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Enterprise Architecture

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Title: Enterprise Architecture


1
Enterprise Architecture
  • Edward Schofield
  • Chief Enterprise Architect for the Government
    Public Sector
  • 20th April 2005

2
Agenda
  • Why is Enterprise Architecture important
  • What is the value of Enterprise Architecture
  • What are the components of an Enterprise
    Architecture
  • Case Study
  • Summary

3
Question
  • What are your expectations from this session ?
  • What do you want to know ?

4
Why is Enterprise Architecture Important
www.capgemini.com
5
Question
  • How does your Business Users perceive the IT that
    supports them ?

6
What is the business perception of IT?
  • Despite best intentions, IT is perceived by
    organisations as being
  • expensive
  • not joined up with business strategy and
    operations
  • unresponsive to the changing needs of business
  • opaque as an asset, both in terms of financial
    cost and value, and the capability the asset
    delivers to the business
  • not living up to its promises, and getting worse
  • Further, the business perceives that
  • when projects are undertaken to implement
    business change, they are likely to cost more and
    deliver less value than expected
  • the return on investment and value for money from
    IT is relatively poor
  • Unresponsiveness of IT is today seen as a
    critical issue as business agility and
    responsiveness are essential for competitiveness

7
How has this perception been formed?
  • Most business applications have been implemented
    on a project by project basis for specific
    purposes
  • Project benefits and success have been measured
    on the specific project cost, value and time to
    market without measuring the enterprise or the
    long term cost and value
  • IT has not been able to articulate the
    consequences of this short term, project specific
    approach to business leadership
  • Average 25 of total IT budget on project
    investment, 75 on BAU operations
  • The business has selected the wrong projects,
    partly as a result of a lack of clear cost
    drivers and benefits from IT
  • This behaviour has been repeated for the last
    30-40 years average business application age
    c.17 years
  • IT Strategy has failed to address the issue
    (weve got everything)
  • Technology innovation has tended to deliver
    specific benefits in the short term, but a long
    term trend of making things worse
  • e.g. client/server, 4GL, CRM/FET/SCM, Business
    Intelligence, EAI, Web, Web services, mobility

8
We find that the business perception is often
justified by IT Project Delivery results how do
you do?
  • IT Project Delivery
  • On-time, on budget, acceptable performance and
    scope delivered
  • Late, over budget, under performing, reduced
    scope delivered
  • Cancelled

Low-End Analysis Reality?
Leading Practice Average X-Sector
3
Capgemini Enterprise Architecture IT Delivery
Leading Practice
1
2
  • 20 60 92
  • 50 35 8
  • 30 5 0
  • Sources include
  • 1. Ravi Kalakota Services Blueprints - Roadmap
    for Execution, Addison-Wesley 2003
  • 2. Forrester, How Companies Govern Their IT
    Spending, 2003
  • 3. Capgemini clients assessing our UKI
    engagements - OTACE On Target Above Customer
    Expectation scores, 2003

9
And we find a knock-on detrimental impact to TCO
and strategic project investment trends
  • Enterprise Wide Trends
  • Trends of total IT budget year on year increase
  • Trends of investment funding released to
    undertake strategic projects

Across the board
With Tier 1 Support Transformational Outsource
Capgemini Enterprise Architecture
Transformational Outsource
1 to 10 1 to 5 0
0 c.25 c.30
  • 7-10 years leading practice trends within scope
    of Transformational Outsource
  • Sources include
  • Forrester, How Companies Govern Their IT
    Spending 2003
  • Financial Executives International and Duke
    University CFO survey, 2004

Bear Stearns Chief Economist (Bear Stearns
Technology Conference June 2004) noted that on a
macro level information technology is now 55 of
total business capital spending
10
Business cite 2 core issues translating strategy
into project shape, and governing projects during
execution
  • Executives focus the blame on poor scoping and
    sizing the core issue being translating
    business and IT strategy into project shaping
  • However, many issues are caused during project
    execution the core issue being governance
    during the execute cycle
  • Footnote - organisations whose IT functions
    invest in their own PMO to enforce processes and
    measure results reported no improvement in
    project success versus organisations whose IT
    function has not invested in a PMO

Source Forrester, How Companies Govern Their IT
Spending, 2003
We believe Capgeminis Enterprise Architecture
capability is important as it addresses these 2
prevalent issues
11
What is the Value of Enterprise Architecture
www.capgemini.com
12
Question
  • What are the challenges you face from a Business
    and IT perspective ?

