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Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm

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Takes advantage of best features of technologies. Hybrid AI ... Search engines return too much information, reflecting lack of knowledge structure or taxonomy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm


1
Managing Knowledge in the Digital Firm
Chapter 11
2
Objectives
  1. What is knowledge management? Why do businesses
    today need knowledge management programs and
    systems for knowledge management?
  2. What types of systems are used for
    enterprise-wide knowledge management? How do they
    provide value for organizations?
  3. How do knowledge work systems provide value for
    firms? What are the major types of knowledge work
    systems?

3
Objectives
  • What are the business benefits of using
    intelligent techniques for knowledge management?
  • What major management issues and problems are
    raised by knowledge management systems? How can
    firms obtain value from their investments in
    knowledge management systems?

4
Management Challenges
  • Designing knowledge systems that genuinely
    enhance organizational performance
  • Identifying and implementing appropriate
    organizational applications for artificial
    intelligence

5
The Knowledge Management Landscape
Important Dimensions of Knowledge
  • Knowledge
  • Wisdom
  • Tacit knowledge
  • Explicit knowledge

6
The Knowledge Management Landscape
U.S enterprise knowledge management software
revenues, 2001-2006
Figure 11-1
7
The Knowledge Management Landscape
Important Dimensions of Knowledge
  • Knowledge
  • Is a firm asset
  • Has different forms
  • Has a location
  • Is situational

8
The Knowledge Management Landscape
Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management
  • Organizational learning Creation of new standard
    operating procedures and business processes
    reflecting experience
  • Knowledge management Set of processes developed
    in an organization to create, gather, store,
    disseminate, and apply knowledge

9
The Knowledge Management Landscape
The knowledge management value chain
Figure 11-2
10
The Knowledge Management Landscape
The Knowledge Management Value Chain
  • Knowledge acquisition
  • Knowledge storage
  • Knowledge dissemination
  • Knowledge application

11
The Knowledge Management Landscape
The Knowledge Management Value Chain
  • Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) Senior executive
    in charge of the organization's knowledge
    management program
  • Communities of Practice (COP) Informal groups
    who may live or work in different locations but
    share a common profession

12
Types of Knowledge Management Systems
Types of Knowledge Management Systems
  • Enterprise Knowledge Management Systems General
    purpose, integrated, and firm-wide systems to
    collect, store and disseminate digital content
    and knowledge
  • Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Information systems
    that aid knowledge workers in the creation and
    integration of new knowledge in the organization
  • Intelligent Techniques Datamining and artificial
    intelligence technologies used for discovering,
    codifying, storing, and extending knowledge

13
Types of Knowledge Management Systems
Major types of knowledge management systems
Figure 11-3
14
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Structured Knowledge Systems
  • Structured knowledge
  • Semistructured knowledge
  • Knowledge repository
  • Knowledge network

15
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Enterprise-wide knowledge management systems
Figure 11-4
16
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
KWorlds knowledge domain
Figure 11-5
17
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
KPMG knowledge system processes
Figure 11-6
18
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Window on Technology
  • DaimlerChrysler Learns to Manage
  • Its Digital Assets
  • What are the management benefits of using a
    digital asset management system?
  • How does ADAM provide value for DaimlerChrysler?

19
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Organizing Knowledge Taxonomies and Tagging
  • Taxonomy Method of classifying things according
    to a predetermined system
  • Tagging Once a knowledge taxonomy is produced,
    documents are tagged with proper classification

20
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Hummingbirds integrated knowledge management
system
Figure 11-7
21
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Knowledge Networks
  • Key Functions of an Enterprise Knowledge Network
  • Knowledge exchange services
  • Community of practice support
  • Auto-Profiling Capabilities
  • Knowledge management services

22
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
The problem of distributed knowledge
Figure 11-8
23
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
AskMe Enterprise knowledge network system
Figure 11-9
24
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Portals, Collaboration Tools, and Learning
Management Systems
  • Teamware Group collaboration software running on
    intranets that is customized for teamwork

25
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Portals, Collaboration Tools, and Learning
Management Systems
  • Learning Management Systems (LMS) Tools for the
    management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of
    various types of employee learning

26
Enterprise-Wide Knowledge Management Systems
Window on Management
  • Managing Employee Learning New Tools, New
    Benefits
  • What are the management benefits of using
    learning management systems?
  • How do they provide value to Alyeska and APL

