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Self Esteem and Childrens Reactions to Youth Sport Coaching Behaviors: A Field Study of SelfEnhancem

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Little League Baseball Program. Mean age of player is 11.12 years old ... The greatest differences in attraction scores toward their coach who differed in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Self Esteem and Childrens Reactions to Youth Sport Coaching Behaviors: A Field Study of SelfEnhancem


1
Self Esteem and Childrens Reactions to Youth
Sport Coaching BehaviorsA Field Study of
Self-Enhancement Processes
  • Ronald E. Smith and Frank L. Smoll, 1990
  • University of Washington
  • Angela Hapke Cheris Samuels

2
Outline
  • Background information
  • Research Question
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Interpretation Implications
  • Conclusion

3
Background Information
  • Tesser, 1988 provided a study on the
    Self-enhancement Theory, which states that people
    are motivated by a general desire to achieve and
    maintain a positive self-regard.
  • The study reported by Jacob, Berscheid, and
    Walster, 1971 showed that male college students
    reacted more positively if the women accepted
    them, than if she had clearly rejected them,
    during feedback. Which supported the self
    enhancement theory.

4
Background Information cont.
  • Dittes 1959, selected subjects of various levels
    self-esteem, then reported feedback to each group
    of their acceptance. Dittes found that all groups
    preferred the accepting group. The difference
    between the attraction responses toward accepting
    and rejecting others, was especially large in the
    low self-esteem subjects.

5
Background Information cont.
  • Covington and Beery, 1977 found that children who
    have low self-esteem adopted strategies like
    avoiding participation, when they think they will
    fail. They set unrealistic goals and dont try
    hard on difficult tasks. The children seem highly
    motivated to avoid failure and preserve what
    little self worth they have.

6
Research Question
  • What is the difference between athletes
    self-esteem relating to supportiveness and
    development through instruction by their coaches
    (specifically baseball)?

7
Methodologies
  • Subjects
  • 51 male head coaches
  • 542 male athletes
  • Little League Baseball Program
  • Mean age of player is 11.12 years old
  • 83 of study population was interviewed

8
Methodologies cont.
  • Instrumentation
  • Individually administered interviews and
    questionnaire in childs homes
  • Children were given 14 questions and asked to
    rate themselves on a 5-point scale ranging from
    very much like me to not at all like me (mean
    score was 50.66)
  • The interview was given and the children rated
    themselves on a 7-point scale (for
    confidentiality)
  • Last two weeks of season
  • Coaching Behavior Assessment System Smith, Smoll,
    and Hunt, 1977a

9
Methodologies cont.
  • Coaching Behavior Assessment System
  • This system was developed to permit the direct
    observation of coaches behavior during practices
    and games (Smith and Smoll, p.988).
  • Every behavior the coaches exhibited was recorded
    during the game, between 175 to 250 were
    recorded.
  • Frequency of behavior / Total behavior codes
    percentage for each of 12 categories
  • The number they got was averaged across games to
    produce a mean percentage score for coaches
    behavior
  • 12 categories divided into 2 major classes of
    behaviors
  • 1. Reactive/ Spontaneous Behavior
  • 2. Coding and Training Behavior

10
Methodologies cont.Responses to desirable
performance/effort
  • Reinforcement (R)
  • Praising or patting on back
  • Non-reinforcement (NR)
  • Failure of acknowledgement
  • Mistake-contingent Encouragement (EM)
  • Reassurance
  • Mistake-contingent Technical Instruction (TIM)
  • Specific instruction on mistake
  • Punishment (P)
  • Criticizing
  • Punitive Technical Instruction (PTIM)
  • Negative instruction
  • Ignoring Mistakes (IM)
  • Lack of response to mistake

11
Methodologies cont.Response to
misbehaviors/spontaneous behavior
  • Keeping control (KC)
  • Suppressing misbehavior and maintain order
  • General Technical Instruction (TIG)
  • Communication providing relevant instruction to
    technique and strategies of sport
  • General Encouragement (EG)
  • Future encouragement instead of responding to
    mistake
  • Orientation (O)
  • Administrative organization
  • General Communication (GC)
  • General conversation unrelated to sport

12
Results
  • Self-esteem is unrelated to attraction toward
    coaches
  • Children were more attracted to coaches that
    scored high in supportiveness and instruction.
  • The greatest differences in attraction scores
    toward their coach who differed in instruction
    and supportiveness came in children with low
    self-esteem.

13
Implications and Interpretations
  • This study only involved male coaches and
    children.
  • High self-esteem individuals may be less affected
    by the reactions of any one person (the coach)
  • The failure to find a main effect on attraction
    response or to involve childs self-esteem is
    inconsistent with self-enhancement model.
  • Coaches that are punitive tend to give most deal
    of attention
  • This study can be applied to any setting that has
    children and adult interactions.
  • Restricted to liking of coach and didnt
  • consider liking of sport and teammates

14
Conclusion
  • Smith and Smoll said
  • Consistent with predictions derived from
    self-enhancement, children who were low in self
    esteem responded most positively to coaches who
    were reinforcing and encouraging and most
    negatively to coaches who were low on this
    supportiveness dimension (Smith and Smoll, 1990
    p.987)

15
Questions and Comments
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