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Public%20Health%20and%20National%20Security%20in%20the%20Global%20Age:%20Infectious%20Diseases,%20Bioterrorism,%20and%20Realpolitik

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Explore the policy and academic linkages being made between public health and national security ... Public Health Security in History: D j Vu All Over Again? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Public%20Health%20and%20National%20Security%20in%20the%20Global%20Age:%20Infectious%20Diseases,%20Bioterrorism,%20and%20Realpolitik


1
Public Health and National Security in the Global
AgeInfectious Diseases, Bioterrorism, and
Realpolitik
  • David P. Fidler
  • Indiana University School of Law
  • Presentation to the
  • London School of Hygiene Tropical Medicine
  • May 30, 2002

2
Overview of Presentation
  • Explore the policy and academic linkages being
    made between public health and national security
  • Review briefly the public health-national
    security literature that has appeared in the
    United States
  • Explore competing conceptions of national
    security in the era of globalization
  • Examine the scope and substance of the emerging
    concept of public health security
  • Discuss how September 11th and the anthrax
    attacks in the United States have affected the
    nascent public health security concept and
    dialogue

3
Public Health as a National Security Concern?
Public Health
National Security
4
Emergence of a Public Health-National Security
Linkage
5
Public Health-National Security Linkage Arguments
  • GovernmentalClinton administrations arguments
    that infectious diseases constituted a U.S.
    national security threat
  • Intergovernmental
  • UN Security Council addressing HIV/AIDS
  • WHOinfectious diseases and global health
    security
  • Non-governmental organizationsa number of NGOS
    published reports arguing that infectious
    diseases represented a U.S. national security
    threat
  • Academic writingsDennis Pirages and Andrew
    Price-Smith

6
Concept of Public Health Security
  • Public health-national security literature is
    trying to create intersections
  • Intersections define the scope and content of
    public health security
  • Critical is how national security is defined

Public Health Security
National Security
Public Health
7
Competing Concepts of National Security
National Security Concept Basic Substance Philosophical Foundations Strategic Objective
Realpolitik Power politics between states Realism National security
Common Security Focus on individual, democracy, and interdepedence Liberalism International Security
Human Security Structural injustice and transnationalism Critical theory/ social constructivism Global Security
Ecological Security Biological/ ecological challenges Inter-species evolutionary theory Epidemiological security
8
Competing Concepts of National Security
Common Security
Human Security
Realpolitik
Ecological Security
9
Realpolitik, Bioweapons, and Infectious Diseases
  • Biological weapons
  • State proliferation of bioweapons not
    problematic
  • Bioterrorism state-sponsored terrorism easier
    than new terrorism but potential of bioweapons
    makes bioterrorism more important to realist
    thinking than ordinary terrorism
  • Infectious diseases generally
  • Direct threat realism can accommodate (see
    HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa)
  • Indirect threat hard case, so literature
    stresses disease-related instability in
    strategic countries, such as Russia, China, and
    India

10
Common Security, Bioweapons, and Infectious
Diseases
  • Biological weapons
  • State proliferation of bioweapons international
    cooperation critical
  • Bioterrorism need to focus on domestic
    preparedness and international cooperation
  • Infectious diseases generally
  • Direct more sensitive to direct threats than
    realpolitik because of individual and economic
    focus at national level
  • Indirect more sensitive to indirect threats
    because of individual and economic
    interdependence focus at the international level

11
Human Security, Bioweapons, and Infectious
Diseases
  • Biological weapons
  • State proliferation of bioweapons focus on
    transnational civil action to prevent
  • Bioterrorism focus on root causes of terrorism
    (e.g., social and economic injustices)
  • Infectious diseases generally
  • Direct and indirect threats can only be mitigated
    by moving governance away from state-centric
    model (e.g., public-private partnerships and
    global health governance)

12
Ecological Security, Bioweapons, and Infectious
Diseases
  • Biological weapons proves difficult to handle
    given the nature of this perspectives focus and
    its rejection of anthropocentric theories of
    world politics
  • Infectious diseases generally would not classify
    threat into direct and indirect because that
    is state-centric but focuses on global ecological
    and epidemiological threat of pathogenic microbes

