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USING LAYOUT TOOLS

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http://www.rickyspears.com/rulergame/ http://www.funbrain.com/measure/index.html ... visualfractions.com/LowestCircle.html. http://www.learningplanet.com/sam/ff ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: USING LAYOUT TOOLS


1
USING LAYOUT TOOLS
  • 8th Grade Shop Skills
  • Sweet Springs R-7

2
System of Measurement
  • English standard measurement in the United
    States, now called U.S. Customary System
  • Uses, inch, foot, yard, rod and mile as units
  • 12 inches in a foot
  • 3 feet in a yard
  • 16 ½ feet in a rod
  • 5,280 foot in a mile

3
System of Measurement
  • Metric System used for scientific work in the
    United States
  • Measurements are based on the meter
  • 1 Meter 100 centimeters (cm)
  • 1 Meter 1,000 millimeters (mm)
  • 1000 Meters a Kilometer (km)
  • Units are in multiples of 10

4
Inch as a Unit of Measurement
  • Traditional unit for woodworking and metalworking
  • Some fine rules or scales have 32 marks per inch.
  • Most rules have 16 marks per inch with each mark
    equaling 1/16 of an inch.

5
(No Transcript)
6
How To Read a Ruler
  • Identify how many marks there are to an inch.
  • Measure item and count how many marks past a
    whole number.
  • Reduce to least common denominator

7
Reading a Ruler
  • How many marks are there to an inch on this
    ruler?
  • 16

8
Reading a Ruler
  • Locate the marks for 1, 2, 3 and 4
  • Inch marks are the longest, usually the number is
    located under or to one side of the line.

9
Reading a Ruler
  • Look at the lengths of the lines to determine
    measurement.
  • The longest line is for a whole number 1
  • Next longest line is for 1 /2
  • Next longest line is for 1 / 4 and 3 / 4
  • Next longest line is for 1 / 8, 3 / 8, 5 / 8 and
    7 / 8
  • Remaining lines are 1/16, 3/16, 5/16, 7/16, 9/19,
    11/16, 13/16, 15/16

10
Make Your Own Ruler
  • On the strip of paper given to you, write 0 on
    one end and 1 on the other.
  • Fold in half and draw line on the crease, write 1
    / 2 at the crease.
  • Fold in half again. The creases created are 1 /
    4 and 3 /4
  • Fold in half again to get 1, 3, 5, 7 /8th
  • Fold in half again to get 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,
    16ths

11
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter A represents what measurement?
  • 1

12
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter B represents what measurement?
  • 1 7/16

13
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter C represents what measurement?
  • 1 14/16 or 1 7/8

14
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter D represents what measurement?
  • 2 11/16

15
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter E represents what measurement?
  • 3 1/16

16
Reading A Ruler
  • The Letter F represents what measurement?
  • 3 5/16

17
ONLINE PRACTICE
  • http//www.rickyspears.com/rulergame/
  • http//www.funbrain.com/measure/index.html

18
Working With Fractions
  • What is a fraction?
  • It is a portion of a whole
  • They have a numerator (Top Number)
  • And a denominator (Bottom Number)
  • 1 / 2 would mean 1 part of 2

19
Working With Fractions Online
  • http//www.visualfractions.com/EnterFraction.html

20
Adding Fractions
  • With common (same) denominators
  • Add nominator
  • Denominators stay the same
  • ¼ ¾ 4/4
  • 3/8 5/8 8/8
  • 3/16 7/16 10/16

21
Adding Common Denominators
  • 1 / 4 1 / 4
  • 2 / 4
  • 3 / 4 3 / 4
  • 6 / 4
  • 1 / 8 3 / 8
  • 4 / 8
  • 5 / 8 7 / 8
  • 12 / 8
  • 1 / 8 5 / 8
  • 6 / 8
  • 3 / 16 3 / 16
  • 6 / 16
  • 1 / 16 5 / 16
  • 6 / 16
  • 7 / 16 5 / 16
  • 12 / 16

22
Adding Fractions Online
  • Add Fractions With Like Denominators using Circles

23
Adding Fractions
  • With uncommon (different) denominators
  • One or both fractions will need to changed so
    both will have a common denominator
  • 3/8 3/16
  • First change 3/8 to 6/16 by multiplying both the
    numerator and denominator by 2
  • 6/16 3/16 9/16

