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Introduction to Soil Engineering

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Clay mineral stack 0.1x10-6 m. Clay mineral 1x10-7 m. 3. Aggregate 1 to 4x10-5 m ... Diameter of tube, d. Height of rise = fn(d) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Soil Engineering


1
Introduction to Soil Engineering
  • D. A. Cameron
  • 2006

2
Particle Interactions
  • Coarse soils v. Fine soils
  • sand and gravel v. silt and clay
  • STRENGTH DERIVED FROM
  • Friction, interlock v.
  • physico-chemical interaction

3
Fine - Grained Soils
  • Cohesion
  • Apparent cohesion
    ? apparent tensile strength,
  • arising from
  • electrostatic forces
  • (are stronger, the finer the particle)

4
  • Clays form from weathering and secondary
    sedimentary processes
  • Clays are usually mixed

5
Clay mineral 1x10-7 m
3. Aggregate 1 to 4x10-5 m
2. Clay mineral stack 0.1x10-6 m
  • Clod 0.1 mm 1x10-4 m?

6
Properties of the clay minerals
  • When mixed with a little water, clays become
    plastic i.e. are able to be moulded
  • SO, moisture affects clay soil engineering
    properties

7
Properties of the clay minerals
  • Can absorb or lose water between the silicate
    sheets
  • negative charge attracts H2O
  • When water is absorbed, clays may
  • Expand !
  • water in spaces between stacked layers
  • Montmorillonite most expandable
  • Kaolinite the least

8
Illite v Montmorillonite Different forms
of bonding between these minerals
  • Illite - main component of shales and
    other argillaceous rocks
  • - stacks keyed together by K
  • - nett negative charge
  • Montmorillonite
  • - stacks keyed together by Na or Ca
  • and H2O
  • - greater nett negative charge

9
Clay Minerals capacity for water
  • i) Kaolinite (China clay)
    Water absorption, approximately 90
  • ii) Montmorillonite (Bentonite, Smectite)
    Water absorption, approximately 300 - 700
  • iii) Illite
    Intermediate water absorption

10
In Summary
  • The basic building blocks of clays are small
  • Si, O, H and Al are the chief ingredients
  • Different combinations of sheets form the basic
    micelles of clay minerals
  • Clay mineral properties vary due to the nature of
    bonding of the sheets between micelles

11
Engineering Soil Classification
  • By D.A.Cameron
  • 2006

12
The Soil Phases
PHASE DIAGRAM
THE SOIL SYSTEM
The Soil System
13
New Terms
Density ? rho Unit weight ?
gamma
e.g. ?water ?w 1 t/m3 or 1 g/cc ?
?w ?w x g 9.81 kN/m3
Soil varies between ? 15 - 21 kN/m3
14
Other densities
  • Soil dry density, ?d
  • Particle density, ?s

Mass of soil / total volume
15
Introduction to soil terms, contd
  • Particle densities range between 2.6 and 2.7 t/m3
  • Moisture content, w
  • based on mass of water
  • gravimetric

16
Moisture and Density
  • Prove that
  • where, w water content (just a ratio, not !)

17
More soil terms.
  • Void Ratio, e
  • Degree of saturation, SR

18
VOID RATIO
V Vs Vw Va
Mw, Vw
Ms, Vs
Solids
19
Soil Consistency
  • DENSITY of granular soils
  • loose, medium dense, dense,
  • or very dense
  • STRENGTH of fine-grained soils
  • soft, firm, stiff or hard

20
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
  • Based on...
  • Particle size
  • - gravel, sand, silt, clay fractions
  • Particle size distribution
  • - grading
  • Plasticity

21
Symbols of the USCS coarse grained
22
Defining Particle Sizes
Grain size (mm)
0.002
0.2
2.36
20
200
0.075
0.6
6.0
63
Basic Soil Type
F M C
F M C
CLAY
SILT
SAND
GRAVEL
COBBLES BOULDERS
Fine-grained soil
Coarse-grained soil
23
Sieve Analysis - coarse soils
Gravel (G)
Sand (S)
Silt (M)
24
Poorly Graded (P) or Gap-Graded
GP-SP
25
Particle Size Distribution Terms
P - Poorly graded (uniform sizes)
W - Well graded Good mix of sizes
P - Poorly graded Missing range of sizes
26
Fine-grained Soils
  • Too fine for sieving
  • Sedimentation and/or laser equipment?
  • Even then, sizes say nothing about clay
    mineralogy and potential soil behaviour!

