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Daily Grammar Practice

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Title: Daily Grammar Practice


1
Daily Grammar Practice
A Grammar Program That Makes Sense
2
Why Grammar?
  • Colleges and technical schools say that students
    arent prepared for the demands of academic
    writing.

3
Ezarik, M. (2003). Survey K-12, higher ed
grammar disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate The latest
developments in math, science, language arts and
social studies). DistrictAdministration, 39(7),
46.
4
Why Grammar?
  • Business leaders complain that employees cant
    write grammatically correct documents.
  • We expect students to edit for grammatical and
    mechanical errors, but they cant apply what they
    dont understand.

5
Why Grammar?
  • In order to help students write better and write
    correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and
    that lingo is grammar.

6
lie rise sit intransitive
7
Why Grammar?
  • A student who understands the nuts and bolts of a
    language can use that language more effectively.
  • Students need to know grammar concepts for
    standardized tests such as exit exams and the SAT.

8
George Hillocks and Michael Smith (1991) argue
that the teaching of school grammar has little
or no effect on students and that grammar
instruction wastes valuable time that could be
better spent on writing instruction.
Hillocks, G., Jr., Smith, M. W. (1991). Grammar
and usage. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp,
J. R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on
teaching the English language arts (591-603). New
York Macmillan.
9
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Works like a daily grammar vitamin

10
The Vitamin Analogy
  • Learning through grammar unit taking a whole
    bottle of vitamins at once.
  • Learning grammar in context or through daily
    correct-a-sentence taking random vitamins at
    random times but not getting a multi-vitamin
    every day.
  • Learning through whole language eating
    vegetables and hoping you get what you need.

11
The Vitamin Analogy
  • Learning grammar by trying to make it fun
    eating candy
  • Learning grammar through DGP getting a good
    multi-vitamin every day

12
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Is more effective than other daily programs
  • Is effective at every grade level
  • Is effective for every ability level
  • Is effective for English Language Learners

13
Research on the teaching of grammar to students
learning a second language suggests that grammar
provides rules and general guidance that
facilitate better understanding of the structures
of the target language (Gao, 2001).
Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and
the teaching of grammar. Education, 122(2),
326-336.
14
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Is easy to incorporate into curriculum
  • Takes less time than traditional, less effective
    methods

15
Rei Noguchi (1991) states that teachers should
make more time available for other writing
activities by making less grammar do
more. Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the
teaching of writing Limits and possibilities.
Urbana, IL National Council of Teachers of
English.
16
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Forces grammar concepts into long-term memory.

17
In order to apply skills that they have learned,
students need to know the skills on a
subconscious level. To achieve this
understanding, they must engage in practice that
gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to
massed (Marzano, Pickering, Pollock, 2001).
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., Pollock, J.
E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works
Research-based strategies for increasing student
achievement. Alexandria, VA Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.
18
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Enables learners to apply grammar concepts to
    their writing
  • Follows a logical progression at each grade level
    and from first grade through college
  • Breaks concepts into small parts while helping
    learners to see how all parts work together

19
Students struggle to understand concepts in
isolation, to learn parts without seeing wholes
(Brooks Brooks, 1993).
Brooks, J. G., Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search
of understanding The case for constructivist
classrooms. Alexandria, VA Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.
20
Why Daily Grammar Practice?
  • Eliminates the need for tedious grammar exercises
  • Complements all types of writing instruction

21
The DGP Process
  • Monday Identify parts of speech

22
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23
The DGP Process
  • Monday Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday Identify sentence functions

24
The DGP Process
  • Monday Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday Identify clauses and sentence type

25
The DGP Process
  • Monday Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday Identify clauses and sentence type
  • Thursday Add punctuation and capitalization

26
The DGP Process
  • Monday Identify parts of speech
  • Tuesday Identify sentence functions
  • Wednesday Identify clauses and sentence type
  • Thursday Add punctuation and capitalization
  • Friday Diagram the sentence

