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What is migration? What types of migration exist? Legal, illegal, irregular migrants; refugees; labour migration.

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Title: What is migration? What types of migration exist? Legal, illegal, irregular migrants; refugees; labour migration.


1
What is migration? What types of migration exist?
Legal, illegal, irregular migrants refugees
labour migration.
  • Egle Jaceviciute and
  • Ekrem Kuralay

2
Basic notions
  • Migration is the crossing of the boundary of a
    political or administrative unit for a certain
    minimum period of time. It includes the movement
    of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people
    as well as economic migrants.
  • Types
  • Internal migration
  • International migration

3
Facts
  • Today 192 million people live outside their place
    of birth - it is about 3 of the world's
    population
  • 1 of every 35 persons in the world is a migrant
  • Current annual growth rate of international
    migrants is about 2,9

4
Forecast
  • Japan and all countries of Europe are expected to
    face declining population growth over the next 50
    years.
  • Population of Italy in 2050 will decline from 57
    to 41 million of people
  • Population of Japan in 2080 will decline from 127
    to 105 million

5
Forms of migration
  • Forced migration includes refugees, asylum
    seekers and people forced to move due to external
    factors
  • Family members - people sharing family ties
    joining people who have already entered an
    immigration country
  • Return migrants - people who return to their
    countries of origin after a period in another
    country

6
Types of migration
  • Legal migrants
  • Illegal migrants
  • Irregular migrants
  • Refugees
  • Labour migration

7
Migrants
  • Legal Migrants - migrants that legally enter into
    the country, have a valid immigrant visa and
    proper documentation
  • Illegal migrant a person who, owing to illegal
    entry or the expiry of his or her visa, lacks
    legal status in a transit or host country. The
    term applies to migrants who infringe a countrys
    admission rules and any other person not
    authorized to remain in the host country

8
Irregular Migration
  • The people who enter or remain in a country of
    which they are not a citizen in breach of
    national laws.
  • The IMO estimates that irregular immigrants
    account for one-third to one-half of new entrants
    into developed countries, marking an increase of
    20 per cent over the past ten years

9
Some Negative Consequences
  • -Irregular migration can undermine public
    confidence in the integrity and effectiveness of
    a states migration and asylum policies
  • -Irregular migration can also endanger the lives
    of the migrants concerned. A large but unknown
    number of people die each year trying to cross
    land and sea borders without being detected by
    the authorities. Human traffickers ruthlessly
    exploit migrants.
  • - More generally, people who enter or remain in a
    country without authorization can be at risk of
    exploitation by employers and landlords.
  • -Migrants with irregular status are often
    unwilling to seek redress from authorities
    because they fear arrest and deportation. As a
    result, they do not always make use of public
    services to which they are entitled, for example
    emergency health care.

10
Refugees
  • According to the 1951 United Nations Convention
    Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is
    a person who owing to a well-founded fear of
    being persecuted for reasons of race, religion,
    nationality, membership of a particular social
    group, or political opinion, is outside the
    country of their nationality, and is unable to
    or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail
    him/herself of the protection of that country.

11
Facts
  • The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
    gives the world total as 12,019,700 refugees.
  • Moreover, there are over 34,000,000 displaced by
    war, including internally displaced persons.
  • As of December 31, 2005, the largest source
    countries of refugees are Palestine, Afghanistan,
    Iraq, Myanmar, and Sudan.

12
Labour Migration
  • An international migrant worker is defined by the
    1990 United Nations (UN) International Convention
    on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant
    Workers and Members of their Families as a
    person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has
    been engaged in remunerated activity in a State
    of which he or she is not a national.

13
Types of Labour Migration
  • Temporary labour migrants (also known as guest
    workers or overseas contract workers) People who
    migrate for a limited period of time in order to
    take up employment and send money home.
  • Highly skilled and business migrants People with
    qualifications as managers, executives,
    professionals, technicians or similar, who move
    within the internal labour markets of
    trans-national corporations and international
    organizations, or who seek employment through
    international labour markets for scarce skills.
    Many countries welcome such migrants and have
    special 'skilled and business migration' programs
    to encourage them to come.

14
Key Points
  • International instruments such as the UN and
    International Labour Organization (ILO)
    Conventions use different definitions.
  • The concept and definition of labour migration
    often reflects current national policy
    perspectives and varies between countries and
    over time
  • The United Nations Convention on the Protection
    of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members
    of their Families simply refers to remunerated
    activity in a foreign country without specifying
    the source of remuneration

15
Labour Migration will continue
  • Differences in employment opportunities and
    living standards between countries
  • Increased education and broader access to
    information on living conditions and employment
    opportunities abroad
  • Established inter-country networks based on
    family, culture, and history

16
Impacts of Labour Migration
  • The impact of labour migration varies from
    country to country. Economic migration can have
    different effects resulting from the volume,
    composition, and characteristics of the migratory
    flows as well as the context in which the flows
    take place.
  • For countries of origin, in addition to the
    possibility of providing some relief from
    unemployment and absorbing an increase in the
    labour force, it can provide a form of
    developmental support, especially through
    remittances, transfer of know-how, and creation
    of business and trade networks
  • For receiving countries facing labour shortages,
    immigration can alleviate labour scarcity,
    facilitate occupational mobility, and add to the
    human capital stock of the receiving countries

17
Net migration rate
Net migration rate is the difference of
immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period
of time.
18
References
  • International Organization for Migration
    http//www.iom.int/jahia/page3.html
  • Matthew J. Gibney Harmonization, Asylum, and
    Temporary Residence, Refugee Studies Centre,
    Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford
  • International migration law http//www.old.iom.in
    t/documents/publication/en/Glossary.pdf
  • UNESCO Social Transformations
    http//209.85.135.104/search?qcachepxx2yrck_e8j
    portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.php-url_id3d302026ur
    l_do3ddo_topic26url_section3d201.htmlaconcept
    ofmigration3fhlltctclnkcd7gllt
  • United Nations High Commission for Refugees.
    Available at url http//www.unhcr.org/
  • International Labour Organization
  • www.ilo.org

19
Thank you for your attention
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