?Fine-grained soils are defined by how plastic
they are
27
Symbols for Fine Grained Soils
28
Consistency Limits of Fine Soils
  • Defining water contents
  • 1. LIQUID PHASE
  • - fluid, low shear resistance
  • 2. PLASTIC PHASE
  • - easily moulded
  • 3. SOLID PHASE
  • - strong, resists deformation

29
ATTERBERG LIMITS
solid
liquid
The plastic zone
Max.
Moisture content
0
30
CONSISTENCY LIMITS
Change in Volume
PL
LL
Moisture content ()
31
Atterberg Limit Tests
  • PLASTIC LIMIT, PL
  • - by rolling soil into threads
  • - m.c. at which soil breaks at a 3 mm dia.
    thread the plastic limit
  • LIQUID LIMIT, LL
  • - basically the m.c. at which the soil
    can fairly readily be sheared

32
The Plasticity Chart
PLASTIC INDEX ()
Example LL 75 PL 32
LIQUID LIMIT ()
33
Linear Shrinkage Test
  • Change in length of half a cylinder prepared to
    LL and oven-dried
  • Basically provides volume change of a remoulded
    soil over
  • ?w plastic index

e.g. Lo 250 mm ?L 25 mm ?LS 10
34
Field Tests of the USCS for fine-grained
soils
  • Dry strength
  • relative strength of a dry ball of soil
  • prepared at PL
  • Toughness
  • near PL when remoulded
  • Dilatancy
  • volume change upon shearing
  • prepared at LL

35
Interpretation of Field Tests
  • Dry strength is low for O and M soils of low
    plasticity
  • Dry strength increases with plasticity
  • Dry strength is greater for clay soils
  • Toughness increases with plasticity
  • Silts are dilatant but clays are not!
  • dilation increase in volume (with shearing)

36
Classification of Mixed Soils
  • Wet sieve on 0.075 mm sieve
  • gt 50 retained? coarse
  • Sieve on 2.36 mm sieve
  • lt 50 retained? Sand
  • Sieve for fines
  • lt 5 SP or SW (fines insignificant)
  • gt12 SC or SM (plasticity?)

37
SUMMARY
  • Soil classification for engineering purposes is
    based on
  • 1. Fundamental particle sizes
  • AND
  • 2. Particle size distributions
  • OR
  • 3. Soil plasticity
  • (LL, PI, LS and/or field tests)

38
Barnes Chapter 4
  • D. A Cameron
  • Intro to Soils 2006

39
Soil Stresses
  • Dead weight stresses
  • Pore water pressures
  • steady state
  • no flow
  • water table
  • Effective stress

40
VERTICAL STRESSES ? ?z force from weight of
prism above soil (area of soil in x-y plane)
?z
z
?x
z
?z
x
y
41
The dead weight stresses are termed
TOTAL soil stresses
42
PORE WATER PRESSURES, ? u in a soil mass with
a water table, are due to the dead weight of
water u ?wzw
GL
Saturated zone
z
u
u
z
x
y
43
  • Concept of EFFECTIVE stress
  • Terzaghi 1923
  • PWP reduces the stress felt by the soil in a
    saturated soil system (with no air voids)

44
Diameter of tube, d
Height of rise fn(d)
45
Dead weight soil stress- total vertical stress
80 kPa
152 kPa
?v
46
Dead weight soil stress- effective vertical
stress
0 m
? 16 kN/m3
2 m
? 18 kN/m3
5 m
? 20 kN/m3
9 m
166 kPa
?v
u
47
Effective Stress Distribution
0 m
? 16 kN/m3
2 m
? 18 kN/m3
5 m
? 20 kN/m3
9 m
?v? ?v - u
48
Alternative approach effective unit weight, ??
? - ?w
0 m
?? 16 kN/m3
2 m
?? 8.2 kN/m3
5 m
?? 10.2 kN/m3
9 m
?v? ?v - u
49
COMPACTION OF SOIL The Process
  • Expulsion of AIR
  • - air void volume, Va, reduced
  • - moisture content is unchanged or constant

50
The Purpose of Compaction
  • increase
  • STRENGTH
  • STIFFNESS
  • DURABILITY
  • decrease
  • PERMEABILITY

51
Earthwork Applications
  • Earth dams, Levee banks, Road subgrades,
    Pavement layers, Subdivisions, etc
  • Water retaining structures stability with low
    permeability
  • Roads - reduce pavement thickness by increasing
    strength
  • Subdivisions - reduce footing stiffness by
    increasing foundation strength stiffness

