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Universal%20Networking%20Language%20(UNL)

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Title: Universal%20Networking%20Language%20(UNL)


1
Universal Networking Language(UNL)
by Pantha Kanti Nath (05IT6021)
Under the Guidance of Prof. Debasis
Samanta School of Information Technology Indian
Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.
2
Technical Terms
  • UNL Universal Networking Language
  • IAS - Institute of Advanced Studies
  • UW Universal Words
  • UNLKB UNL Knowledge Base
  • UNLKCIC UNL Key Concept in Context
  • LS Language Servers

3
Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Overview Of UNL System
  3. Mechanism of Conversion of UNL
  4. System Workings
  5. UNL Expression
  6. UNL Words
  7. Relations
  8. Attribute Labels
  9. Applications (Some Application of UNL)
  10. Conclusion

4
What is UNL?
  • Universal Networking Language (UNL) is a computer
    language that enables computers to process
    information and knowledge across the language
    barriers.
  • It is an artificial language that replicates the
    functions of natural languages in human
    communication.
  • It expresses information or knowledge in the form
    of semantic networks.
  • Unlike natural languages, UNL expressions are
    unambiguous.
  • Although the UNL is a language for computers, it
    has all the components of a natural language.
  • It is composed of UNL Expressions, Universal
    Words (UWs), Relations, Attributes.

5
Overview Of UNL System
  • It Consists Of
  • Language Resources
  • UNLKB (Knowledge Base) Linguistic Knowledge on
    concepts that are common to every language.
  • Universal Word Dictionary, analysis and
    generation rules.
  • Language Servers
  • DeConverter - automatically deconverts UNL into
    native languages.
  • EnConverters - automatically or interactively
    enconverts natural languages text into UNL.
  • Software tools
  • UNL Editors - used to make UNL documents.
  • UNL Explorers - used to view/manage UNL document
    by accessing UNL language servers, UNLKB UNL
    Documents.

6
  • UNL Verifiers verifies UNL expression for
    correctness.
  • UNL Proxy servers Provides communication with
    language servers.
  • Concept Definitions Defines concepts in
    connection with other concepts.
  • UNL Documents - the documents in which UNL
    expression is described for each sentence of
    natural language.

UNL SYSTEM
7
  • Mechanism of Conversion of UNL Expressions
    ( Language Servers )

Data Flow
Control Flow
8
System Workings
  • People with access to the Internet can
    "enconvert" text written in their own language
    into UNL expressions using UNL editor. And
    likewise, any UNL expressions can be
    "deconverted" into a variety of native languages
    using the UNL viewer (Explorer).

9
System Workings Cont..
  • When developing home page in Arabic, the UNL
    Editor recognizes the contents as Arabic and
    sends a request to the Arabic Language Server to
    EnConvert the text. . Once the Arabic text is
    EnConverted to UNL, the Arabic Language Server
    sends the result back to the UNL Editor.

10
System Workings Cont..
  • Home page designer can now embed UNL into their
    pages.

11
System Workings Cont..
  • When Spanish read this page, the UNL Viewer
    recognizes the contents as UNL and sends a
    request to the Spanish Language Server to
    DeConvert the UNL.

12
System Workings Cont..
  • Once UNL is DeConverted to Spanish, the
    Spanish Language Server sends the result back to
    the UNL Viewer.

13
System Workings Cont..
  • If UNL is embedded in a home page, it can be
    read in variety of
  • languages.

14
UNL Expression
  • John is reading a novel.
  • UNL Hypergraph

read(iclgtdo)
_at_entry._at_present._at_progress
agt
obj
novel(iclgtbook)
John(iofgtperson)
  • UNL Expression
  • UNL
  • agt(read(iclgtdo) _at_entry._at_present._at_progress,
    John(iofgtperson))
  • obj(read(iclgtdo) _at_entry._at_present._at_progress,
    novel(iclgtbook))
  • /UNL

15
Universal Words (UWs)
  • A UW represents simple or compound concepts.
    There are two classes of UWs
  • Labels defined to express unit concepts, called
    UWs (Universal Words)
  • compound structures of a set of binary relations
    grouped together ( indicated with Compound
    UW-Ids)
  • A UW is made up of a character string (an
    English-language word) followed by a list of
    constraints.
  • ltUWgtltHead WordgtltConstraint Listgt

16
Types of UW 
  • Basic UWs
  • They are bare Head Words with no Constraint List.
  • They are character strings that correspond to an
    English word.
  • A basic UW denotes all the concepts that may
    correspond to those in English.
  • for example
  • go
  • take
  • house
  • Restricted UWs
  • They are Head Words with a Constraint List.
  • Each Restricted UW represents a more specific
    concept, or subset of concepts.

