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Title: Digital Libraries: Extending and Applying Information Science and Technology ProLISSA October 2627,


1
Digital Libraries Extending and Applying
Information Science and TechnologyProLISSAOcto
ber 26-27, 2000
  • Edward A. Fox
  • fox_at_vt.edu http//fox.cs.vt.edu
  • CS DLRL Internet TIC
  • Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

2
Thanks!
  • Theo Bothma
  • Petrina Bothma
  • Peter Ingwersen
  • Irene Wormell
  • ProLISSA and DISSAnet staff
  • DANIDA

3
Acknowledgements (Selected)
  • Mentors JCR Licklider, Michael Kessler, Gerard
    Salton
  • Sponsors Adobe, IBM, Microsoft, NLM, NSF, OCLC,
    SOLINET, SURA, UNESCO, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE),
  • VT Faculty/Staff Tony Atkins, Thomas Dunbar,
    Debra Dudley, John Eaton, Gwen Ewing, Peter
    Haggerty, Gary Hooper, Gail McMillan, Len Peters,
    James Powell,
  • VT Students Emilio Arce, Fernando Das Neves,
    Brian DeVane, Robert France, Marcos Goncalves,
    Scott Guyer, Robert Hall, Neill Kipp, Paul
    Mather, Tim McGonigle, Todd Miller, Constantinos
    Phanouriou, William Schweiker, Ohm Sornil,
    Hussein Suleman, Patrick Van Metre, Laura Weiss,

4
JCDL 2001
  • First Joint ACM/IEEE Conference on
    Digital Libraries
  • http//www.jcdl.org
  • June 24-28, 2001 in Roanoke, VA
  • Conference Committee
  • General Chair Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech
  • Program Chair Christine Borgman, UCLA
  • Treasurer Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School
  • Posters Chair Craig Nevill-Manning, Rutgers U.

5
Why this topic today?
  • Many users (patrons) prefer digital libraries to
    traditional libraries or the Web
  • Digital library collections often are free or
    less expensive, so are heavily used
  • Most publishers are working toward digital
    libraries to allow access to their content
  • Library and information science professionals are
    key players in building digital libraries

6
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

7
Libraries of the FutureJCR Licklider, 1965, MIT
Press
World
Nation
Province
City
Community
8
Licklider Unified Theory?
  • Not ready in 1960s
  • Analog unified field theory in physics
  • Mess today segmented field, specialities
  • Database lt-gt Knowledge lt-gt Content Mgmnt
  • Multimedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext
  • Logic, Algebra, Artificial Intelligence,
  • Expensive, annoying for users
  • Dont know where to look
  • Dont know how to use services

9
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10
Locating Digital Libraries in Computing
and Communications Technology Space
Digital Libraries technology trajectory
intellectual access to globally distributed
information
Communications (bandwidth, connectivity)
Computing (flops)
Digital content
less
more
11
Grand Challenges Can
  • Mobilize the community
  • Spur creativity
  • Lead to important benefits in society
  • Push researchers to develop relevant theories
  • Force people to work in teams/groups
  • Convince funding agencies to invest
  • Help bring about integration of systems,
    interoperability, and seamless interfaces

12
DLs Why of Global Interest?
  • National projects can preserve antiquities and
    heritage cultural, historical, linguistic,
    scholarly
  • Knowledge and information are essential to
    economic and technological growth, education
  • DL - a domain for international collaboration
  • wherein all can contribute and benefit
  • which leverages investment in networking
  • which provides useful content on Internet WWW
  • which will tie nations and peoples together more
    strongly and through deeper understanding

13
Digital Libraries --- Objectives
  • World Lit. 24hr / 7day / from desktop
  • Integrated super information systems 5S
    streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies
  • Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost
  • Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery
  • Disintermediation -gt Collaboration
  • Universities Reclaim Property
  • Interactive Courseware, Student Works
  • Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

14
MARIAN Layers
User Interface Layer
User Information Layer
Search Engine Layer
Database Layer
15
DL Components
User Interfaces
Gateways
Workflow Mgr
MM/ HT Renderer
Search Engines
DBMS
Rights Mgr
Data, MM Info
Repository
16
Digital LibrariesShorten the Chain from
Author
Editor
Reviewer
Publisher
AI
Consolidator
Library
Reader
17
DLs Shorten the Chain to
Roles
Digital Library
Author
Teacher
User
Reader
Editor
Learner
Reviewer
Librarian
Dr.
Patient
18
Benefits
  • Ease of use
  • Effectiveness
  • The benefits of digital libraries will not be
    appreciated unless they are easy to use
    effectively. - IITA Workshop report