52
Laboratory Soil Compaction
  • Compaction of all soil materials, except clean
    gravels and sands
  • (no fines or fine soil content)
  • - achieved by falling weight hammers of known
    mass and drop height
  • ? under constant energy

53
AS1289 - Standard or Modified?
  • Standard Compaction
  • light compaction (low energy),
  •  
  • (b) Modified Compaction
  • heavy compaction (high energy),
  • (thinner lifts)

54
Laboratory compaction testing- relevance?
  • How does the soil respond when compacted on site?
  • So, the laboratory method, which best replicates
    the field compaction equipment on an earthworks
    job, must be chosen

55
The Compaction Curve
  • For a particular soil and compactive effort
    ........
  • There is a unique relationship between the dry
    density that can be achieved and the moisture
    content of the soil
  • Warning NA to clean sands and gravels

56
  • Removal of all air voids is impractical
  • - ?d max at an air voids ratio, A ? 5
  • (A Va / V )
  • w at ?d max is termed the
    OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT (OMC)
  • lt OMC, the soil is stiff and dry
  • Its difficult to re-orientate particles 
  • gt OMC, the soil is too deformable
  • flows when compacted

57
The Shape of the Compaction Curve
A 5?
Dry Density
Moisture content
58
INFLUENCE OF SOIL TYPE ON COMPACTION CURVE
Sand with some fines
Dry Density
Zero air voids line
Clay
Moisture content
Constant compaction energy
59
Influence of Compaction Energy
Modified Compaction
Dry Density
Standard Compaction
Moisture content
60
Influence of Compaction Energy
  • The same effect is realised on earthworks
    projects by
  • Increasing the mass of compactors
  • Compacting in thinner lifts
  • Passing over each layer more
  • number of passes

61
Influence of Compaction on Soil Properties
  • Soil strength (stability)
  • Stiffness (settlements under load)
  • Durability (repeated loading)
  • Permeability (how
    easily water passes through)

62
Compaction and permeability
B
Dry Density or permeability
C
A
kmin
Moisture content
63
Compaction Practice
  • Compacted in thin layers or LIFTS
  • (100 to 200 mm for fine grained soil)
  • Silts and Clays - need relatively long duration
    loading
  • Sands and Gravels - vibration has greatest effect

64
Field Checks of Density
  • DIRECT a) Sand replacement method
  • INDIRECT b) radiation nuclear moisture
    density meter
  • c) soil penetration testing

65
Sand Replacement
  • Cylindrical hole cut in soil
  • Soil kept and weighed (M), then moisture content
    (w) obtained by drying the soil
  • Obtain dry sand (SP) of known density
  • (?sand) when poured from a funnel
  • Pour dry sand from container into the hole
  • Loss in mass of container and sand
  • ?M ? volume of hole (V ?M/?sand)

66
Specification of Compaction of Clean Sands
Gravels
  • Maximum compaction when either
  • bone dry or saturated
  • Capillarity resists compaction
  • Compaction defined in terms of maximum and
    minimum dry densities
  • ?d max and ?d min

67
Method clean granular soils
  • ?d min - dry sand, poured through funnel,
  • - low drop height
  • ?d max - saturated sand in cylinder with dead
    weights
  • - vibrating table

68
Description of coarse-grained soil
69
Specification of Compaction
  • AS3798 Guidelines on Earthworks for Commercial
    and Residential Developments
  • Dry Density Ratio, RD
  • Ratio of desired dry density to the maximum
    achievable by the chosen laboratory method,
  • e.g. 95 (Standard Compaction)
  • or 98 (Modified Compaction)

70
Laboratory v. Field Compaction
  • Try to match the two
  • - may need field trials to achieve this
  • May have to vary
  • Lift thickness
  • number of passes
  • Compaction equipment

71
Notes on specification
  •  

Sometimes moisture contents for compaction need
to be tightly specified.. Why? What if a soil
on site is too wet for compaction?
72
AS3798 -1990
73
SUMMARY
  • Granular soils specified by density index
  • Most soils specified by dry density ratio,RD
  • Compaction curve, ?d max and OMC
  • Not unique depends on compactive effort
  • Field compaction curves
  • Passes, lift thickness, equipment
  • Field tests for density
  • Penetration testing
  • Sand replacement
  • Nuclear density

