
  • Whats being done whats missing?

9
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement?
  • Some Major Concerns

10
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • The current focus of school improvement policy
    and practice is too limited to ensure that all
    students have an equal opportunity to succeed at
    school.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

11
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates

12
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

13
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap

14
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as

15
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

16
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated asLow Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

17
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as
  • Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students
  • Plateau Effect

18
  • Some of the data
  • The dropout rate for our nation remains
    unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust
    reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth
    grade population will not end up graduating from
    high school.

19
  • Some of the data
  • Students are not the only ones dropping out of
    school. We are losing teachers at a rate of
    almost 1,000 a day. As the Alliance for
    Excellence in Education noted in 2005, many are
    not retiring they are just leaving the
    profession.

20
  • Some of the data
  • Student achievement in core academic subjects, as
    reported in 2007 by the National Center for
    Education Statistics, shows far too many students
    are performing poorly.

21
  • Some of the data
  • Take reading levels as an example.
  • Despite reports of small recent gains, most
    American students, across grade levels, are
    reading at the most basic levels and only about
    30 percent of high school students read
    proficiently and more than a quarter read below
    grade level.

22
  • Some of the data
  • Other relevant data form the National Center for
    Education Statistics (NCES) indicate that
  • gtthe primary home language of almost 11 million
    children is not English
  • gt10 percent of public school students in
    kindergarten through grade 12 had been retained
    (i.e., repeated a grade since starting school),
  • gt11 percent had been suspended and 2 percent had
    been expelled (i.e., permanently removed from
    school with no services)

23
  • Some of the data
  • The NCES joins others is stressing that research
    suggests that growing up in poverty can
    negatively impact childrens mental and
    behavioral development as well as their overall
    health, making it more difficult for them to
    learn.

24
  • Some of the data
  • While it is a widely held belief that education
    should be a great equalizer, the U.S. Department
    of Education recognizes that, in large portion,
    children living in poverty attend schools that,
    at best, have marginal performance records.

25
  • Data from the National Assessment of Education
    Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect
  • related to academic achievement.

26
The Nations Report Card National Center for Education Statistics
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
9-year-old students
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
13-year-old students
See key on next slide
27
The Nations Report Card National Center for Education Statistics
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
17-year-old students
Significantly different (p lt .05) from 2008.
Note The long-term trend assessment was updated
in several ways in 2004. Outdated material was
replaced, accommodations for students with
disabilities (SD) and for English language
learners (ELL) were allowed, and administration
procedures were modified. A special bridge study
was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the effects of
these changes on the trend lines. The study
involved administering both the original and
revised formats of the assessments to determine
how the revisions may have affected the results.
28
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement?
  • Three Lenses for Viewing
  • School Improvement Efforts

29
Lens 1 All Students
  • Range of Learners
  • I Motivationally ready and able
  • II Not very motivated/lacking prerequisite
    skills/
  • different rates styles/minor
    vulnerabilities
  • III Avoidant/very deficient in current
    capabilities
  • has a disability and/or major health
    problems

30
  • Not some --
  • ALL youngsters
  • are to have an equal
  • opportunity to succeed at school

31
Lens 2 Barriers to Learning
  • Categories of Risk-Producing Conditions
  • that Can be Barriers to Learning
  • gtEnvironmental Conditions
  • gtFamily
  • gtSchool and Peers
  • gtIndividual

32
Examples of Environmental Conditions
  • extreme economic deprivation
  • community disorganization, including high levels
    of mobility
  • violence, drugs, etc.
  • minority and/or immigrant status

33
Examples of Family Conditions
  • chronic poverty
  • conflict/disruptions/violence
  • substance abuse
  • models problem behavior
  • abusive caretaking
  • inadequate provision for quality child care

34
Examples of School Peer Conditions
  • poor quality school
  • negative encounters with teachers
  • negative encounters with peers
  • inappropriate peer models

35
Examples of Individual Conditions
  • medical problems
  • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay
  • psychophysiological problems
  • difficult temperament adjustment problems
  • inadequate nutrition

36
Barriers to Learning and School Improvement
Range of Learners
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
37
Barriers to Learning and School Improvement
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
(High Standards)
38
Barriers to Learning and School Improvement
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
39
  • Caution Dont misinterpret the term
  • gtBarriers to learning
  • It encompasses much more than a deficit model of
    students.