13
Firstly, what do we do?
  • Enterprise Architecture is the definition of
  • what a business or organisation does today, and
  • what it wants to do in the future connected
    to...
  • the IT it has today, and
  • the IT it needs to have in the future to best
    deliver its business goals
  • IT includes applications, information,
    infrastructure, security, systems governance,
    business functionality and service levels
  • ...we call this the organising logic of
    business and IT...
  • We do the following things
  • working as part of mixed-discipline Capgemini
    teams we define the architecture for
    transformation programmes and solution
    propositions, and support their delivery
  • architecture consulting working client side to
    define clients enterprise and solution
    architectures
  • we coach clients on establishing leading
    practices for their Architecture functions
  • we work as part of mixed-discipline Capgemini
    teams across the breadth of our offers
  • we provided trusted advice to our clients
    leadership

14
Enterprise Architecture provides Business/IT
Alignment structured within a Framework, governed
by a Capability
  • An Enterprise Architecture defines a framework
    outlining the vision for systems and technology
    for the organisation it manages the IST change
    roadmap
  • It defines a set of overall principles, a future
    state vision, and a transformation plan
  • It may also include standards definitions and
    strategies for individual services.
  • An Enterprise Architecture capability enables an
    organisation to create, adapt, enforce, and
    develop its technical architecture
  • It ensures that the IT landscape is aligned to
    the business vision and continues to be aligned
    to the business strategy and operational needs
  • It ensures that IT solutions can continuously
    react to the changing needs of the business
  • It ensures that the emotional and financial case
    for change is made
  • It is as much a part of the business as it is
    part of the IT organisation and its role is as
    much about controlling and focusing IT
    expenditure as it is about identifying necessary
    change.

15
What is the difference between Enterprise, Domain
and Project Architecture?
Creating alignment and coherence between
objectives at various levels
Creating Enterprise Architectures
Business IT Mission, Strategy Principles
Domain Targets
Enterprise Architecture
Project Objectives
Creating Project Architectures
Domain Architectures
Project Architectures
Project Level Objectives
16
What is Value Proposition of Enterprise
Architecture ?
We deliver four fundamental business benefits...
Increase Business Agility
Expand IT Reach
You can collaborate more effectively than your
customers, OGDs, suppliers and partners through
your IT
You can continuously adapt your business (by
changing your IT) more quickly and with lower
risk.
Increase Value
Reduce IT Cost
Increase Project Success
Your investment in IT enabled business projects
will result in a c.95 success rate (on time, on
budget, to business satisfaction, first time),
compared to your competition, who will attain a
60 success rate
You can deliver new IT solutions and manage your
existing IT services at lower cost.
Reduce Cost
17
How do we deliver these benefits?
Service Delivery
Solution Delivery
Business Operating Model
Enterprise Architecture
Business Strategy
  • We find many departments do not have a well
    defined organising logic to align business
    strategy, business processes and IT
  • this makes business change harder to implement
    and increases IT costs
  • Our Enterprise Architecture proposition defines
    this organising logic and provides governance to
    ensure competitive advantage is delivered
  • maps IT to the business, institutionalises IT
    innovation for business gain
  • We communicate in a language both business and IT
    stakeholders can understand
  • Our approach is unique in the industry and has
    been proven over 10 years with 100s of clients
  • adopted by many clients and leading product
    vendors
  • internal certification program and 10m
    investment in frameworks and tools
  • We have a Global Practice of over 1,000
    Architects

18
How do we deliver these benefits?
  • We work collaboratively with our clients,
    partners and other Capgemini disciplines to
    define the organising logic of business and IT
    which
  • Increases project success rate from an industry
    average of 60 to 95
  • delivering the intended business value, on-time,
    on-budget, first time
  • Increases IT agility
  • and so increases the business capability to
    change
  • Reduces IT TCO
  • Increases transparency of cost and value of IT
    assets
  • We deliver our value proposition in 3 core ways
  • We act as Enterprise Architecture consultants to
    our clients, usually as part of a
    mixed-discipline team
  • We deliver transformation through technology
    solutions to our clients as part of a
    mixed-discipline team
  • We help our clients develop world class
    Enterprise Architecture capabilities