17
Types of UW continued..
  • The Constraint List restricts the range of the
    concept that a Basic UW represents.
  • for example
  • state(iclgtexpress)
  • state(iclgtcountry)
  • state(iclgtabstract thing)
  • state(iclgtgovernment)
  • Extra UWs
  • They are a special type of Restricted UW.
  • Extra UWs denote concepts that are not found in
    English.
  • Foreign-language words are used as Head Words
    using English (Alphabetical) characters.
  • for example
  • ikebana (iclgtflower arrangement)
  • kathak (iclgtdance)

18
Constraints
  • Some examples
  • UW drink(agtgtthing,objgtthing)
  • denotes the subset of these concepts that
    include putting liquid
  • in the mouth, which in turn corresponds to
    verbs (drink, gulp and
  • slurp)
  • UW provide(iclgtgive(agtgtthing,golgtthing,objgtthing
    ))
  • Is defined as a subset concept of
  • give(agtgtthing,golgtthing,objgtthing)

19
Relations
  • A relation label is represented as strings of 3
    characters or less.
  • The relations between UWs are binary.
  • rel (UW1, UW2)
  • They have different labels according to the
    different roles they play.
  • At present, there are 41 relations in UNL
  • For example, agt (agent), ins (instrument), pur
    (purpose), etc.

20
Attribute Labels
  • Attribute labels express additional information
    about the Universal Words that appear in a
    sentence.
  • They show what is said from the speakers point
    of view how the speaker views what is said.
    (time, reference, emphasis, attitude, etc)
  • _at_entry (main UW of a sentence or a scope) ,
    _at_present, _at_progressive, _at_topic, etc.

21
The boy who works here went to school
go(iclgtmove)
_at_ entry _at_ past
agt
plt
boy(iclgtperson)
_at_ entry
school(iclgtinstitution)
here
agt
plc
work(iclgtdo)
01
22
The boy who works here went to school
  • UNL expression
  • UNL
  • agt(go(iclgtmove)._at_entry._at_past, 01)
  • plt(go(iclgtoccur)._at_entry._at_past,
    school(iclgtinstitution))
  • agt01(work(iclgtdo), boy(iclgtperson._at_entry))
  • plc01(work(iclgtdo),here)
  • /UNL

23
Some UNL Application
  • Multilingual Search Engines
  • Agro Explorer a project undertaken in Media
    Labs Asia Group, IIT Bombay. Its goal is to
    create a meaning based search engine that will
    allow farmers to query and receive information on
    agriculture in there mother tongue.
  • The UNL may become a powerful instrument to
    promote networking around the world (thus
    alleviating the isolation of scholars in
    developing countries).
  • For the UN in general, for UNESCO and other
    multilateral organizations, it has enormous
    potential as a tool to foster dialogue among
    nations and for the promotion of peace, culture,
    cooperation and development.

24
References
  • http//www.unu.edu/United Nations University
  • http//www.ias.unu.edu/United Nations
    University, Institute of Advanced Studies
  • http//www.unl.ias.unu.edu/Universal Networking
    Language Programme
  • http//www.unl.ias.unu.edu/publications/gm/index.h
    tmBook of Universal Networking Language
  • http//www.iai.uni-sb.de/UNL/unl-specs.htmlOffici
    al UNL Specification (unicode version)
  • http//www.iai.uni-sb.de/UNL/unl-iai.htmlGerman
    UNL Homepage
  • http//unl.ilc.pi.cnr.it/Italian UNL Homepage
  • http//www.vai.dia.fi.upm.es/projects/unl_in.html
    Spanish UNL Homepage
  • http//www.links.nectec.or.th/unl/UnuWeb/UNLP_Home
    page.htmThai UNL Homepage
  • http//www.unl.rss.gov.jo/Arabic UNL Homepage
  • http//www.ailab.lv/unl.htmLatvian UNL Homepage
  • http//www.it.iitb.ac/ it632, 2005.