40
  • And, it is part of a holistic approach that
    emphasizes the importance of
  • gtProtective Buffers
  • (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency,
    accommodations)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

41
Lens 3 Engagement Disengagement
Source of Motivation
Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/

Extrinsics Engagement Intervention Concerns D
isengagement (psychological reactance)
42
Engaging Re-engaging Students in Classroom
Learning
How are schools gtmaximizing Intrinsic
Motivation? gtminimizing Behavior Control
Strategies?
43
Motivation, and especially Intrinsic Motivation
are fundamental intervention considerations
related to student (and staff) problems
44
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement?
  • School Improvement Planning
  • Whats Being Done
  • Whats Missing?

45
With all the budget problems, We have to do
everything on a shoestring. \ \ Are
you saying you \ still have a
shoestring? /
46
School Improvement Planning Whats Missing?
47
School Improvement Planning
  • Missing A Comprehensive Focus on
  • Addressing Barriers to Learning Teaching
  • Re-engaging Disengaged Students in Classroom
    Learning

48
  • This becomes evident when we ask
  • What do schools currently do to
  • (1) address barriers to learning
  • and teaching
  • and

49
  • This becomes evident when we ask
  • What do schools currently do to
  • (1) address barriers to learning
  • and teaching
  • and
  • (2) re-engage students in
  • classroom instruction?

50
How is the district/school addressing barriers to
learning?
Psychological Testing
Clinic
After-School Programs
HIV/Aids Prevention
Pupil Services
Health Services
Violence Crime Prevention
Physical Education
Special Education
Health Education
Nutrition Education
Juvenile Court Services
District
School Lunch Program
Community-Based Organizations
Drug Prevention
Counseling
Mental Health Services
Drug Services
Social Services
Pregnancy Prevention
Codes of Discipline
Smoking Cessation For Staff
HIV/AIDS Services
Child Protective Services
  • Talk about fragmented!!!

51
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
52
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization

53
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation

54
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation
  • Poor Cost-Effectiveness (up to 25 of a school
    budget used in too limited and often redundant
    ways)

55
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation
  • Poor Cost-Effectiveness (up to 25 of a school
    budget used in too limited and often redundant
    ways)
  • Counterproductive Competition for Sparse
    Resources (among school support staff and with
    community-based professionals who link with
    schools)

56
  • Whats the
  • community doing?

57
  • AGENCY REFORM
  • Restructuring and Reforming
  • Community Health and Human Services

58
  • The intent of current agency reform policy
  • gtend fragmentation
  • gtenhance access to clientele
  • The focus
  • gtinteragency collaboration
  • gtschool-linked services, sometimes
  • based (co-located) at a school

59
  • Problems
  • gtdoesnt integrate with schools efforts to
  • address barriers to learning
  • gtlimits the focus to current agency work
  • As a result, current agency policy produces
  • gtan additional form of fragmentation
  • gtcounterproductive competition
  • gtgreater marginalization

60
  • It is important to remember that
  • Community Agency Reform
  • is not the same thing as
  • Strengthening Communities

61
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.

62
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.

63
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.
  • Schools have been included since they offer
    better access to agency clients. Thus, the
    concept of school linked services, and the idea
    of community agencies co-locating services on a
    school site.

64
  • Because the focus is on services,
  • little attention is paid to
  • integrating community resources with
  • existing school programs and services
  • designed to address barriers to learning
  • including a full range of community resources
  • strengthening families and neighborhoods
  • by improving economic status and
  • enhancing other fundamental supports.