19
Definitions
  • Library (libraryarchivemuseum)
  • Distributed information system organization
    effective interface
  • User community collection services
  • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management,
    handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase,
    annotation

20
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

21
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22
PetaPlex Top View
4 ft. side
door
23
PetaPlex Side View
15 shelves
Roles Support Cooling Power
Aluminum
8 ft. high
4 ft. wide
24
PetaPlex Complex
Service Machine 1
Service Machine 3
Service Machine 2
Service Machine 4
FRONT END MACHINE RS/6000, 1G RAM, 4 Proc.
PetaPlex Core
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
Nanoserver
25
PetaPlex
  • Digital Library Machine (super object store)
    Parallel computer / storage utility
  • Research inverted files, video server,
  • Knowledge Systems Incorporated is supplying
    VT-PetaPlex-1 with 2.5 terabytes through 100
    nodes
  • Net connection 25GB disk 233 MHz Pentium
    Linux

26
Structured Video Browser(making video into
hypermedia) www.learn.umd.edu
  • IBrowse
  • Expository multimedia
  • Narrative Structures

27
  • MPEG-7 Image Library Systems

MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Tech.

28
  • MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech.

MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech.

Architecture
29
LMDS offers a LOT of bandwidth(comparison to
previous auctions)
LMDS
MMDS
DBS
PCS A-C Block
LMDS is - 1300 MHz in two Blocks ( 28-31
GHz) - Over 2X bandwidth of AM/FM radio, VHF/UHF
television, and Cellular telephone combined. -
More than sum of previous 16 auctions
Cellular Unserved
Digital Audio Radio Service
PCS D-F Block
Wireless Communications Service
Interactive Video Data
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
MHz
30
LMDS Hub Site at Slusher Hall
Wavtrace Tower 1
Wavtrace Tower 2
Radio Hut
31
Eventually LMDS could be used in combination with
other wireless and wireline technologies to reach
individual homes
32
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33
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34
SPIRE Visualization
35
CAVE-ETD
  • CAVE-ETD is a simulation of a library that runs
    in a CAVE (VR environment).
  • Populated with a subset of ETD records.

room
room
room
Main Foyer
room
36
Reading Book Abstract
37
Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System
2-way Speech Transation
38
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

39
Definitions
  • Library (libraryarchivemuseum)
  • Distributed information system organization
    effective interface
  • User community collection services
  • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management,
    handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase,
    annotation

40
Definition Digital Libraries are complex systems
that
  • help satisfy info needs of users (societies)
  • provide info services (scenarios)
  • organize info in usable ways (structures)
  • present info in usable ways (spaces)
  • communicate info with users (streams)

41
5S Layers
Societies
Scenarios
Spaces
Structures
Streams
42
Definition 5S Framework
  • Societies interacting people (, computers)
  • Scenarios services, functions, operations,
    methods
  • Spaces domains constraints (e.g., distance,
    adjacency) 2D, vector, probability
  • Structures relations, trees, nodes and arcs
  • Streams sequences of items (text, audio, video,
    network traffic)
  • (5 Element System Fire, Wood, Earth, Metal,
    Water)

43
5S Components
  • Societies roles, rituals, reasons,
    relationships, artifacts
  • Scenarios acquire, index, consult, administer,
    preserve
  • Spaces physical, temporal, functional,
    presentational, conceptual
  • Structures architectures, taxonomies, schema,
    grammars, links, objects
  • Streams granularities, protocols, paths, flows,
    turbulences

44
5S Combinations
  • Societies Scenarios user model
  • Societies Scenarios Spaces user interface
  • Streams Structures markup
  • Streams Structures Scenarios object
  • Structures Scenarios DBMS