19
Where do we start?
We start by understanding why the business change
is desired and forming a view of your current
business in terms of the services you provide and
the capabilities you have to provide them. We
call this a Business Service Model. From this
view we decompose the detail generate options
to realise business change.
Rationale For Change We need to service our
customers/citizens better We need to reduce
our TCO We need to launch new products more
quickly and cost efficiently We need to react
to changes in legistration e.g. Freedom of
Information The lack of capability of our IT
to support change is constraining our business
agenda
What We Do Today
Service Consumers a person or a machine e.g. a
citizen, a supplier, an agent of your business
Business Services a collection of processes or
services a consumer can interact with e.g.
sales, logistics, servicing, finance, marketing,
development
Technology Services a collection of systems
supporting the business services e.g. clients,
applications, data, infrastructure, security,
governance
20
Why is organising logic important?
  • Consider today how you organise the following
    specific aspects of design and operation both for
    a single solution and for your enterprise to most
    effectively deliver your business goals...
  • Business strategy (e.g. PowerPoint and Word)
  • Budget and business case (e.g. Excel)
  • Business operating model (e.g. PowerPoint and
    Word)
  • IT strategy, standards and operating model (e.g.
    Word)
  • Business process maps (e.g. PowerPoint swim
    lanes, package specific process maps, EAI
    specific process configuration, BPEL Web Services
    process choreography)
  • Business requirements and functional
    specifications (e.g. Word)
  • System specifications (e.g. package specific
    configuration tools, UML use cases, UML data
    flows, UML entity relationship diagrams, Word
    integration adapter specifications)
  • Technical specifications (e.g. Word)
  • Component specifications (e.g. platform specific
    service and class models)
  • Infrastructure topology (e.g. Visio)
  • Service level requirements (e.g. Word)
  • Security policy (e.g. Word)
  • Systems management requirements (e.g. Word)
  • etc...

21
Whats different about our approach?
We simplify your business and IT design and
operating models by defining and then governing
the inter-relationship and context of specific
design elements in a structured fashion and using
our proven tools for detailed architecture design
of specific elements. We call this an
Architectural Framework, and we deliver this
using our Integrated Architecture Framework
approach.
Answers the question Why?
What?
How?
With What?
For a single solution there are 10s of design
elements, for an enterprise there are
1,000s... We dont boil the ocean. We start with
something specific and then evolve the
Architectural Framework over time in so doing
we realise transformation through technology
22
Whats the process to define the Architecture?
We tailor proven Roadmaps to tune the
Architecture Process to the Client needs Roadmaps
define the Project Plan for the Architecture
engagement
23
What does a typical Architecture engagement look
like?
  • Engagements vary in scale and depth a typical
    short, sharp 1st engagement is
  • Includes
  • Reference architecture and pattern collation
    sanitisation
  • Definition of Project Quality Plan
  • Definition of deliverable format templates and
    acceptance criteria

24
What are the components of an Enterprise
Architecture
www.capgemini.com
25
What are the Enterprise Architecture Aspect
Layers ?
  • Break apart the problem and solution into its
    constituent parts, by addressing 4 main questions

26
What are the Enterprise Architecture Aspect
Layers?
  • this helps the Architect to manage the complexity
    by breaking down the problem into manageable
    pieces
  • Contextual
  • describing Why the architecture is required and
    the overall context of the Enterprise
  • Conceptual
  • describing What business and/or technical
    architecture is required to satisfy the customer
    requirements identified in the Context.
  • Logical
  • describing How the business and/or technical
    architecture will deliver to satisfy the
    Conceptual architecture, in terms of the logical
    components required and the relevant standards to
    which the architecture will be built.

    This does NOT specify physical components,

    such as specific platforms or software packages.
  • Physical
  • describing With What the

    architecture will be delivered to
    address
    the Logical
    architecture solution,

    including platform definitions, system

    software, business and technical

    component
    connectivity, physical

    networks, etc.

27
What are the main objectives of each
Architectural Layers ?
We recognise 4 aspect layers (B, I, IS, TI) 2
specialized views (Sec, Gov)
28
What are the main questions answered in the
Contextual Architecture ?
29
What are the main questions answered in the
Business Architecture ?
30
What are the main questions answered in the
Information Architecture ?
31
What are the main questions answered in the
Information System Architecture ?
32
What are the main questions answered in the
Technical Infrastructure Architecture ?
33
What are the main questions answered in the
Governance Architecture?
34
What are the main questions answered in the
Security Architecture?
35
Case Study
www.capgemini.com
36
Programme Overview
  • Contract scope highlights
  • 7 year PFI IT outsource
  • New World implementation
  • New infrastructure throughout the Council
  • networks (voice data)
  • use of a Data Centre
  • New Standard Operating Environment PCs, file
    print services
  • Migration from Novell to Microsoft
  • Application migration
  • Migration of GroupWise to Exchange 2003
  • Multi-channel contact centre
  • Enable roaming working
  • New website content management solution
  • Ongoing business case development and
    implementation