65
From Kretzmann McKnight
Day care Center
Police
Faith-based Institutions
Banks
Higher Education Institutions
Senior Citizens
Local Residents
School
Library
Businesses
Artist Cultural Institutions
Restaurants
Media
Health Social Services Agencies
Community Based Orgs. Civic Assn.
66
  • To Recap
  • School improvement policy and planning have not
    addressed barriers to development, learning, and
    teaching as a primary and essential component of
    what must be done if schools are to minimize
    behavior problems, close the achievement gap, and
    reduce the rate of dropouts

67
  • To Recap
  • As a result, current efforts are
  • marginalized, fragmented, often
  • redundant and off track, and
  • they have resulted in
  • counterproductive competition
  • for sparse resources

68
  • To Recap
  • The need is for a comprehensive system of
    learning supports that
  • (1) addresses barriers to development,
  • learning, and teaching
  • (2) (re-)engages students in
  • classroom learning

69
  • Study Question
  • What are the many external and internal barriers
    that interfere with students learning and
    teachers teaching and how does all this affect
    the school?

70
  • Study Question
  • What is currently being done to
  • address barriers to learning and
  • teaching and what is keeping the
  • work from being as effective as
  • needed?

71
  • Study Question
  • How would you change school
  • improvement planning to ensure a
  • comprehensive system of learning
  • supports is developed to more
  • effectively address barriers to
  • development, learning, and teaching
  • and also (re-)engage students in
  • classroom learning?

72
Some Relevant References Resources
  • gtSchool Improvement Planning What's Missing?
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/whatsmissing.htm
  • gtAddressing What's Missing in School Improvement
    Planning
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/enabling/stand
    ards.pdf
  • gtThe School Leader's Guide to Student Learning
    Supports New Directions for Addressing Barriers
    to Learning http//www.corwinpress.com/book.as
    px?pid11343

73
  • Next
  • We turn to four fundamental, interrelated
    concerns involved in moving forward to develop
  • A Comprehensive
  • System of Learning Supports

74
  • Four Fundamental and Interrelated Concerns

Policy Revision
Framing Interventions to Address Barriers to
Learning and Teaching into a Comprehensive
System of Interventions
Rethinking Organizational and Operational
Infrastructure
Developing Systemic Change Mechanisms for
Effective Implementation, Sustainability, and
Replication to Scale
75
  • In Session II, we begin with the concern for
    framing
  • interventions to address
  • barriers to learning and
  • teaching as a comprehensive
  • system of interventions

76
A Graphic OverviewEnhancing School
ImprovementAddressing Barriers to Learning and
Re-engaging Students
77
  • About this Resource
  • This is part of a set of 7 power point sessions.
    For each session, there are also a package of
    handouts (online in PDF) that cover the material.
    Many of these handouts provide additional details
    on a given topic.

78
  • Feel free to use the power point slides and the
    handouts as is or by adapting them to advance
    efforts to develop a comprehensive system of
    learning supports.

79
Session Topics
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
    Imperative
  • for School Improvement?
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • An intervention perspective
  • III. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • An infrastructure perspective

80
Session Topics
  • IV. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • A policy perspective
  • V. Whats Involved in Getting from Here to There?
  • VI. Engaging and Re-engaging Students with an
    Emphasis on Intrinsic Motivation
  • VII. Concluding Comments

81
  • Session II
  • What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • An intervention perspective

82
  • Topics Covered
  • A Sequential Approach
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
    Supports
  • Major Examples of Intervention Activity in
    Content Arenas
  • Combined Continuum and Content Arenas

83
Meeting the needs of all students requires
gtpromoting assets gtpreventing problems
gtdealing with problems And doing so in
keeping with the principle of providing what is
needed in the least disruptive and restrictive
manner
84
  • This translates into a sequential
  • approach that at its foundation
  • involves enhancing the focus on
  • promoting healthy development
  • and preventing problems.