45
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

46
Complex to Simple
MARC (50)
Dublin Core (DC)
47
Authors tools
www.physik.uni-oldenburg.de/EPS/mmm
48
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49
DL Components
User Interfaces
Gateways
Workflow Mgr
MM/ HT Renderer
Search Engines
DBMS
Rights Mgr
Data, MM Info
Repository
50
Open Archives Initiative OAI www.openarchives.org
openarchives_at_openarchives.org
51
OAi Philosophy
  • Self-archiving submission mechanism
  • Long-term storage system archive
  • Open interface harvesting mechanism
  • Data provider service provider
  • Start with gray literature
  • e-prints/pre-prints, reports, dissertations,

52
Archive of Digital Objects
Archive Access Protocol
Handle (ID)
Metadata
terms and conditions
Digital object
53
OAI Repository Perspective
Required Protocol
Set Structure
URI Scheme
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
MDO
Required DC
DO
DO
DO
DO
54
OAI Black Box Perspective
55
Black Box OAI-ETD Perspective


56
Outline
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

57
Presidential Directive - 12/17/1999Subject Use
of Information Technology to Improve Our Society
  • 13. The Secretary of the Smithsonian
    Institution, the Director of the National Science
    Foundation, the Director of the National Park
    Service, and the Director of the Institute of
    Museum and Library Services shall work with the
    private sector and cultural and educational
    institutions across the country to create a
    Digital Library of Education to house this
    country's cultural and educational resources.

58
Programmatic History
59
Vision A Learning Environments and Resources
Network for SMET Education (LEARNS)
  • Designed to meet the needs of learners, in both
    individual and collaborative settings
  • Constructed to enable dynamic use of a broad
    array of materials for learning, primarily in
    digital format
  • Managed actively to promote reliable anytime -
    anywhere access to quality collections and
    services, available both within and without the
    network

60
LEARNS
Users
Tools
Content
The network is the library.
61
LEARNS Connects
  • Users students, educators, life-long learners
  • Content structured learning materials large
    real-time or archived datasets audio, images,
    animationsprimary sources digital learning
    objects (e.g. applets)interactive (virtual,
    remote) laboratories ...
  • Tools search refer validate integrate
    create customize publish share notify
    collaborate ...

62
Expectations of Tracks
  • Core Integration to coordinate a distributed
    alliance of resource collection and service
    providers, and to ensure reliable and extensible
    access to and usability of the resulting network
    of learning environments and resources
  • Collections to aggregate and actively manage a
    subset of the digital librarys content within a
    coherent theme or specialty
  • Services to increase the impact, reach,
    efficiency, and value of the digital library in
    its fully operational form
  • Targeted Research to have immediate impact on
    one or more of the other three tracks

63
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64
CS Teaching Center (CSTC)
  • Instead of building large, expensive multimedia
    packages, that become obsolete and are difficult
    to re-use, concentrate on small knowledge units.
  • Learners benefit from having well-crafted modules
    that have been reviewed and tested.
  • Use digital libraries to build a powerful base of
    support for learners, upon which a variety of
    courses, self-study tutorials reference
    resources can be built.
  • ACM Education Board and SIG support, new NSF
    grant with COLLEGIS Research Institute and others

65
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66
Browsing (1)
67
Browsing (2)
68
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69
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70
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71
A Digital Library Case Study
  • Project
  • Networked Digital Library of Theses
    Dissertations
  • http//www.ndltd.org (NDLTD remember
  • ND LTD / NDL TD)
  • (also, newer NUDL Networked University Digital
    Library, with e-courseware, etc.)
  • Domain graduate education, research
  • Genre ETDs electronic theses dissertations
  • Submission http//etd.vt.edu
  • Collection http//www.theses.org

72
NDLTD
Grad Program
Ed. (Tech)
IT
Library
73
The Networked Digital Library of Theses and
Dissertations
www.NDLTD.org
Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving
Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing
Scholarly Communication Empowering Students
Universities
Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis
and Dissertation) Initiative
74
What are the long term goals?
  • Attract all TDs/yr 50K D-US, 25K D-Germany, 10K
    TD-Canada,
  • gt200K/yr rich hypermedia ETDs that may turn into
    electronic portfolios (images, video, audio, )
  • Dramatic increase in knowledge sharing
    literature reviews, bibliographies,
  • Services providing lifelong access for students
    browse, search, prior searches, citation links
  • Hundreds/thousands of downloads / year / work