37
What was the purpose of the Programme
  • A transformation of the customer experience
  • for citizens, business and other agencies
  • consistent, high quality service regardless of
    channel
  • Enhanced service and improved cost efficiency
  • through better front to back office effectiveness
  • A Programme of continuous improvement and
    innovation
  • to enable e-government
  • A new way of working
  • within the Council
  • with customers and other agencies
  • with strategic partners

38
The Principles of the solution approach
  • Designed to meet business objectives
  • integrated Programme of people, process and
    technology
  • technology and change seamlessly integrated
  • Adaptive - to meet current and future needs
  • architect design
  • strategic rather than tactical solution
  • enable rather than constrain change
  • Practical and realistic
  • people focused
  • plain and straight-forward
  • iterative
  • Committed and viable
  • engaged committed resources
  • re-use technology knowledge

39
Our Approach to define the Architecture
Silo Applications Vision CDBPR
  • Strategy
  • Vision
  • CRM Business Principles

Business AS-IS
Architecture Design
  • Interviews
  • Discovery
  • Best Practice
  • Patterns
  • Transition
  • Network Study
  • 3rd Party
  • Outsource
  • OBS

Business To-Be IT
Cost
Re-Design
IT AS-IS
Risk

  • Have we explored all possible designs
  • Think out of the box
  • Plan
  • Transition

  • IT Principles
  • E-Gov, Standards
  • Integrated Architecture Framework
  • Adaptive Architecture


No Corporate standards Network Out of date apps
Adaptive
Conceptual
Logical
Physical
Contextual
40
Design Principles
  • IT Principles
  • Web based deployment i.e. applications can be
    deployed anywhere
  • Use Oracle CRM where possible or select
    applications for ease of integration to Oracle
    CRM (this was pre-selected)
  • Open Standards - LDAP, Java, Webservices, etc
  • Enterprise applications e.g. service bookings,
    scheduling, document management - scaleable,
    flexible
  • Can be remotely deployed via a centralised Data
    Centre to maximise benefits of centralised
    management
  • Software will adhere to eGovernment standards
  • The solution must provide Value for Money

41
Architecture Scope
CITIZENS
SUPPLIERS PARTNERS
USERS
AUTHORITY PROFESSIONALS
SCHOOLS
SUPPORT STAFF
CUSTOMER MGMT
PROCUREMENT
CORE SERVICES
FINANCIALS
HR
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
PAYROLL
42
Target Business Architecture
43
Conceptual Enterprise Architecture
Citizens, Visitors, Businesses, Members, Schools
Suppliers, Partners Data
Document Scanning/ Production
Channel Integration Services
Document Registration Workflow
CRM
Internet Portal
MIS
Identity Verification
Service Request
Publications
Payments
Citizen/visitor Registration
Bookings
Search Information
Disseminate Information
Security
Security
System /Service Management
Business Workflow
Presentation Integration Services
Data Management
Operations
Provisioning
Legacy Systems
Location Services
LLPG
GIS
Security
Archive
Intranet Self Service
Support
Backup Restore
Change Control
Replication
Configuration
Security
ERP
Contingency
Supplier
GL
MIS
HR
Security
AP
Procurement
Security
Debt
AR
Security
Data Integration Services
The key components of the technical architecture
44
Logical Enterprise Architecture
45
SOCITM Planning View
46
Applications Architecture
Recruits
Web

Citizens
Face-Face (Contact Centre)
SMS
Fax
Phone(Call Centre)
Mail
SuppliersCitizensStaff Other Agencies
Email
LLPG
Back Office Systems
Corporate GIS
47
Information Management Architecture
www.yourcouncil.gov.uk
EDRMS Secure Document Repository containing
fully labelled information based on eGov standards
FileNet
Oracle Portal
Oracle Portal
RightNow Knowledge Engine
Main Documents Store
Static Content KnowledgeBaseQA active
management ofanswer quality TransactionsiStore
sellingiSupplier eCommerceiRecruitment
HRPortal login security forpersonal
dataMini-sites forpartner agenciesand
otherexternal users
Content Management using Oracle Portal to
publish static pages of data to
www.yourcouncil.gov.uk , kiosk, etc. with source
data stored in EDRMS
Records Store
Approve Review Contentvia Workflow
Approve Review Formatvia Workflow
Publish toKnowledgebase
Active DocumentWorkflow
Specialised Secure Documents Stores e.g. Social
Care
Oracle modules
Further RightNow interfaces
FileNet
Specific libraries of Directorate data with
clear information ownership and responsibility
48
Legacy System Integration Overview
49
Summary
www.capgemini.com
50
An Enterprise Architecture approach offers a way
of turning the corner from disarray to
competitive advantage
What EA enables
  • Strategic analysis
  • Thought leadership
  • Technical strategy
  • Vendor strategy
  • Technology roadmaps
  • Architecture development as a unified process
  • Services architecture
  • Infrastructure architecture
  • Applications architecture
  • Data architecture
  • Security architecture
  • Governance
  • Assurance

