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Greenbug Expert System and

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Take more samples in fields greater than 80 acres. Oklahoma State University ... Dr. Norm Elliott -Biological control, Area-wide management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greenbug Expert System and


1
Greenbug Expert System and Glance N Go
Sampling for Cereal Aphids Results of Field
Testing
Tom A. Royer Department of Entomology Plant
Pathology
2
What is the Cereal Aphid Pest Management Expert
System?
  • A computer program located at http//entoplp.oksta
    te.edu/gbweb/index.htm
  • Developed by USDA ARS, SST Development Group and
    OSU.
  • It has several elements
  • Information on cereal aphids (UPDATED July 2005)
  • A calculator for determining economic thresholds
    for greenbug infestations.
  • A natural enemy module (UPDATED July 2005)
  • A pesticide information module. (UPDATED July
    2005)
  • A set of sampling plans for each economic
    threshold (UPDATED June 2004)

3
Objectives for Developing Greenbug Expert System
In Winter Wheat
  • Establish a treatment threshold based upon
    accurate Economic Injury Levels (EILs) for cereal
    aphids in different wheat production systems
    (dual purpose, grain only, forage?).
  • Create a simple, accurate sampling strategy that
    reflects differences in aphid distribution
    patterns, crop susceptibility and natural enemy
    activity (Glance n Go).
  • Develop an educational tool with information on
    natural enemies, pesticide selection and aphid
    biology.
  • Develop a flexible system that could be expanded
    as additional information became available and/or
    interface with real-time weather data.

4
Why Is This System Needed?
  • Past recommendations for managing greenbugs were
    not determined from research-based damage
    relationships for grain or forage yield.
  • No recommendations on managing BCOA.
  • Consideration of natural enemy activity was
    rudimentary
  • No consideration of production system (grain vs.
    dual purpose vs. forage).

5
How Were These Tools Developed?
  • Greenbug Treatment Thresholds based on an
    Economic Injury Level and a temperature-based
    greenbug development rate (Kindler et al 2003).
  • Aphid Mummy decision tool built into system Giles
    et al 2004).
  • BCOA Research in progress, but will soon be
    incorporated into new recommendations

6
What is a Treatment Threshold (also known as an
Economic Threshold)
  • A Treatment Threshold is based upon an existing
    Economic Injury Level (Kindler et al. 2003) and a
    sampling method (Giles et al 2000) that can
    effectively estimate pest numbers in a
    time-efficient manner.

7
Using an Economic Injury Level
  • Economic Injury Levels account for
  • Cost of control
  • Value of commodity
  • Yield loss/pest unit
  • Loss prevented by control

8
A Treatment Threshold or Economic Threshold (ET)
is a Decision Tool
9
A Treatment Threshold or Economic Threshold (ET)
is a Decision Tool
10
What Does the Greenbug Expert System Provide?
  • It is capable of using weather data to calculate
    treatment thresholds based upon the time of year

11
What Does the Greenbug Expert System Provide?
  • It allows a producer to play the what If game
    with pesticide costs, market values

12
What Does the Greenbug Expert System Provide?
  • It has a full complement of treatment threshold
    forms that can be printed off to serve as a
    permanent record of the sampling results

13
What Does the Greenbug Expert System Provide?
Aphid Biology
  • It has other educational modules that can be used

Natural Enemies
Insecticide Selector
14
What Does the Greenbug Expert System Provide?
  • It is readily adaptable to new results once they
    become available.

15
What is Glance n Go Sampling ?
  • Presence/Absence Sampling A sampling plan that
    estimates greenbug numbers without actually
    counting them, by counting infested tillers
    (GLANCE).
  • Sequential Sampling
  • Allows you to make treatment decisions On The
    GO You take only as many samples as needed to
    make a decision. Some fields may require only a
    very few samples, so you can move on to the next
    field.

16
Sampling for Aphids in WheatPast Guidelines for
Greenbug
  • Wait for evidence of injury (yellow spots etc in
    field)
  • Examine 1 foot of row in at least 5 locations per
    field
  • Avoid field edges
  • Take more samples in fields greater than 80 acres

17
Development of Glance n Go for Greenbugs
  • Developed Glance n Go sampling plan, with
    statistical probabilities using 100 fields in
    Oklahoma.
  • Actively sought input from from County Extension
    Educators, and crop consultants to make it as
    usable as possible.
  • We are administering a tool to try and measure
    impact and adoption of this method over 3-5 years.

18
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Examine 15 - 90 individual tillers, collecting 3
    samples per stop

19
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Record counts of infested tillers, i.e. that have
    one or more greenbugs on a Glance n Go form,
    which is based on the time of year, and the
    pre-determined economic threshold.

20
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Example of a Decision to Treat

21
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Example of a Decision to Not Treat.

22
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Example of a Decision to Not Treat.

23
How does Glance n Go Sampling for Greenbugs
Work?
  • Example of a No-Decision

24
Why Does the Time of Year matter for Glance n
Go Sampling ?
  • Patterns of infestation vary from year to year.
  • Fall infestations normally occur from
    colonization of winged adults
  • Spring infestations often develop from
    overwintering aphids that were already in the
    wheat field

25
Greenbug Distribution Patterns in Winter Wheat in
Oklahoma
26
Greenbug Distribution Patterns in Winter Wheat in
Oklahoma
27
Why Doesnt the Size of the Wheat Plant matter
for Glance n Go Sampling ?
  • AFTER the wheat reaches the 4 leaf stage, our
    research showed that greenbugs reduced yield in a
    consistent manner, regardless of the size of the
    plant.

28
New Promises?
  • Build in assessment of Bird cherry oat aphid into
    decision system.
  • Develop similar system for Russian wheat aphid.
  • Understand the economics of forage reductions by
    fall aphid infestations.

29
Team Approach to Cereal Aphid Management
  • USDA-ARS Laboratory Scientists
  • Dr. Norm Elliott -Biological control, Area-wide
    management
  • Dr. Dean Kindler-Host range, developmental
    biology
  • Dr. Dave Porter - Host plant Resistance
  • OSU
  • Dr. Kristopher Giles - Biological control,
    integrated management of cereal aphids
  • Dr. Eugene Krenzer - Wheat production
  • Dr. Robert Hunger - BYDV management
  • Dr. Tom Peeper - Chemical weed control.

30
Greenbug Expert System and Glance N Go
Sampling for Cereal Aphids in Winter Wheat
Tom A. Royer Department of Entomology Plant
Pathology
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