24
Adding Uncommon Denominators
  • 1 / 2 1 / 4
  • 3 / 4
  • 1 / 2 1 / 8
  • 5 / 8
  • 1 / 2 1 / 16
  • 9 / 16
  • 1 / 4 1 / 8
  • 3 / 8
  • 1 / 4 1 / 16
  • 5 / 16
  • 1 / 8 1 / 16
  • 3 / 16
  • 3 / 16 1 / 2
  • 11 / 16
  • 5 / 16 3 / 8
  • 11 / 16

25
Adding Uncommon Denominators
  • http//www.visualfractions.com/AddUnlikeCircle.htm
    l

26
Reducing Fractions
  • Reduce fractions to their least common
    denominator.
  • Divide the numerator and denominator by the same
    number so both are whole numbers.
  • 4 / 8 1 / 2 (both 4 8 can be divide by 2)
  • 5 / 8 5 / 8 (cannot be divide and remain a
    whole number)

27
Reducing Fractions
  • 10 / 16
  • 5 / 8
  • 12 / 16
  • 6 / 8
  • 3 / 4
  • 14 / 16
  • 7 / 8
  • 16 / 16
  • 1
  • 2 / 16
  • 1 / 8
  • 4 / 16
  • 2 / 8
  • 1 / 4
  • 6 / 16
  • 3 / 8
  • 8 / 16
  • 4 / 8
  • 1 / 2

28
Reducing Fractions
  • http//www.visualfractions.com/LowestCircle.html
  • http//www.learningplanet.com/sam/ff/index.asp

29
Adding Compound
  • 1st Method
  • Convert the whole numbers to fractions and add
    like or common denominators
  • 1 3 / 8 2 5 / 8
  • 11 / 8 21 / 8
  • 32 / 8
  • 4

30
Adding Compound Fractions
  • 2st Method
  • Add the fractions together then add the whole
    numbers to the fraction
  • 1 3 / 8 2 5 / 8
  • 3 / 8 5 / 8
  • 8 / 8
  • 1
  • 1 1 2 4

31
Adding Compound Fractions
  • http//www.visualfractions.com/AddStrictCircle.htm
    l

32
Subtracting Fractions
  • With common (same) denominators
  • Subtract nominator
  • Denominators stay the same
  • 3/4 - 1/4 2/4
  • 5/8 - 3/8 2/8
  • 7/16 - 3/16 4/16

33
Subtracting Common Denominators
  • 1 / 4 - 1 / 4
  • 0 / 4
  • 3 / 4 - 3 / 4
  • 0 / 4
  • 3 / 8 - 1 / 8
  • 2 / 8
  • 7 / 8 - 5 / 8
  • 2 / 8
  • 5 / 8 - 1 / 8
  • 4 / 8
  • 3 / 16 - 3 / 16
  • 0/ 16
  • 5 / 16 -1 / 16
  • 4/ 16
  • 7 / 16 - 5 / 16
  • 2 / 16

34
Subtracting Fractions Online
35
Subtracting Fractions
  • With uncommon (different) denominators
  • One or both fractions will need to changed so
    both will have a common denominator
  • 3/8 - 3/16
  • First change 3/8 to 6/16 by multiplying both the
    numerator and denominator by 2
  • 6/16 - 3/16 3/16

36
Subtracting Uncommon Denominators
  • 1 / 2 - 1 / 4
  • 1 / 4
  • 1 / 2 - 1 / 8
  • 3 / 8
  • 1 / 2 - 1 / 16
  • 7 / 16
  • 1 / 4 - 1 / 8
  • 1 / 8
  • 1 / 4 - 1 / 16
  • 3 / 16
  • 1 / 8 - 1 / 16
  • 1 / 16
  • 1 / 2 - 3 / 16
  • 5 / 16
  • 3 / 8 - 5 / 16
  • 1/ 16

37
Subtracting Uncommon Denominators
38
Subtracting Compound Fractions
  • 1st Method
  • Convert the whole numbers to fractions and
    subtract like or common denominators
  • 2 5 / 8 - 1 3 / 8
  • 21 / 8 - 11 / 8
  • 10 / 8
  • 1 2/8
  • 1 1/4

39
Subtracting Compound Fractions
  • 2st Method
  • Subtract the fractions then subtract the whole
    numbers then add results together
  • 2 5 / 8 - 1 3 / 8
  • 5 / 8 - 3 / 8
  • 2 / 8
  • 2 1 1
  • 1 2 / 8 1 2 / 8 or 1 1/4
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