51
Where do the benefits come from?
  • The benefits come from
  • providing real financial visibility of IT assets
    and the value they generate
  • articulating the consequences of potential
    options to executive and functional leaders
  • providing structured assessment to support fit
    for purpose benefits definition and tracking,
    helping the right projects to be selected
  • truly aligning business and technology,
    increasing satisfaction and predictability of
    project and enterprise outcomes
  • helping realise business strategy by enabling
    vision to be turned into reality, project by
    project
  • allowing leading practice architecture concepts
    to be applied across the enterprise to deliver
    more agile IT, and so deliver a more agile
    business
  • allowing leading practice design approaches, such
    as Services Oriented and Event Driven
    architectures, to be incorporated into the
    enterprise and per-project design, planning and
    governance
  • feeding in 10 years of experience and 1,000s of
    reference architectures, through the worlds most
    mature and largest architecture capability

52
In Summary Architecting for SuccessFour steps
to more flexible IT to enable an agile business
  • Understand where you are
  • Create a true snapshot of your existing
    capabilities
  • Enter into the journey as a partner with the
    business
  • Create a flexible architecture framework that
    will govern future initiatives
  • Validate Value Opportunities
  • Define the initiatives that will create the most
    value
  • Create a pace the organization can maintain be
    realistic
  • Set the value horizon to justify initial
    commitment and investment
  • Develop an Adaptive Initiative Portfolio
  • The set of initiatives that move your
    organization along the roadmap
  • Justify why projects should stay, not why they
    should go
  • Create a program justified, measured and managed
    on value
  • Recognize this is a strategic journey, not a
    tactical exercise
  • A fundamental change that requires the
    participation of the entire organization not
    just IT
  • Tomorrows business consists of more than just one
    organizationinclude the entire ecosystem

53
Making it Real with our Clients the Analyst view
  • Delivering Enterprise Architecture enabled
    transformation through technology programmes
    for major organisations such as Croydon Council,
    O2, the Inland Revenue and the MOD
  • Driving business benefits through Enterprise
    Architecture for major organisations such as
    DfES, HBOS, Kingfisher and the Home Office
  • Developing world class Enterprise Architecture
    capabilities for major organisations such as BP,
    Environment Agency and the DWP
  • Capgemini has probably the largest fleet of
    trained consultants to deliver on Services
    Oriented Architecture engagements in the world -
    IDC 2004
  • Capgemini lights the path to a service oriented
    architecture. CIOs need IT strategy advice to
    transform incompatible IT assets into efficient
    computing services - Forrester 2003
  • Capgeminis agility message has already been
    imitated by its competitors. Agile is in every
    competitors marketing message today. IDC
    believes that this copycat behaviour will only
    validate Capgeminis vision - IDC 2004

54
Capgemini UK plcin Local and Regional Government
55
Edward Schofield Chief Enterprise Architect for
the Government and Public Sector Tel 0870
9044923 Email edward.schofield_at_capgemini.com
www.capgemini.com
56
About the Collaborative Business Experience
  • Capgemini, one of the worlds foremost providers
    of Consulting, Technology and Outsourcing
    services, has a unique way of working with its
    clients, called the Collaborative Business
    Experience.
  • Backed by over three decades of industry and
    service experience, the Collaborative Business
    Experience is designed to help our clients
    achieve better, faster, more sustainable results
    through seamless access to our network of
    world-leading technology partners and
    collaboration-focused methods and tools.
  • Through commitment to mutual success and the
    achievement of tangible value, we help businesses
    implement growth strategies, leverage technology,
    and thrive through the power of collaboration.
  • Capgemini employs approximately 55,000 people
    worldwideand reported 2003 global revenues of
    5.7 billion euros.
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