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Integration of Adult Learning Principles and Pedagogies in Online Learning

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Title: Integration of Adult Learning Principles and Pedagogies in Online Learning


1
Integration of Adult Learning Principles and
Pedagogies in Online Learning
  • Anthony Foster
  • Southern Seminary (PhD Cand)
  • McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions

2
Contact Information
  • This presentation and paper reside at
  • anthonyfoster.com/ALN
  • Anthony Foster
  • McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions
  • Anthony_Foster_at_McGraw-Hill.com
  • For support documentation see paper or
    Support1.ppt

3
The Key Facets
  • Chickering and Gamsons Seven Principles
  • Mezirows Transformative Learning
  • Adult Learning Theory

4
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Frequent student-faculty contact both in and
    outside of class is an important factor in
    student motivation and involvement (Kelly 2004,
    55).
  • Faculty concern helps students get through rough
    times and keep on working (Chickering and Ehrmann
    1996, 3).
  • A major condition of transformative learning is
    the communication accurate and complete
    information (Mezirow 1991, 171).

5
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Ideal learning conditions promote a sense of
    safety, openness and trust (Zepke 2006, 510)
  • It is necessary for teachers to be empathetic and
    caring, authentic, sincere, and demonstrating a
    high degree of integrity. Faculty should be
    willing to self disclose (Taylor 1998, 49).
  • Adults need dialogue and social interaction must
    be provided. They also need for the instructor
    to act as a facilitator (Cercone 2008,156, 159).

6
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Communications technologies such as email, text
    messaging, blogs, chats, social interaction
    sites, voicemail and telephones can increase
    access to faculty.
  • Shy students are liberated to interact more
    freely in this environment.
  • It is often easier to discuss issues involving
    personal opinions and values in a written format
    than in person.

7
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Building a sense of community must be
    intentional from the beginning of a course, and
    the teacher must monitor and support
    participation.
  • Instructors can highlight themes, point out
    connections between ideas and relate discussions
    to a "big picture." This is known as "weaving"
    (Stepich and Ertmer 2003, 41).

8
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Access is a key issue as well, especially for
    students who would traditionally have had to
    commute to be present in a classroom and then hit
    the road after class.
  • Asynchronous communication is a rich alternative
    to the impoverished communication opportunities
    offered in typical traditional learning
    environments.

9
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Instructors should realize that students can
    potentially sign up for online courses without
    the benefit of ever having been advised of how to
    access online courses.
  • You may need to inform them of the requirements.
  • Be sure to give clear instructions for using the
    course, completing exercises, and completing
    assignments.

10
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Create a FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) page
    and make it available in an area where even
    guests can access it.
  • When you receive more than two emails asking for
    the same information/ clarification, add a hint
    or explanation to the FAQ list.
  • Make sure to refer students to the list so that
    they become accustomed to checking it first.

11
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Expect and plan for problems, such as students
    who cannot access their email, students getting
    locked up half-way through a timed on-line quiz,
    etc.
  • Be flexible and have a backup.
  • If you are suspicious of the reported problem,
    most courseware programs include student tracking
    routines that can be used to investigate and
    verify some types of problems.

12
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Also provide your students with basic
    information on how to deal with common problems
    and establish reporting protocols and procedures.

13
Encourage Contact Between Students And Faculty
  • Adults have a pre-existing learning history and
    will need support in the new learner-centered
    paradigm (Cercone 2008, 156).
  • Clear communication attains here as well.
  • The use of questioning techniques that provoke
    critical thinking can help adult students to
    bridge these gaps.

14
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • Tonkin states that compared to traditional
    distance education methods, e-learning can
    provide experiences that are more engaging and
    interactive (Tonkin 2004, 562).
  • We should expect participants to move through
    phases as they develop their working group.
  • Be clear about group tasks and expectations.
  • The clearer that the instructor is about what is
    to be accomplished in the course, the less likely
    that participants will become confused and
    flounder.

