Changes in River - Land Uses and Management: Implications for Salmonid Habitat Restoration in the Cedar River, Washington Robert Wissmar and Ray Timm University of Washington - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Changes in River - Land Uses and Management: Implications for Salmonid Habitat Restoration in the Cedar River, Washington Robert Wissmar and Ray Timm University of Washington

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Title: Changes in River - Land Uses and Management: Implications for Salmonid Habitat Restoration in the Cedar River, Washington Robert Wissmar and Ray Timm University of Washington


1
Changes in River - Land Uses and Management
Implications for Salmonid Habitat Restoration in
the Cedar River, WashingtonRobert Wissmar and
Ray TimmUniversity of Washington
  • Goal Develop societal-ecological approaches
    that can be applied to restoration initiatives
    and management policies at different landscape
    scales

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3
Restoration Studies of the Cedar River
  • Part I Changes in Developed Land Cover
    1991-1998, Wissmar et al. (2000)
  • Changes in Developed Land Cover, Wissmar et al.
    (2000)
  • Impervious Land Cover Assessment, Logsdon et al.
    (In review)
  • Changes in Tributary Hydrology, Wissmar et al.
    (In prep.)
  • Part II Land Use Influences on Floodplains
    Implications for Habitat Restoration and
    Protection
  • Habitat Prioritization, Timm et al. (In review)
  • Protection of Riparian Habitats in Erosion-prone
    Landscapes, Wissmar et al. (In prep)
  • Part III Habitat Selection by Salmonids, Hall et
    al. (2000, 2002)
  • Implications for Habitat Restoration
  • Part IV Disturbance Regimes, Habitat
    Interactions and Restoration Across Riverine
    Landscapes, Timm, Ph.D. Diss. (In prep)

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PART I Basinwide AnalysisLand Cover Changes
1991 - 1998
  • What is the change in developed land cover?
  • Identified major locations of changes in
    developed land cover
  • Changes in developed land cover layer indicates
    increases in impervious areas

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PART I Basinwide AnalysisLand Cover
Changes 1991 - 1998
  • Why do we have patterns of change in human
    development?
  • Urban areas (Downstream region)
  • Widening of major highway on floodplains
  • Conversion of isolated forest areas by infill
    development
  • Rural - urbanizing areas (Upstream region -
    newly incorporated)
  • Dispersed conversion
  • Aggregation
  • Edge expansion

9
Assessing land-hydrologic changes in Cedar River
tributaries
  • Develop land covers for evaluating landscape
    changes
  • Changes in developed areas
  • Analyze the extent of impervious (NDVI)
  • Quantify changes in developed land cover between
    1991 and 1998 that could influence the
    hydrological processes of watersheds, riparian
    and aquatic habitats
  • Use coverages in a fine-resolution spatial
    hydrological model adapted from Wigmosta, et al.
    (1994) to assess the impact of land-use change on
    stream discharge for 1991, 1998, and historical
    landscapes
  • Use above information and DHSVM to simulate
    flooding of lowland areas within different
    tributary watersheds.
  • Compare simulations for 1991, 1998, and
    historical landscapes

10
Maplewood Creek Hydrologic Changes
  • Impact of landcover changes on discharge was
    evident in comparisons of changes in the percent
    differences (? ) in annual peak flow for various
    recurrence intervals (years).
  • Years Hist. 1991 1998 91-98 Hist-91 Hist-98
  • ----------Discharge (cfs)-------------- --------
    -------- ( ?)------------------
  • 20 46 70 75 7 52 63
  • 60 74 108 120 11 46 62
  • 100 78 117 130 11 50 67
  • Between 1991 and 1998, changes in annual peak
    flow were 7, 11, and 11, at the 20, 60 and 100
    year recurrence intervals, respectively.
  • Much greater differences in discharge rates were
    evident between historical conditions and the
    developed 1998 landscape. The annual peak flow
    ranged between 62 and 67 for the same return
    intervals.
  • Similar changes were evident for differences
    between historical and 1991 conditions (46 to
    52).

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PART II River Restoration and Protection
Analysis
  • Spatial distributions of ecologically functional
    and human-influence zones along rivers, Timm et
    al. (In review)
  • How are ecologically functional habitats and
    anthropogenically altered areas influencing
    riverine habitats within the floodplain?
  • Can co-occurring, ecologically functional and
    anthro-pogenic landcovers be used to identify
    opportunities for habitat restoration within the
    floodplain?
  • Land-use practices and erosion risk potential,
    Wissmar et al. (In prep.)
  • Risks created by human land and water use
    practices within naturally unstable areas lead to
    cumulative impacts on ecosystem functions
  • Risk assessments facilitate planning and
    implementation

13
Lower Cedar Basin Restoration Potential
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
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Protection of Riparian Habitats in Erosion-prone
Landscapes
  • Objectives
  • Determine erosion risk scores that indicate the
    absence and presence of different factors
    contributing to erosion hazards
  • Assess the spatial distribution of erosion risks
    in watersheds
  • Identify variable riparian buffer widths assigned
    to erosion risk scores

17
FACTORS PRESENT
FACTORS ABSENT
1
2
Rain on Snow elevations

Unstable soils

Immature forest stands

Roaded areas

Critical slopes
EROSION RISK SCORE
18
Riparian Buffers
19
Part III Salmon Habitat Selection
  • Habitat Selection by Salmonids, Hall et al.
    (2000, 2002)
  • What habitat factors do spawning salmon prefer?
  • What habitat factors do juvenile salmon prefer?
  • Implications for Habitat Restoration
  • What is the predicted fish response to
    restoration/ mitigation prescriptions?
  • Can we incorporate this into restoration plans?

20
Spawning Objectives
  • Identify important habitat variables
  • Measure habitat selection
  • Explore role of density on habitat selection

21
Adult fish picture
22
Habitat Electivity Indices (D)D r-p/(rp) 2rp
23
Spawning Conclusions
W79 Wetland 79, CAV Cavanaugh Pond
24
Juvenile Sockeye SalmonObjectives
  • Determine selected ranges of habitat factors
    considering day-night and seasonal differences
  • Examine how fish size and fish density affects
    habitat use
  • Investigate overlap with potential predators
  • Identify extent of use in the newly constructed
    habitat at Wetland 79

25
Juvenile fish picture
26
Juvenile Conclusions
  • Juvenile habitat use appeared to be driven by the
    threat of predation.
  • -moved to deeper areas to avoid predation from
    birds
  • -formed larger schools as protection from
    aquatic predators
  • -majority of fish used cover
  • -preferred complex woody debris
  • Fish appeared to avoid warmer temperatures and
    low dissolved oxygen levels, however, it remains
    uncertain how these factors may limit habitat
    use.
  • Sockeye did not select for other habitat factors.

27
Part IV Disturbance, Habitat Protection and
Restoration
  • Disturbance Regimes, Habitat Interactions and
    Restoration Across Riverine Landscapes, Timm,
    Ph.D. Dissertation (In prep)
  • Evaluating how ecologically functional and
    anthropogencially developed areas influence
    riverine/ floodplain habitats
  • Spatially modeling interactions between channel
    hydraulics and local floodplain hydrology
  • Testing procedures to identify opportunities for
    habitat restoration within the basin

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Acknowledgements
  • U.S. EPA Grant R827149-01-0
  • PRISM
  • King County
  • City of Renton
  • City of Seattle
  • U.S. Forest Service
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  • Washington Dept. of Fish Wildlife
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