27
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28
Week 27 Monday
29
1 nom pron
av past
rel pron
art
n
N
hv
we read the novel the giver which was written by
lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it
av past
1 nom pron
av/past
prep
N
cc
adv
3 obj pron
art
n
prep
30
Week 27 Tuesday
31
v
s
do
t
app
s
we read the novel the giver which was written by
lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it
v
i
op
v
s
t
(
)
adv pp
do
op
( )
adj pp
32
Week 27 Wednesday
33
ind
adj dep
we read the novel the giver which was written by
lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it





ind

cd-cx
declarative
34
Week 27 Thursday
35
we read the novel the giver which was written by
lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it
W
T
G
________
,
L
L
,
.
36
Week 27 Friday
37
We
(The Giver)
read
novel
the
which
was written
and
by
Lois Lowry
we
wrote
essay
an
then
about
it
38
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39
The DGP Process (Grade 2)
  • Identify nouns and pronouns
  • Identify adjectives and interjections
  • Identify subjects and verbs
  • Identify sentence purpose
  • Add punctuation and capitalization

40
Week 1 Monday
41
P
P
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
42
Week 1 Tuesday
43
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
44
Week 1 Wednesday
45
A
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
46
Week 1 Thursday
47
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
dec
48
Week 1 Friday
49

jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
J
I
J
.
50
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51
Scope and Sequence for first grade through
college based on curriculum standards for 30
different states
52
Grade 1
  • Monday Find each common noun, proper noun,
    possessive noun, and pronoun in the following
    sentence.
  • Tuesday Find the adjectives and interjections in
    the following sentence. Use an arrow to show
    which word each adjective describes. 
  • Wednesday Find the verbs in the following
    sentence. Then underline the noun or pronoun
    that is doing the action. 
  • Thursday Identify the sentence purpose as
    declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or
    interrogative.
  • Friday On a piece of paper, write this weeks
    sentence with correct capitalization and
    punctuation.

53
Grade 2
  • Monday Identify each common noun, proper noun,
    possessive noun, and pronoun in the following
    sentence.
  • Tuesday Identify the adjectives and
    interjections in the following sentence. Use an
    arrow to show which word each adjective
    describes.
  • Wednesday Identify the action verbs and linking
    verbs in the following sentence. Then underline
    the simple subject once and the simple predicate
    twice.
  • Thursday Identify the sentence purpose as
    declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or
    interrogative.
  • Friday Write this weeks sentence with correct
    capitalization and punctuation.

54
Grade 3
  • Monday Identify each common noun, proper noun,
    possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective
    pronoun, and possessive pronoun in the following
    sentence.
  • Tuesday Identify the interjections, adjectives,
    helping verbs, linking verbs, and action verbs in
    the following sentence. Use an arrow to show
    which word each adjective describes.
  • Wednesday Identify the simple subject, simple
    predicate, complete subject, and complete
    predicate in the following sentence.
  • Thursday Identify the sentence purpose as
    declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or
    interrogative.
  • Friday Write this weeks sentence with correct
    capitalization and punctuation.

55
Grade 4
  • Monday Identify each common noun, proper noun,
    possessive noun, nominative pronoun, objective
    pronoun, possessive pronoun, adjective,
    conjunction, and interjection.
  • Tuesday Identify each verb and adverb. Then
    identify the tense of each verb.
  • Wednesday Identify the simple and complete
    subject and the simple and complete predicate.
  • Thursday Identify the sentence type as either
    simple or compound and the sentence purpose as
    declarative, imperative, interrogative, or
    exclamatory.
  • Friday Write out this weeks sentence using
    correct capitalization and punctuation including
    end punctuation, commas, apostrophes,
    underlining, and quotation marks.