85
Promoting learning
Healthy Development plus Prevention of
Problems (System of Prevention)
as necessary
Intervening as early after onset of problems as
is feasible (System of Early Intervention)
as necessary
Specialized assistance for those with
severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of
Care)
86
  • Defining learning supports
  • To accomplish the essential public education goal
    of enabling all students to have an equal
    opportunity for success at school, research
    indicates the need for developing a
    comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive system
    of learning supports.
  • Learning supports are the resources, strategies,
    and practices that provide physical, social,
    emotional, and intellectual supports to directly
    address barriers to learning and teaching and
    re-engage disconnected students.
  • A comprehensive system of learning supports
    provides supportive interventions in classrooms
    and schoolwide and is fully integrated with
    efforts to improve instruction and management at
    a school.

87

Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports to Address Barriers to Learning
88
Intervention Continuum Content

89
Continuum -- Interconnected Systems for
Meeting the Needs of All Students One key Facet
of a Learning Supports Component
School Resources (facilities, stakeholders,
programs, services)
Community Resources (facilities,
stakeholders, programs, services)
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems primary prevention
includes universal interventions (low end
need/low cost per individual programs)
Systems of Early Intervention early-after-onset
includes selective indicated
interventions (moderate need, moderate cost per
individual)
Systems of Care treatment/indicated
interventions for severe and chronic
problems (High end need/high cost per individual
programs)
90
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
91
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
92
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
93
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transitions
94
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Home involvement Engagement In Schooling
95
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
96
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
97
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Infrastructure gtleadership gtresource-
oriented mechanisms
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
98
Major Examples of Activity inEach of the Six
Basic Content Arenas
99
  • Classroom-Based Enabling
  • Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning
  • FOCUS
  • Classroom based efforts to enable learning
  • Prevent problems intervene as soon as problems
    appear
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged
    from classroom learning