15
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • In regard to transformative learning,
    collaborative learning is a key to providing an
    avenue for students to open themselves to
    alternative perspectives.
  • Consensus is built in a corporate, not individual
    context. Taylor found that transformative
    learning is group situated (Taylor 1998, 49).
  • Dialogue as well as dissonance and conflict occur
    socially. The learning environment must be a
    nurturing place. It must be free from coercion
    and self deception.

16
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • The instructor can meet a specific adult learning
    need by designing instruction to scaffold the
    instruction in team environments.
  • The provision of learning resources that includes
    multiple scenarios, events can help students
    develop plans and decisions in collaboration.
  • The provision of orientations, study teams,
    coaching and examples can facilitate this as
    well.

17
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • Developing reciprocity and cooperation among
    students is key.
  • Team learning possibilities are easily maintained
    in an online learning environment, but it must be
    intentional and required on the part of the
    instructor.
  • Online study groups, collaborative learning,
    group projects can be designed as part of the
    learning environment. In fact, ad hoc and
    spontaneous discussion of assignments should be
    encouraged.

18
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • Study Groups-This requires that the instructor
    lay aside fears that students will not be doing
    their own work.
  • Establishing clear evaluation expectations and
    rubrics for insuring critical interaction of all
    students can alleviate those fears.

19
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • Interactivity does not stop at technological
    solutions. Interpersonal interactivity is also
    key.
  • Instructors should promote collaboration, as it
    Assists with deeper levels of knowledge
    generation Promotes initiative, creativity, and
    critical thinking Allows students to create a
    shared goal for learning Forms the foundation of
    a learning community Addresses all learning
    styles and Addresses issues of culture (Palloff
    and Pratt, 2005, 6-7).

20
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • The online teacher can promote collaborative
    learning through small group assignments, case
    studies, simulations, and group discussion of
    readings and assignments.
  • Have students post their assignments and
    encourage feedback to one another on their work.
  • Remember that grades must be shared privately.

21
Create And Encourage Opportunities For
Collaborative Learning Among Students
  • Cercone (2008) adds these suggested activities
  • Allow students to introduce themselves, develop a
    personal web page, and provide an area that
    students can feel free to discuss their
    experiences.
  • Problem-based or case-based learning activities
    that are done in collaborative work groups.
  • Use cooperative and collaborative learning
    structures such as learning partnerships, to
    equalize the power relationships in groups and
    encourage a shared leadership.
  • Encourage shared leadership (Cercone 2008, 159).

22
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Meyers and Jones define active learning as
    learning environments that allow students to
    talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they
    approach course content through problem-solving
    exercises, informal small groups, simulations,
    case studies, role playing, and other activities
    -- all of which require students to apply what
    they are learning (Meyers and Jones 1993, xi).

23
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Learning is participatory by nature. Students
    are rarely motivated by sitting like sponges and
    soaking up information.
  • Good learning requires dialogue and reflection.
  • Faculty should require students to apply their
    learning in articulated forms. If a student
    cannot articulate knowledge, the student does not
    own it for themselves.

24
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • To achieve transformative learning, students must
    be given opportunities to weigh evidence and
    assess arguments, then demonstrate ability to
    reflect upon presuppositions and their
    consequences.
  • The asynchronous environment is a great
    equalizer, as each student has the opportunity to
    weigh in on any discussion, and there is not need
    to compete for a hearing as in the traditional
    classroom, where turns must be taken or other
    limitations attain.

25
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Cercone (2008) provides these active learning
    techniques
  • Encourage learners to identify resources and
    devise strategies for using resources to achieve
    objectives.
  • Encourage learners to formulate their learning
    objectives, giving them more control over their
    learning. It is important for the instructor to
    discover what the participants need or want to
    learn.
  • Provide regular, consistent communication to
    individual learners and groups.

26
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Cercone
  • Teach inquiry skills, decision-making, personal
    development, and self-evaluation of work.
  • Make regular announcements or updates and
    establish regular online office hours.
  • Assure learners that discussion board postings
    are being read.
  • Increase interactions with embedded practice and
    feedback sequences.
  • Embed content in authentic contexts if technology
    allows

27
Encourage Active Learning Techniques -Cercone
  • Require learners to synthesize and problem solve,
    using the information in new ways.
  • Have learners manipulate objects on the screen if
    appropriate.
  • Develop peer-learning groups.
  • Periodically review goals. Have students reflect
    and discuss.
  • Provide students with multiple resources of
    information that include differing viewpoints
    from diverse authors.

