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Unification of Italy


Italian peninsula was site of frequent wars among countries like ... After Lombardy left Austria, Tuscany, Parma, and Modena wanted to unite with Piedmont, too. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unification of Italy

Unification of Italy
Italy before Unification
  • Like Germany, Italy was a collection of
    provinces, small kingdoms and city-states since
    the Middle Ages.
  • Italian peninsula was site of frequent wars among
    countries like France, Austria, and Spain.
  • Each wanted to prevent the others from
    controlling the areas wealth.
  • Italian politics was further complicated by the
    papal states (states run by the Pope) located in
    the center of the peninsula.

Italy before Unification
  • Under Napoleon I, several Italian states became a
    part of his Kingdom of Italy
  • Short-lived, of course, but gave people a sense
    of unity.
  • Congress of Vienna ignored the desires of
    Italians to form their own country.
  • CoV restored the papal states and gave Austria
    control over MUCH of the area.

Italy before Unification
  • So from early to mid-1800s, Austria ruled much of
    Italy and the pope controlled the central area
    around Rome.

3 major figures in Italian Unification
  • Mazzini the soul of Italian unification
  • Garibaldi the sword of Italian unification
  • Cavour the mind of Italian unification

  • 1830s Giueseppe Mazzini founded a group called
    Young Italy
  • Young Italy was a secret society dedicated to
    founding a united and democratic Italy.
  • Mazzini stirred up several revoltsmostly
  • M. inspired people with his pamphelets that
    promoted unification.
  • M. ended up fleeing abroad, where he continued to
    promote unification.

  • Mazzinis main idea was that a persons duty to
    the nation fits between the duty to ones family
    and duty to God.

Duty to God
Duty to Nation
Duty to Family
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi worked with Mazzini in the
  • Like M., he fled abroad but came back during the
    1848 Revolution in Northern Italy.
  • Led a revolt against Austria (unsuccessful)
  • Garibaldi also tried to replace the rule of the
    pope in Rome with a liberal government.
  • He failed here, too, and had to go into exile.
  • But thats not the end of Garibaldi!

  • 1852 Camillo di Cavour came to the fore in
    Italian unification, now called Risorgimento
    (reawakening)the name of the newspaper he
  • Cavour stirred up public opinion in the northern
    Italian states against Austrian rule.

  • 1852 King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia and
    Piedmont made Cavour his prime minister.
  • Cavour believed in constitutional monarchy
  • His plan build up Piedmonts commerce and
    industry. This will eventually allow it to win
    Italian territory from Austria.

  • Austria was determined to keep tight control over
    northern Italy.
  • The Pope was against a strong national Italian
    government, because that might threaten Church
    ownership of the Papal States.

Cavours Secret Alliance
  • Cavour, meanwhile, made a secret pact with
  • Then he provoked a war with Austria.
  • When Austrian troops invaded Piedmont, French
    troops helped the Italians.
  • The result Piedmont took Lombardy (an old
    Austrian possession)

Other States Followed!
  • After Lombardy left Austria, Tuscany, Parma, and
    Modena wanted to unite with Piedmont, too.
  • Austria gave in, because the French-Italian
    alliance meant that Austria would have to face
    France in battle.

By 1860
  • Piedmont controlled all of Italy EXCEPT
  • the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • The Papal States
  • Venice.
  • Thats when Garibaldi came back

Garibaldis Return
  • May 1860 Garibaldi landed in Sicily with an army
    of 1000 soldiers dubbed the Red Shirts
  • The Red Shirts easily won the Kingdom of the Two
    Sicilies with the help of Piedmont.
  • Next, they captured the Papal States except for
  • By March 1861 Victor Emmanuel II became king of

Italy and Prussia
  • During the Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussia War),
    Italy helped Prussia against Austria.
  • The Prussians got Schleswig and Holstein.
  • The Italians took Venice (1866)

Italy and Prussia, again
  • During the Franco-Prussia War, Italian troops
    occupied Rome.
  • Rome was declared the capital of a united Kingdom
    of Italy in 1871, just as the North German
    Confederation was declared the German Reich.

The Transition
After Italian Unification
  • Unlike Germany, Italy had few natural resources.
  • Industry and the economy developed much more
  • Many Italians were poor and illiterate.

After Italian Unification
  • The Italian constitution
  • limited the kings power
  • Set up a parliament of elected lawmakers.
  • At first only a few wealthy males could vote.
  • By 1912 all Italian men could.
  • Many poor Italians sold their votes.
  • As a result, corruption in government became

Italy and the Papacy
  • Until 1904, the Papacy had still not gotten over
    the seizure of the Papal States.
  • In retaliation, the Papacy forbade Catholics to
    vote or to hold office.
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