Chapter 3 - Environmental Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Chapter 3 - Environmental Science PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1f95bc-ZDc1Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Chapter 3 - Environmental Science


Northern Cod is the most abundant and most valuable groundfish stock in the ... John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually blocked his ship. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:13
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 17
Provided by: AnneM96
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 3 - Environmental Science

Chapter 3 - Environmental Science
  • The Northern Cod

What is a Cod?
  • Northern Cod is the most abundant and most
    valuable groundfish stock in the Northwest
    Atlantic Ocean.
  • Ground fish all have the same characteristic
    they feed near the bottom in the more shallow
    waters of the submerged plateaus or "banks" of
    our Continental Shelf.

Where are they found?
  • The cod fish is found on both sides of the
    Atlantic and is restricted to the banks
  • A Bank is an elevated an area on the continental
    shelf. (page 89 of your text)
  • Banks are ideal for the cod because the nutrients
    there support a large base of food.
  • See the next slide for the Grand Banks.

(No Transcript)
The History
  • John Cabot marveled in 1497 that they virtually
    blocked his ship.
  • In the centuries to follow, fish became the main
    reason anyone ever came to Newfoundland, or
    stayed for that matter.
  • Until the mid-twentieth century, we fished
    mainly in waters relatively closer to shore, in
    small craft with traps, jigging, or small inshore
    gill-nets and loneliness.

The History
  • Local fishers were joined by fishing boats from
    Spain and Portugal who fished in the northwest
    Atlantic since before Newfoundland was colonized.
  • The most productive cod fishing area off
    Newfoundland yielded an overall annual catch of
    about 250,000 tons for more than a century prior
    to the mid-1950s.

The History
  • The Cod meant work for Newfoundlanders with 60
    of our fishers and 70 of our plant workers
    dependent upon the cod.
  • In 1991 the cod was worth 700 million dollars,
    the next year we started the moratorium.
  • Over 40,000 people lost jobs and communities are
    struggling to recover. The marine ecosystem is in
    a state of collapse.

What is a stock?
  • A stock is a group of fish of the same species
    that inhabits a region. They will reproduce here
    and migrate within the region.
  • Scientists have identified over 12 stocks and
    they are distinct from each other.
  • Our 200 mile limit does not protect all the
    stocks and spawning areas.

Cod move!
  • Cod are very fussy fish. They like water
    temperatures (0-4 degrees) and select very
    limited areas to spawn.
  • Cod will spawn during the winter and move in
    shore during the summer.
  • If the water temperature changes, the cod will
    move to where it is 0-4.

New recruits
  • Every population needs to have a turn over with
    new recruits.
  • Cod fish spawn millions of eggs per fish, only
    one in every million will survive to reproductive
  • Cod are an important part of plankton and many
    are taken by predators.

  • The Northern Cod has been overfished.
  • At the present time it is commercially extinct
    and this has resulted in quota cuts (finally).
  • The TOC has been too high for decades.
  • The problem is that when a fish stock declines
    the fishers work harder to get fewer fish.
    Draggers and offshore fishing has decimated the
    cod stock. (see page 91)

(No Transcript)
  • The alarm bell for the decline of cod and the
    moratorium was sounded by the inshore fishers.
  • The catch per unit effort increased.
  • The catch per unit effort increased for the
    offshore too.
  • They both fished hard...they blamed each other!
    The Cod lost!

Foreign Fishing
  • There are exposed areas on the fishing banks
    referred to as the nose and tail.
  • International quotas are set and agreed upon by
    government representatives.
  • They catch more than they are allowed because
    regulations are weak (page 91).
  • Other problems - Bi-catch, High Grading, Flagged
    Vessels, mesh size violations

  • Presently remaining fishers in St. Johns have a
    limited quota and are fishing other species such
    as crab.
  • Until the stock recovers, commercial fishing on
    any scale will be impossible and the recreational
    fishery will be cut.
  • Rules - if only the people who created them
    enforced them properly, we wouldnt be in this
    economic mess!

(No Transcript)