28
Encourage Active Learning Techniques -Cercone
  • Acknowledge the accumulated experiences of the
    participants as valuable educational resources.
  • Use learning contracts, group projects, role
    playing, case studies and simulations to enhance
    self-direction.
  • Use hyperlinks to allow students to develop their
    own path. If they know the topic, they can skip
    it.
  • Provide flexibility in assignments that allow
    students to work ahead.
  • Divide learning into small manageable units or
    subunits that can be completed in relatively
    short amounts of time for logical stopping and
    starting points.

29
Encourage Active Learning Techniques -Cercone
  • Allow learner choice of assignments, projects, or
    research topics (consider learning contract).
  • Encourage and reinforce self sufficiency through
    timely feedback.
  • Develop a student portfolio or personal scrapbook
  • Incorporate text signals such as "this is a long
    unit," "this is very important content," "proceed
    to lesson six."

30
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Adults need consideration of their prior
    experience and need to connect new knowledge to
    past events and existing knowledge.
  • Communicating clearly the objectives facilitates
    transformative learning as well.

31
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Do a needs assessment and a student
    self-assessment prior to class starting. Relate
    this information to the class. Recognize the
    value of experience.
  • Include tasks that let the participants use their
    knowledge and experience.
  • Tell why the topic or link is important.
  • Provide practical information with examples.
  • Link new topics to what has been discussed or
    read.
  • Open the class with introductions that include
    personal and professional background. Instructor
    should do the same.
  • Involve learners in diagnosing their own needs
    (Cercone 2008, 157).

32
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Use and present lecture information wisely. An
    online lecture can become just another article
    that students are required to read.
  • We find that video lectures add little value as
    they are not interactivea talking head is just
    that.
  • Active learning activities involve students in
    the learning process they must be intentionally
    based in learning objectives that define the
    learning activities that in turn produce learning
    outcomes (Tonkin 2004, 564-565).

33
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • Adults need to test their learning as they
    proceed. Have them apply concepts to tasks and
    problems and be sure to properly evaluate the
    difficulty level.
  • Adults need to self-reflect on the learning
    process and be given support for transformational
    learning (Cercone 2008, 159).

34
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • To accomplish this self-reflection precept in the
    online classroom, the instructor might
  • Provide a place in the course to discuss the
    process of learning online which may include
    thoughts on how they are managing in the online
    course.
  • Allow students to discuss options for their new
    roles, plan action strategies and exchange of
    knowledge and skills for effective and efficient
    online learning.
  • Provide ways for learners to engage in
    metacognitive reflection. Students may benefit
    from the use of think logs, reflective journals,
    and group discussions within a cooperative
    learning setting (Cercone 2008, 159).

35
Encourage Active Learning Techniques
  • To accomplish this self-reflection precept in the
    online classroom, the instructor might
  • Provide a place in the course to discuss the
    process of learning online which may include
    thoughts on how they are managing in the online
    course.
  • Allow students to discuss options for their new
    roles, plan action strategies and exchange of
    knowledge and skills for effective and efficient
    online learning.
  • Provide ways for learners to engage in
    metacognitive reflection. Students may benefit
    from the use of think logs, reflective journals,
    and group discussions within a cooperative
    learning setting (Cercone 2008, 159).

36
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Discussion
  • Please note that students will not take advantage
    of online communication tools that are not
    required as a portion of their grade.
  • For example, if you want them to use the
    discussion board, make that a requirement for
    some of their group work and monitor their
    progress.