13
Different Conceptions of Public Health Security
  • The public health-national security literature
    seeks to broaden notion of national security
    from traditional realpolitik model to the common
    security approach

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14
Different Conceptions of Public Health Security
  • In academic writings, realism is rejected as
    irrelevant for making policy to deal with the the
    problem at hand, especially threats from
    infectious diseases generally

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15
Public Health Security in the U.S. Today
Biological Weapons
  • Profoundly changed political landscape
  • September 11th direct attack on U.S. territory
  • Anthrax attacks large-scale, sophisticated
    bioterrorism on U.S. territory
  • Realpolitik foreign policy responses from the
    U.S.
  • Axis of evil doctrineoppressive states that
    have or seek WMD and that support terrorism
    constitute threat to U.S. national security
  • U.S. unilaterally killed on-going negotiations
    for compliance protocol to Biological Weapons
    Convention
  • International cooperation on bioterrorism through
    ad hoc, non-legally binding mechanisms (e.g.,
    Ottawa Plan, G-8)
  • Realpolitik domestic policy responses from the
    U.S.
  • Focus on homeland security
  • Domestic preparedness for bioterrorism by
    improving national public health capabilities
  • Smallpox vaccination plans and policies for U.S.
    citizens

16
Public Health Security in the U.S. Today
Infectious Diseases
  • Public health-national security linkage
    literature tried to elevate infectious disease
    threats generally in national security thinking
  • After September 11th and anthrax attacks,
    infectious disease problems in developing world
    are even less important to U.S. than before
  • Area of emphasis bioterrorism preparedness pays
    dividends for public health generally
    (bio-defense-public health synergy) public
    health of others secondary to public health for
    us the interdependence is derivative not
    strategic
  • Hints of realpolitik in shift in global public
    health policy toward economic modes of policy
    (World Bank, CMH) that contemplate rich countries
    exercising their power over poor countries
    through structural adjustment for public health
    approaches
  • Realists do not have much toleration for
    principles of non-intervention in the domestic
    affairs of other states or notions of cultural
    diversity if, in fact, problems in weaker
    countries affect the power and security of the
    great powers

17
The Public Health Security Concept The
Relationship between Public Health and
Realpolitik
  • The attempt by the public health-national
    security literature to broaden the concept of
    national security to include public health
    suggests no strong relationship between public
    health and realpolitik
  • But, a historical perspective on the public
    health-national security literature indicates
    that realpolitik and public health have a much
    closer theoretical and policy relationship than
    previously thought

18
Public Health Security in History Déjà Vu All
Over Again?
  • International health in the 19th century driven
    by great powers concerns about infectious
    disease effects on economic, military, and
    geopolitical power
  • Economic power International health diplomacy
    arose because European great powers concerned
    about direct threat of Asiatic diseases to
    their trade and commerce
  • Military power European militaries pursued
    sanitary reforms because of troop morbidity and
    mortality from infectious diseases
  • Geopolitical power Infectious disease problems
    for great power imperialism (e.g., British in
    Africa) and regional influence (e.g., U.S.
    hegemony in Western Hemisphere) led to European
    and U.S. interest in tropical diseases

19
Public Health Security in History Déjà Vu All
Over Again?
  • Despite professing to broaden the debate, the
    public health-national security literature
    actually stress economic, military, and
    geopolitical power in the same way seen in 19th
    century international health
  • Economic power U.S. should see infectious
    diseases as threat because of economic costs
    diseases impose
  • Military power U.S. should see infectious
    diseases as threat because of threats they pose
    to military readiness in U.S., developing
    countries, and UN peacekeepers
  • Geopolitical power U.S. should see infectious
    diseases as threat because of instability they
    help foment in areas of geopolitical concern to
    the U.S.

20
Conclusion
  • The death of realism in connection with global
    public health concerns is greatly exaggerated
  • Realisms theoretical relevance is important
  • Realisms policy relevance is undoubted
  • Public health-national security linkage
    literature attempted to broaden national
    security to serve public health but,
    post-September 11th and anthrax, national
    security has narrowed public health to serve
    realpolitik purposes in the U.S.
  • Public health and national security in the global
    age the more things change, the more they stay
    the same?
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