56
Grade 5
  • Monday Identify each common noun, proper noun,
    nominative pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive
    pronoun, adjective, verb (including type and
    tense), adverb, preposition, conjunction, and
    interjection.
  • Tuesday Identify the simple and complete
    subject, the simple and complete predicate, and
    any complements, prepositional phrases, and
    objects of prepositions.
  • Wednesday Identify the sentence type as either
    simple or compound and the sentence purpose as
    declarative, imperative, interrogative, or
    exclamatory.
  • Thursday Add capitalization and punctuation
    including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes,
    underlining, and quotation marks. 
  • Friday Use this weeks sentence to fill in the
    following diagram structure

57
Grade 6
  • Monday Identify each word as noun (common,
    proper, possessive), pronoun (interrogative,
    possessive, nominative, objective, demonstrative,
    indefinite), verb (helping, linking, action,
    tense), adverb, adjective, preposition,
    conjunction (coordinating, subordinating,
    correlative), interjection, or article.
  • Tuesday Identify sentence parts including
    subject (complete and simple), complete
    predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive),
    direct object, indirect object, predicate
    nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or
    appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase
    (adjective or adverb).
  • Wednesday Identify each clause as independent or
    dependent identify the sentence type as simple,
    compound, or complex and identify the sentence
    purpose as declarative, imperative,
    interrogative, or exclamatory.
  • Thursday Add capitalization and punctuation
    including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes,
    underlining, and quotation marks. 
  • Friday Fill in the diagram structure using this
    weeks sentence.

58
Grade 7
  • Monday Identify each word as noun (common,
    proper, possessive), pronoun (relative,
    interrogative, possessive, nominative, objective,
    demonstrative, indefinite, reflexive), verb
    (helping, linking, action, tense), adverb,
    adjective, article, preposition, conjunction
    (coordinating, subordinating, correlative),
    interjection, gerund, participle, or infinitive.
  • Tuesday Identify sentence parts including
    subject (complete and simple), verb (complete and
    simple, transitive or intransitive), direct
    object, indirect object, predicate nominative,
    predicate adjective, appositive or appositive
    phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or
    adverb).
  • Wednesday Identify each clause as independent,
    adjective dependent, or adverb dependent
    identify the sentence type as simple, compound,
    or complex and identify the sentence purpose as
    declarative, imperative, interrogative, or
    exclamatory.
  • Thursday Add capitalization and punctuation
    including end punctuation, commas, semicolons,
    apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.
  • Friday Diagram this weeks sentence.

59
Grade 8
  • Monday Identify parts of speech including noun,
    pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense),
    adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction
    (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, and
    article.
  • Tuesday Identify sentence parts including
    complete subject, simple subject, complete
    predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive),
    direct object, indirect object, predicate
    nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or
    appositive phrase, prepositional phrase
    (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive
    phrase, participial phrase, object of
    preposition, object of infinitive, and object of
    gerund.
  • Wednesday Identify clauses (independent, adverb
    dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent),
    sentence type (simple, compound, complex,
    compound-complex), and sentence purpose
    (declarative, interrogative, imperative,
    exclamatory).
  • Thursday Add capitalization and punctuation
    including end punctuation, commas, semicolons,
    apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks.
  • Friday Diagram the sentence.

60
Grade 9
  • Monday identify parts of speech noun, pronoun
    (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb,
    adjective, preposition, conjunction (type),
    gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday identify sentence parts subject, verb
    (transitive or intransitive), direct object,
    indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate
    adjective, appositive or appositive phrase,
    prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb),
    gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial
    phrase, object of preposition, object of
    infinitive, object of gerund, object of
    participle
  • Wednesday identify clauses and sentence type
    independent, adverb dependent, adjective
    dependent, noun dependent simple, compound,
    complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday add punctuation and capitalization end
    punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes,
    underlining, quotation marks
  • Friday diagram the sentence

61
Grade 10
  • Monday identify parts of speech noun, pronoun
    (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb,
    adjective, preposition, conjunction (type),
    gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday identify sentence parts subject, verb
    (transitive or intransitive), direct object,
    indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate
    adjective, appositive or appositive phrase,
    prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb),
    gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial
    phrase, object of preposition, object of
    infinitive, object of gerund, object of
    participle
  • Wednesday identify clauses and sentence type
    independent, adverb dependent, adjective
    dependent, noun dependent simple, compound,
    complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday add punctuation and capitalization end
    punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes,
    underlining, quotation marks
  • Friday diagram the sentence