37
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Discussion
  • Brookfield and Preskill (1999) discuss fifteen
    ways in which discussion enhances learning.
  • Among these benefits, discussion
  • introduces a variety of perspectives,
  • increases the students awareness of complexity,
  • and helps them investigate their assumptions

38
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Discussion
  • Brookfield and Preskill (1999) discuss fifteen
    ways in which discussion enhances learning. Among
    these benefits, discussion introduces a variety
    of perspectives, increases the students
    awareness of complexity, and helps them
    investigate their assumptions Discussion
    encourages active listening, increases
    intellectual agility, shows respect for student
    voice and experience, aids in democratization,
    affirms the student as a participant in learning,
    and helps students develop skills of synthesis
    and integration. This can lead to transformation
    of the learner (Brookfield and Preskill 1999,
    22-36).

39
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Discussion
  • Begin discussions with prompt questions that you
    expect most students can answer correctly.
  • Provide lots of positive feedback to encourage
    participation.
  • As the discussion continues, start asking more
    probing questions.

40
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Discussion
  • Require students to get into the habit of
    including an unique and descriptive title for
    their posts.
  • This will make it much easier to navigate a
    thread of content.
  • Otherwise one only sees a seemingly infinite
    number of redundant titles cascading down the
    page.
  • Make the students responsible for coming up with
    their own discussion topics.

41
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Trasnsformati
on
  • Taylors research found that transformative
    learning is fostered if feelings and emotions
    about content are discussed and worked through
    before critical reflection (Taylor 1998, 49).
  • You may choose to create a discussion board forum
    that allows for anonymous posting for discussion
    of value-laden or sensitive topics.
  • If the anonymous setting is not the default, take
    extra care in explaining how the tool works.

42
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Transformatio
n
  • Remind students that not all personal experiences
    and feelings are necessarily appropriate for
    group discussion and that they must be respectful
    towards each other.
  • Alternatively, you might provide a safe space or
    forum for student commiseration, where off topic
    conversations are welcome.

43
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Transformatio
n
  • Other practical applications of this principle
  • Allow the learner to voice his or her own opinion
    and treat him or her as equal in the learning
    process.
  • Individuals have many perspectives and bring
    these to the classroom these may be a result of
    their religion, gender, ethnicity, class, age,
    sexuality, and/ or physical abilities.
    Acknowledge these.
  • Provide an open environment so that the students
    are allowed to disagree with the instructor. Not
    all learners bring the same ability to think
    critically, analyze results, etc. Plan
    accordingly.

44
Encourage Active Learning Techniques-Transformatio
n
  • Establish an environment that learners feel safe
    and comfortable in expressing themselves and feel
    respected for their views.
  • Help students with similar interests find each
    other.
  • Know when to pull back in a discussion and let
    the students go.
  • Keep up with the discussion postings, and act as
    a summarizer, reflector, and source of external
    help if the group fails.
  • Recognize learners individual talents and
    contributions. (Cercone 2008, 158)

45
Give Prompt Feedback
  • Adults need for the instructor to facilitate
    learning. Stay present.
  • Let your students know you are there by
    commenting on their posts and asking additional
    questions for them to consider.
  • Faculty should provide appropriate and prompt
    feedback on performance, speaking the truth in
    love.
  • Part of building trust is in establishing open
    feedback channels.

46
Give Prompt Feedback
  • Students need help assessing their current
    competence and performance, and need frequent
    opportunities to perform and receive suggestion
    for improvement. Such feedback should be an
    ongoing process in collegiate settings.
  • Taylor highlights the importance of self
    assessment and feedback as key to transformative
    learning (Taylor 1996, 29).
  • Establish guidelines for the class and for
    participation that provide enough structure for
    the learners but allow for flexibility and
    negotiation.

47
Give Prompt Feedback
  • Positive and negative feedback responses with
    affordances and hints can be added to online
    quizzes.
  • We have already explored email as an option for
    communication. Discourse can also occur by
    reflection and reaction to others writings by
    using the commenting feature available in text
    processors.
  • It is a simple exercise to create a thread of
    responses and counter responses in this context.

48
Give Prompt Feedback
  • Portfolio assignments afford the possibility of
    critique as well, both from instructor and from
    other students.
  • Learning management systems such as Angel,
    eCollege, WebCT and Blackboard have tracking
    features that allow overview of progress.