100
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports

101
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals
102
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development
103
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs
104
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs Classroom and
school-wide approaches used to create and
maintain a caring and supportive climate
105
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
FOCUS School-wide and classroom-based efforts
for gtresponding to crises gtminimizing the
impact of crises gtpreventing crises
106
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring immediate
assistance in emergencies so students can
resume learning
107
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring immediate
assistance in emergencies so students can
resume learning Providing Follow up care as
necessary
108
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs
109
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs Mobilizing staff,
students, and families to anticipate response
plans and recovery efforts
110
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs Mobilizing staff,
students, and families to anticipate response
plans and recovery efforts Creating a caring
and safe learning environment
111
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning
Providing Follow up care as necessary
Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to
formulate a response plan and take leadership
for developing prevention programs
Mobilizing staff, students, and families
to anticipate response plans and recovery
efforts Creating a caring and
safe learning environment Working
with neighborhood schools and community to
integrate planning for response and
prevention
112
Support for Transitions FOCUS School-wide
and classroom-based efforts to gtenhance
acceptance and successful transitions gtprevent
transition problems gtuse transition periods to
reduce alienation gtuse transition periods to
increase positive attitudes/motivation toward
school and learning
113
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers
114
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch)
115
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs
116
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs
117
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education
118
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education Broad involvement of stakeholders in
planning for transitions
119
Home Involvement in Schooling FOCUS
School-wide classroom-based efforts to engage
the home in gtstrengthening the home
situation gtenhancing problem solving
capabilities gtsupporting student development and
learning gtstrengthening school and community
120
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family
121
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home
122
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making
123
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development
124
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development Recruiting families
to strengthen school and community
125
Community Outreach for Involvement and
Support (including Volunteers) FOCUS
Building linkages and collaborations to
strengthen students, schools, families, and
neighborhoods
126
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources
127
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement
128
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts
129
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts Connecting School and Community
Efforts to Promote Child and Youth
Development and a Sense of Community
130
Student and Family Assistance
FOCUS Specialized assistance provided
through personalized health and social service
programs
131
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways
132
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems
133
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
134
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective
135
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness
136
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness Enhancing stakeholder
awareness of programs and services
137
For more specific examples and mapping and
analysis self study surveys for each arena, see
the Centers online resource aid Guide to
resource mapping and management to address
barriers to learning An intervention for
systemic change
138
  • Combined Continuum and
    Content Arenas
  • Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy
Development
Preventing Problems
Systems for Early Intervention (Early after
problem onset
Systems of Care
Classroom-Focused Enabling
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for transitions
Content Arenas
Home Involvement in Schooling
Community Outreach/ Volunteers
Student Family Assistance
139
System of Learning Supports is Designed to
Produce a Declining Proportion of Students
Needing Special Assistance
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems
Levels
Systems for Early Intervention (early-after proble
m onset)
(a)
Systems of Care
(b)
Intervention Content Arenas
(c)
(d)
(e)
Specialized Assistance other intensive
interventions
(f)
Accommodations for differences disabilities
(a) Classroom-focused enabling (b) Support
for transitions (c) Home involvement in
schooling (d) Community outreach/volunteers (e)
Crisis/ emergency assistance and prevention
(f) Student and family assistance
140
To Recap
School improvement planning for developing a
comprehensive system of learning supports to
address barriers to learning and teaching
requires (1) adoption of a umbrella framework
that can unify current efforts (2)
expansion of the framework for school
accountability to account for efforts to
enhance social and personal functioning
and address barriers to learning and teaching
141
To Recap
A comprehensive framework to guide development of
an enabling/learning supports component combines
a continuum of intervention with a discrete set
of content arenas. The resulting matrix provides
a mapping tool and a planning guide for
developing a comprehensive set of learning
supports.
142
Study Questions
gtWhat constitutes a full continuum of
interventions in providing learning supports?
gtWhy dont most schools strive to develop a
comprehensive system of learning supports?
143
Activity Looking at the schools you know
How close are they to having a comprehensive
system of learning supports? To answer this,
see the tool for mapping analyzing Learning
Supports Online at http//smhp.psych.ucla
.edu/summit2002/ tool20mapping20current20st
atus.pdf
144
Some Relevant References Resources
  • gtFrameworks for Systemic Transformation of
    Student and Learning Supports
    http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/systemic/framew
    orksforsystemictransformation.pdf
  • gtThe School Leader's Guide to Student Learning
    Supports New Directions for Addressing Barriers
    to Learning http//www.corwinpress.com/book.as
    px?pid11343

145
Next An overview of operational
infrastructure considerations
146
Summing up . . . Toward a Comprehensive,
Multifaceted, Cohesive Approach for Addressing
Barriers to Learning It requires working to
restructure, transform, enhance, and connect
school-owned programs
and services and community resources
147
In doing so, the emphasis needs to be on
all relevant school resources (e.g.,
compensatory education, special education,
general funds, community resources)
all relevant community resources (e.g.,
public and private agencies, families,
businesses services, programs, facilities,
volunteers, professionals-in-training)

148
weaving resources together in ways
that evolve a comprehensive, integrated
approach that can enhance effectiveness in
addressing barriers to learning at a school
enhancing the role schools play in
strengthening students, families, schools,
neighborhoods
149
NOW IT IS TIME TO Expand School Improvement
Guidance Planning Be a Catalyst for Systemic
Change All school improvement planning
provides ample opportunity to expand school
improvement guidance and planning to develop a
comprehensive system of learning supports
150
We can help ... and we want to ... and there
are no fees! Access the Center website at
http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/ Contact Linda
Taylor Ltaylor_at_ucla.edu Howard Adelman
adelman_at_psych.ucla.edu
151
What the best and wisest parent wants for his
or her own child, that must the community want
for all of its children. Any other ideal for our
schools is narrow and unlovely acted upon, it
destroys our democracy. John Dewey
152
  • Never doubt that a small group
  • of thoughtful, committed people
  • can change the world.
  • Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.
  • Margaret Mead
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