74
  • D A Cameron
  • Civil Engineering Practice 1

75
WATER SEEPAGE water pressures
  • Water flows from points of high to low TOTAL
    head
  • WATER HEADS
  • head of water x ?w water pressure, u
  • Total head elevation head pressure head
  • i.e h hT he hp

76
Darcys Law
  • q kiA
  •  
  • where q rate of flow (m3/s)
  • i hydraulic gradient
  • A area normal to flow direction (m2)
  • k coefficient of permeability (m/s)

77
Hydraulic Gradient, i
Area of flow, A
Flow rate, q
Length of flow, l
78
Hydraulic Conductivity
  • Coefficient of permeability or just
    permeability
  • SATURATED soil permeability

Hazens formula, for clean, almost uniform sands
m/sec from mm
79
TYPICAL PERMEABILITIES
  • Clean gravels gt 10-1
    m/s
  • Clean sands, sand-gravel 10-4 to 10-2 m/s
  • Fine sands, silts 10-7 to 10-4
    m/s
  • Intact clays, clay-silts 10-10 to 10-7
    m/s

80
Measuring Permeability
  • A Laboratory
  • Constant head test
  • Falling head test
  • Other

A Laboratory How good is the sample?
B Field Need to know soil profile (incl. WT)
boundary conditions
  • B Field
  • Pumping tests
  • Borehole infiltration
  • tests

81
Lab Test 1 Constant head test
  • Cylinder of saturated coarse grained soil
  • Water fed under constant head
  • elevated water tank with overflow
  • Rate of outflow measured
  • Repeat the above after raising the water tank

82
Test 2 Falling head permeameter
  • For fine sands, silts, maybe clays
  • Rate of water penetration into cylindrical sample
    from loss of head in feeder tube
  • Must ensure
  • no evaporation
  • sufficient water passes through
  • A slow procedure

83
3. Field testing drawdown test
Pumping well
Water table
r2
r1
Impermeable boundary
84
Drawdown test
  • Needs
  • a well-defined water table
  • and confining boundary
  • Must be able to
  • pull down water table
  • and create flow
  • (phreatic line uppermost flow line)

85
Flow Lines shortest paths for water to exit
Phreatic surface
Equipotential lines
Flow tube
86
The Flow Net - FLOW LINES
Run ? parallel to impervious boundaries
(impermeable walls or cut-offs) and the
phreatic surface The Phreatic surface is the
top flow line 2 consecutive flow lines constitute
a flow tube
87
The Flow Net - EQUIPOTENTIALS
  • Are lines of equal total head
  • The total head loss between consecutive
    equipotentials is constant
  • Equipotentials can be derived from boundary
    conditions and flow lines

88
Flownet Basics
  • Water flow follows paths of maximum hydraulic
    gradient, imax
  • flow lines and equipotentials must cross at 90,
    since

89
Since ?q is the same, ratio of sides will be
constant for all the squares along the flow tube
5 Flow Lines
M
Equi- potential lines
Impervious boundary
90
Flownet Construction
91
Flow Net Calculations
  • Total flow for Nf flow channels, per unit
    width is  

But only for curvilinear squares!
92
Critical hydraulic gradient, ic
  • The value of i for which the effective stress in
    the saturated system becomes ZERO!
  • Consequences
  • no stress to hold granular soils together
  • ? soil may flow ?
  • boiling or piping EROSION!

93
Likelihood of Erosion
GRANULAR SOILS chiefly! When the effective stress
becomes zero, no stress is carried by the soil
grains Note when flow is downwards, the
effective stress is increased! So the erosion
problem and ensuing instability is most likely
for upward flow, i.e. water exit points through
the foundations of dams and cut-off walls
94
Minimising the risk of erosion
  • 1. Add more weight at exit points

permeable concrete mats?
95
Lengthen flow path?
1. Deeper cut-offs 2. Horizontal barriers 3.
Impermeable blanket on exit surface
96
Simple cut-offs (FESEEP)
Nf 5 Nd 10
97
Impermeable Clay Blanket
98
Key Points
  • Heads in soil
  • Darcys Law
  • Coefficient of permeability
  • Measurement of permeability
  • Flownets
  • Flownet rules
  • Seepage from flownets
  • Piping, boiling or erosion
  • Critical hydraulic gradient
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