49
Give Prompt Feedback
  • Feedback will be natural and coherent if clear
    objectives and outcomes have been communicated up
    front.
  • Socratic questioning techniques and contextual
    responses also facilitate feedback.
  • Remember to establish a standard for promptness
    and communicate this. Then be consistent in its
    application

50
Emphasize Time on Task
  • The injunction to facilitate the process bears
    repeating here as well.
  • Although we strongly support the empowerment of
    participants to take on their own learning
    process, instructor guidance and intervention is
    necessary to keep things moving and on track.
  • Determine a basis for judging appropriate time
    on task. This is an instructional design concern
    that can help instructors allow time to complete
    assignments and encourage students to steward
    their time.

51
Emphasize Time on Task
  • Tight deadlines are necessary throughout the
    course to keep the group pacing through the
    content and to have the discussion groups
    coherently interacting.
  • Learning takes time and learning technologies
    can make studying more efficient.
  • The time spent commuting can be re-appropriated
    by the student and applied to the learning
    process.

52
Emphasize Time on Task
  • The aspect that may be of the most benefit is
    that asynchronous access to learning allows
    students who might otherwise be excluded from
    taking courses altogether creates an opportunity
    to approach learning from a time perspective that
    is more germane to their particular
    circumstances, and allows for life interruptions
    which will happen.
  • Online access to library resources is another
    important time saver.
  • Using online search tools to access information
    becomes normative in an online environment.

53
Emphasize Time on Task
  • Another feature of most learning management
    systems is the ability to see statistical
    breakdowns of individual and group time on task
  • this is an important feature that can help
    faculty insure that students are tracking with
    online content in a timely fashion.
  • In some cases the lack of time spent in the
    various areas of online content suggests a need
    for remediation, alternative instruction, and
    motivating feedback from the instructor.

54
Emphasize Time on Task
  • Allow realistic time to complete assignments.
    This should be a vital aspect of your curriculum
    design
  • Guide students in this area when they are
    required to create their own assignments

55
Emphasize Time on Task
  • One factor that promotes transformative learning
    that is often left out of learning environments
    is solitude.
  • Taylor points to this as necessary before
    reflection can occur (Taylor 1998, 49).
  • It may be obvious, but meditation takes time and
    solitude can foster this Adhering to the
    practices that foster transformative learning,
    particularly in a group setting, takes time
    (Taylor 98, 54-55).

56
Emphasize Time on Task
  • Creation of a learning environment that includes
    dialogue and critical reflection creates the
    necessity for time.
  • Again, an asynchronous environment creates means
    of stewarding time in a way that traditional
    learning cannot.
  • Faculty should create opportunities for students
    to practice good time management.
  • This includes setting realistic time for students
    to complete assignments as well as using
    synchronous learning opportunities.

57
Communicate High Expectations
  • Faculty should set and communicate high
    expectations for students.
  • Setting the bar at an appropriately high level
    can become a self-fulfilling prophecy for
    students and they often will rise to meet the
    challenge (Chickering and Ehrmann 1996, 5).
  • You will typically get no more than you expect.
    This benefits the poorly motivated as well as the
    highly motivated student.

58
Communicate High Expectations
  • Expectations must not only be clear, they should
    be clearly articulated.
  • Online communications can quickly and efficiently
    to the student.
  • Access to this information is available at the
    click of a mouse.
  • Rubrics for measuring success can give students
    a benchmarking capability to track their own
    progress as well.

59
Communicate High Expectations
  • One of the main approaches for introducing higher
    cognitive learning activities in the online
    environment is to start with clear learning
    objectives, which are in turn mapped to learning
    activities that appropriately teach to the
    objectives.
  • As these learning activities are designed to fit
    the content, it is imperative that one be
    intentional about the cognitive levels they
    address in the learner.

60
Communicate High Expectations
  • A helpful tool for realizing this intentionality
    is to design the activities with Blooms Taxonomy
    in mind.
  • A secondary characteristic to track is to
    designate a time on task differentiation in
    regard to the difficulty levels of the
    activities.