    Pushpak
    Bhattacharyya. Language Technology for the Web.
  • http//www.iitb.ac.in Anupama Dutta. Multilingual
    and meaning based search engines. Indian
    Institute of Technology, Bombay, India, November
    2003.

25
agt (agent)
  • agt defines a thing that initiates an action.
  • An agent is defined as the relation between
  • UW1 - do, and
  • UW2 - a thing
  • where
  • UW2 initiates UW1, or
  • UW2 is thought of as having a direct role in
    making UW1 happen.
  • agt (do, thing)

26
Plc (place)
  • Plc defines a place where an event occurs, or a
    state that is true, or a thing that exists.
  • A place is defined as the relation between
  • UW1 an event, state, or thing, and
  • UW2 a place or thing understood as a place.
  • plc (occur, thing)
  • plc (do, thing)
  • plc (be, thing)
  • plc (uw(aojgtthing), thing)
  • plc (thing, thing)

27
Plt(final place)
  • Plt defines a place where an event ends or a
    state that becomes false.
  • A final place is defined as the relation between
  • UW1 an event or state, and
  • UW2 a place or thing defining a place, where
  • UW2 is the specific place where UW1 ended, or
  • UW2 is the specific place where UW2 becomes
    false.
  •  
  • plt (occur, thing)
  • plt (do, thing)
  • plt (uw(aojgtthing), thing)
  •  

28
Gol(final state)
  • Gol defines a final state of object or a thing
    finally associated with the object of an event.
  • A final state is defined as the relation between
  • UW1 an event, and
  • UW2 a state or thing, where
  • UW2 is the specific state describing the obj (of
    UW1) at the end of UW1, or
  • UW2 is a thing that is associated with the obj
    (of UW1) and the end of UW1.
  • gol (occur(golgtthing), thing)
  • gol (do(golgtthing), thing)

29
  • THE END

30
Some Examples
  • He liked the sweetness of the cream
  • unl
  • obj(like03._at_entry._at_past, sweetness(iclgttaste)0D.
    _at_def)
  • agt(like03._at_entry._at_past, he00)
  • mod(sweetness(iclgttaste)0D._at_def, cream(iclgtclass)
    0U._at_def)
  • /unl

31
  • He needs a lot of encouragement
  • unl
  • obj(need(iclgtnecessitate)03._at_entry._at_past._at_present
    , encouragement(iclgtaid)0I)
  • agt(need(iclgtnecessitate)03._at_entry._at_past._at_present
    , he00)
  • qua(encouragement(iclgtaid)0I, lot(iclgtquantity)0
    B._at_indef)
  • /unl

32
  • He is a kind of missionary
  • unl
  • aoj(missionary(iclgtteacher)0G._at_entry._at_present, he
    00)
  • mod(missionary(iclgtteacher)0G._at_entry._at_present, ki
    nd(iclgt-)08._at_indef)
  • /unl

33
  • He rejected the claims of mismanagement
  • unl
  • obj(reject(iclgtjudgegtbe(aojgtthing,objgtthing))
    03._at_entry._at_past, claim(iclgttitle)0G._at_def._at_pl)
  • agt(reject(iclgtjudgegtbe(aojgtthing,objgtthing))
    03._at_entry._at_past, he00)
  • mod(claim(iclgttitle)0G._at_def._at_pl, mismanagement(ic
    lgtact)0Q)
  • /unl

34
  • He took a sip of wine.
  • unl
  • obj(take(iclgtactgtdo(agtgtthing,golgtplace,srcgtplac
    e))03._at_entry._at_past, wine(iclgtdrink)0H)
  • agt(take(iclgtactgtdo(agtgtthing,golgtplace,srcgtplac
    e))03._at_entry._at_past, he00)
  • qua(wine(iclgtdrink)0H, sip(iclgtquantity)0A._at_inde
    f)
  • /unl

35
  • He was director of the Academy
  • unl
  • aoj(director(iclgtadministrator)07._at_entry._at_past, h
    e00)
  • mod(director(iclgtadministrator)07._at_entry._at_past, a
    cademy(iclgtschool)0N._at_def)
  • /unl
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