62
Grade 11
  • Monday identify parts of speech noun, pronoun
    (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb,
    adjective, preposition, conjunction (type),
    gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday identify sentence parts subject, verb
    (transitive or intransitive), direct object,
    indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate
    adjective, appositive or appositive phrase,
    prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb),
    gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial
    phrase, object of preposition, object of
    infinitive, object of gerund, object of
    participle, objective complements
  • Wednesday identify clauses and sentence type
    independent, adverb dependent, adjective
    dependent, noun dependent simple, compound,
    complex, compound-complex
  • Thursday add punctuation and capitalization end
    punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes,
    underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes,
    hyphens 
  • Friday diagram the sentence

63
Grade 12
  • Monday identify parts of speech noun, pronoun
    (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb,
    adjective, preposition, conjunction (type),
    gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Tuesday identify sentence parts subject, verb
    (transitive or intransitive), direct object,
    indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate
    adjective, appositive or appositive phrase,
    prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb),
    gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial
    phrase, object of preposition, object of
    infinitive, object of gerund, object of
    participle, objective complement, subject of
    infinitive, absolute phrase
  • Wednesday identify clauses and sentence type
    independent, adverb dependent, adjective
    dependent, noun dependent simple, compound,
    complex, compound-complex 
  • Thursday add punctuation and capitalization end
    punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes,
    underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes,
    hyphens
  • Friday diagram the sentence

64
College Level
  • Step One identify parts of speech noun, pronoun
    (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb,
    adjective, preposition, conjunction (type),
    gerund, participle, infinitive, article
  • Step Two identify sentence parts subject, verb
    (transitive or intransitive), direct object,
    indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate
    adjective, appositive or appositive phrase,
    prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb),
    gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial
    phrase, object of preposition, object of
    infinitive, object of gerund, object of
    participle, objective complement, subject of
    infinitive, absolute phrase
  • Step Three identify clauses and sentence type
    independent, adverb dependent, adjective
    dependent, noun dependent simple, compound,
    complex, compound-complex 
  • Step Four add punctuation and capitalization
    end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes,
    underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes,
    hyphens
  • Step Five diagram the sentence

65
Motivating Students to Try
  • Its practice, so theres no pressure.
  • Your students know they dont get grammar.
  • DGP wont go away like a two-week grammar unit
    will.
  • DGP is served in small helpings.
  • Positive reinforcement works!

66
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test

67
Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test
  • Kedron Elementary School third-graders
  • TTotal language arts
  • SCRSentence construction and revision
  • GMGrammar and mechanics

68
Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test
  • Kedron Elementary School students
  • TTotal language arts
  • SCRSentence construction and revision
  • GMGrammar and mechanics

69
Pre-test and Post-test Results
  • 44 students tested
  • Grade 9 pre-test average 71.4
  • Grade 9 post-test average 90.1 (19.7)
  • Grade 10 pre-test average 88.7 (-1.4)

70
Pre-test and Post-test Results
  • 102 eighth-graders tested
  • Average pre-test score 69.1
  • Average post-test score without DGP 73.6 (4.5)
  • Average post-test score with DGP 89.9 (20.8)

71
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences

72
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73
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences
  • Application of concepts

74
Evaluating Student Progress
  • Pre-test and post-test
  • Daily sentences
  • Application of concepts
  • DGP quiz

75
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76
Warnings
  • You must make DGP a priority every day.
  • Dont let yourself get discouraged.
  • The daily habit of doing DGP will take a couple
    of weeks to instill.
  • You must know grammar well to teach it well.
  • You have to use the lingo when you talk about
    writing.

77
DGP Plus Building Stronger Writers
78
Super Sentences
  • My friend got a puppy.

79
No Adjectives Allowed
80
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