27
Knowledge Work Systems
Knowledge Workers and Knowledge Work
  • Knowledge workers perform 3 key roles
  • Keeping the organization current in knowledge as
    it develops in the external world
  • Serving as integral consultants regarding the
    areas of their knowledge, the changes taking
    place, and opportunities
  • Acting as change agents

28
Knowledge Work Systems
Requirements of knowledge work systems
Figure 11-10
29
Knowledge Work Systems
Examples of Knowledge Work Systems
  • Computer-aided design (CAD)
  • Virtual reality systems
  • Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
  • Investment workstations

30
Intelligent Techniques
Capturing Knowledge Expert Systems
  • Knowledge Base Model of human knowledge
  • Rule-based Expert System Collection in an AI
    system represented in the the form of IF-THEN

31
Intelligent Techniques
Capturing Knowledge Expert Systems
  • AI shell programming environment
  • Inference Engine strategy used to search
    through the rule base
  • Forward Chaining strategy for searching the
    rules base that begins with the information
    entered by user and searches the rule base to
    arrive at a conclusion

32
Intelligent Techniques
Rules in an AI program
Figure 11-11
33
Intelligent Techniques
Inference engines in expert systems
Figure 11-12
34
Intelligent Techniques
Capturing Knowledge Expert Systems
  • Backward Chaining Strategy for searching the
    rule base in an expert system that acts as a
    problem solver
  • Knowledge Engineer Specialist who elicits
    information and expertise from other
    professionals and translates it into set of rules
    for an expert system

35
Intelligent Techniques
Examples of Successful Expert Systems
  • Galeria Kaufhof
  • Countrywide Funding Corp.

36
Intelligent Techniques
Organizational Intelligence Case-Based Reasoning
  • Case-based Reasoning (CBR) Artificial
    intelligence technology that represents knowledge
    as a database of cases and solutions

37
Intelligent Techniques
How case-based reasoning works
Figure 11-13
38
Fuzzy Logic Systems
Fuzzy Logic Systems
  • Rule-based AI
  • Tolerates imprecision
  • Uses nonspecific terms called membership
    functions to solve problems

39
Fuzzy Logic Systems
Implementing fuzzy logic rules in hardware
Figure 11-14
40
Neural Networks
Neural Networks
  • Hardware or software emulating processing
    patterns of biological brain
  • Put intelligence into hardware in form of a
    generalized capability to learn

41
Neural Networks
How a neural network works
Figure 11-15
42
Genetic Algorithms
Genetic Algorithms
  • Problem-solving methods
  • Promote evolution of solutions to specified
    problems
  • Use a model of living organisms adapting to their
    environment

43
Genetic Algorithms
The components of a genetic algorithm
Figure 11-16
44
Genetic Algorithms
Hybrid AI Systems
  • Integration of multiple AI technologies into a
    single application
  • Takes advantage of best features of technologies

45
Intelligent Agents
Intelligent Agents
  • Software program that uses built-in or learned
    knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive,
    and predictable tasks for an individual user,
    business process, or software application

46
Intelligent Agents
Intelligent agent technology at work
Figure 11-17
47
Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems
Implementation Challenges
  • Insufficient resources available to structure and
    update the content in repositories
  • Poor quality and high variability of content
    quality because of insufficient mechanisms
  • Content in repositories lacks context, making
    documents difficult to understand

48
Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems
Implementation Challenges
  • Individual employees not rewarded for
    contributing content, and many fear sharing
    knowledge with others on the job
  • Search engines return too much information,
    reflecting lack of knowledge structure or taxonomy

49
Management Issues for Knowledge Management Systems
Implementing knowledge management projects in
stages
Figure 11-18
50
Obtaining Value from Knowledge Management Systems
Obtaining Value from Knowledge Management Systems
  1. Develop in stages
  2. Choose a high-value business process
  3. Choose the right audience
  4. Measure ROI during initial implementation
  5. Use the preliminary ROI to project
    enterprise-wide values

51
Chapter 11 Case Study
Can Knowledge Systems Help Procter Gamble Stay
Ahead of the Pack?
  1. Analyze PGs business strategy using the value
    chain and competitive forces models.
  2. What business and technology conditions caused
    PG to change its business strategy? What
    management, organization, and technology problems
    did PG face?

52
Chapter 11 Case Study
Can Knowledge Systems Help Procter Gamble Stay
Ahead of the Pack?
  • What is the role of knowledge management in
    supporting PGs business strategy? Explain how
    knowledge management systems help PG execute its
    business strategy.
  • How successful has PG been in pursuing its
    business strategy and using knowledge management?
    How successful do you think that strategy will be
    in the future? Explain your answer.
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