61
Communicate High Expectations
  • Learning objectives that require application,
    analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of knowledge
    should be matched with activities, assignments,
    or projects that require this kind of cognitive
    interaction.
  • The very verbiage one uses, such as analyze,
    rank, interpret, appraise, develop, classify, and
    extrapolate, will help determine how engaged a
    student must become with the content. The key
    issue is the demands of the content.

62
Communicate High Expectations
  • For instance, when discussing hypermedia, it is
    important to distinguish between two kinds of
    media.
  • Hyperbases are browseable databases suited to
    free exploration, and hyperdocuments are more
    highly structures linear representations of
    bodies of content.
  • Deep learning is best served by the more linear
    document, while discovery learning is better
    served by exploring a hyperbase (Hinesley 2007,
    262-263).

63
Communicate High Expectations
  • Recent finds by researchers show that the use of
    navigation signals such as hyperlinks and
    topical overviews in hypertexts compensates for
    reported deficits in reading skills in an online
    environment (Naumann, et.al. 2007, 791).

64
Communicate High Expectations
  • Pointing students to examples of excellence via
    an external links page can play a key role in
    giving students some tangible idea of what
    constitutes excellent work
  • Peer evaluation of student work is another
    avenue.

65
Communicate High Expectations
  • The publication on the web of student work can be
    highly motivating as well.
  • Online learning environments facilitate these
    approaches. An online gallery for student work is
    especially valid for projects that have a visual
    element. Require peer-to-peer critique as well.

66
Communicate High Expectations
  • Monitor the use of your online material as well.
  • You may then be able to tell if students are
    having difficulty with a particular concept (i.e.
    a large increase in "hits" on a particular
    topic), whether some members of the class are
    falling behind, or if someone has suddenly
    stopped participating.
  • If you are planning on monitoring individual
    student use of online material, let your students
    know this up front.

67
Communicate High Expectations
  • The web is a dynamic medium, therefore it is
    necessary to monitor any links in the course for
    current availability.
  • Using an online component to make the class
    contemporary and current (i.e., include links to
    current research, news, references) is thwarted
    if the link moves or is otherwise inaccessible.
  • Some instructors award extra credit for students
    who alert the instructor to such problems first.

68
Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • Adults generally need to feel that learning
    focuses on issues that directly concern them.
  • They want to know what they are going to learn
    and why it is important they need to see how it
    will apply to their lives (Cercone 2008, 157).

69
Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • According to Taylors findings, research
    supports effective instructional methods that
    support a learner centered approach, promote
    student participation and collaboration.
  • He points to the importance of activities that
    encourage the exploration of alternative personal
    perspectives, problem posing, and critical
    reflection (Taylor 1998, 48-49).

70
Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • Varying presentation style and assignment
    requirements will allow students to showcase
    their unique talents and abilities and learn in a
    variety of ways. Teach content in multiple
    iterations, geared toward reinforcing learning in
    those who get it the first time, and turning
    the lights on for the first time for others.
    Instructors can also set up lessons in a linear
    flow inside their learning management system if
    required by the content. This would provide
    gates through which students may not pass until
    prior content is mastered.

71
Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • Varying presentation style and assignment
    requirements will allow students to showcase
    their unique talents and abilities and learn in a
    variety of ways.
  • Teach content in multiple iterations, geared
    toward reinforcing learning in those who get it
    the first time, and turning the lights on for the
    first time for others.

72
Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • Instructors can also set up lessons in a linear
    flow inside their learning management system if
    required by the content.
  • This would provide gates through which students
    may not pass until prior content is mastered.

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Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • Consider using such experiences as virtual
    simulation, visualization, cognitively robust
    exercises, journaling, webquests, and student
    blogs in the course instructional design.
  • These can address student differences in learning
    styles in ways that traditional learning may only
    do in a limited fashion.

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Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • One can incorporate "virtual field trips" into
    online courses by using the assignments, external
    links and discussion board functionality of the
    course in tandem.
  • Students participation will not only increase,
    but they can come back to access and review the
    lesson while conducting research and reporting
    the results.

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Respect Diverse Talents And Ways Of Learning
  • The application of a Multiple Intelligences
    approach
  • The application of a Learning Styles approach
  • Thats ANOTHER presentation

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End of Presentation
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