75
Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD
Approval form
76
Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is
Graduated
Quality control
77
Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New
Research
WWW
NDLTD
Digital library access control
78
User Search Support(multilingual, XML)
Note All groups shown are connected with NDLTD.
79
Access Possibilities
www. openarchives. org
Web search engines
www. theses. org
library catalog clients
3rd Party Services (e.g., UMI)
Virginia Tech
National Library of Portugal
CBUC (Spain)
Ohio Link
MIT
National Projects AU, GE,
80
Status of the Local Project
  • Approved by university governance Spring 1996
    required starting 1/1/97
  • Submission access software in place
  • Submission workshops for students (and faculty)
    occur often beginner/adv.
  • Faculty training as part of Faculty Development
    Initiative
  • Over 3000 ETDs in collection some have audio,
    video, large images, software,

81
US University Members (44)
  • Air University (Alabama)
  • Baylor University
  • Brigham Young University (part, whole)
  • Caltech
  • Clemson University
  • College of William Mary
  • Concordia University (Illinois)
  • East Carolina University
  • East Tenn. State U. require fall 2000
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • Florida International University
  • George Washington University
  • Louisiana State University
  • Marshall University (W. Va.)
  • Miami University of Ohio
  • Michigan Tech
  • Mississippi State University
  • MIT
  • Naval Postgraduate School (CA)
  • Penn. State University
  • Rochester Institute of Tech.
  • U. of Colorado Health Science Center
  • U. of Florida
  • U. of Georgia
  • University of Hawaii, Manoa
  • U. of Iowa
  • U. of Kentucky
  • U. of Maine
  • U. of North Texas required since 8/99
  • U. of Oklahoma
  • U. of South Florida
  • U. of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • U. of Tennessee, Memphis
  • U. of Texas at Austin required in 2001
  • U. of Virginia
  • U. Wisconsin - Madison
  • Vanderbilt U.
  • Virginia Commonwealth U.

82
OhioLINK
  • Statewide Consortium
  • Represents 79 colleges, universities, libraries
  • Public Universities
  • Private Universities and Colleges
  • 2-Year Colleges
  • Only a few (e.g., Miami U. of Ohio) are also
    NDLTD members on their own

83
National / Regional Projects
  • Australia
  • U. New South Wales (lead)
  • U. of Melbourne
  • U. of Queensland
  • U. of Sydney
  • Australian National U.
  • Curtin U. of Technology
  • Griffith U.
  • Germany
  • Humboldt University (lead)
  • 3 other universities
  • 5 learned societies Math, Physics, Chemistry,
    Sociology, Education
  • 1 computing center
  • 2 major libraries
  • Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de
    Catalunya, as group, www.cbuc.es
  • Universitat de Barcelona
  • Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona
  • Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
  • Universitat Pompeu Fabra
  • Universitat de Girona
  • Universitat de Lleida
  • Universitat Rovira i Virgili
  • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
  • Biblioteca de Catalunya
  • India, Portugal,
  • South Africa SEALS,

84
Other Countries with Members
  • Netherland
  • Norway
  • Russia
  • Singapore
  • S. Africa
  • S. Korea
  • Spain
  • Taiwan
  • UK
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Germany
  • Hong Kong
  • India
  • Italy
  • Korea
  • Mexico

85
ECHEA / SEALS (S. Africa)
  • Mellon Foundation 80K
  • Eastern Cape Higher Education Association
  • South East Academic Library System
  • Border Technikon
  • Eastern Cape Technikon
  • University of Fort Hare
  • Port Elizabeth Technikon
  • Rhodes University (first to require outside US)
  • University of Port Elizabeth
  • University of Transkei
  • (and members elsewhere, e.g., University of
    Pretoria)

86
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87
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88
Build Local ETD Site
Digital Library
89
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91
In South Africa
  • DISSAnet papers
  • Library of Parliment
  • Howard Pim Africana Library, University of Fort
    Hare
  • Collections in 11 Languages
  • Cultural Heritage

92
Remember
  • Grand Challenge
  • Scaling / Technology
  • Framework, Theory
  • Simplification DC, OAI
  • Example Applications

93
Conclusions
  • Consider DLs (like the poetry project/paper) in
    South Africa
  • Education is one important application
  • Cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, are
    important to preserve
  • Technology opens up exciting opportunities
  • Having a framework and theory may lead to better
    systems and broader applicability
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