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A Framework for Implementing a GIS-based University Environmental Management System: Towards Sustainable Campus

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Title: A Framework for Implementing a GIS-based University Environmental Management System: Towards Sustainable Campus


1
A Framework for Implementing a GIS-based
University Environmental Management System
Towards Sustainable Campus
FINAL PLANNING PROJECT (CRP 601)
By
Ismaila Abubakar (240374)
Supervisor
Dr. Habib M. Alshuwaikhat
2
Presentation Outlines
  • CHAPTER ONE Introduction
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Aim of the study
  • 1.3 Study goals and objectives
  • 1.4 Scope and limitations
  • 1.5 Data source and availability
  • 1.6 Thesis organization and plan
  • 1.7 Methodology

3
Presentation Outlines
  • CHAPTER TWO Literature Review
  • 2.1 Environment An Overview
  • 2.1.1 Environmental Policy
  • 2.1.2 Environmental Management
  • 2.1.3 Environmental Protection
  • 2.1.4 Environmental Sustainability
  • 2.2 Campus Environment
  • 2.2.1 Ideal campus environment
  • 2.2.2 Sustainable university campus
  • 2.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)
  • 2.3.1 Review of some EMS implementation
  • 2.3.2 Successes and Bottlenecks
  • 2.3.3 Relationship with EIA
  • 2.3.3 EMS versus Strategic Environmental
    Assessment (SEA)
  • 2.4 GIS
  • 2.4.1. Roles of GIS in environmental management
  • 2.4.3 Integrating GIS in EMS planning,
    implementation management

4
Presentation Outlines
  • CHAPTER THREE University EMS
    Process
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 University Environmental Policy
  • 3.3 EMS Planning
  • 3.4 Implementation and operation
  • 3.5 Checking and corrective Action
  • 3.6 Management and improvement
  • 3.7 EMS and Campus Sustainability
  • 3.8 Experiences of EMS Implementation in some
    universities in the world

5
Chapter One
Introduction
  • EMS is the overall practices, procedures,
    processes and resources for developing,
    implementing, achieving, reviewing and
    maintaining the environmental policy of an
    organization to reduce its negative environmental
    impacts improve efficiency
  • EMS based on the ISO 14001 standard, are highly
    regarded means of tracking the environmental
    impacts of organizations of any size, including
    colleges and universities.
  • The concept emanated 20 yrs ago when corporations
    and industries are the main adopters. Recently
    municipalities, universities, hospitals are
    implementing it
  • universities have complex activities and
    operations with potentially significant
    environmental impacts and hence need EMS
  • They use considerable amounts of resources (Land,
    energy water), each with implications for
    environmental quality
  • laboratory use, buildings and grounds maintenance
    and chemical use
  • EMS contributes to a vibrant and progressive
    campus environment.

6
Chapter One
cont.
  • Aim of the Research
  • to develop a framework for implementing a GIS-
    based Environmental Management System (EMS) for
    universities towards achieving sustainable
    campuses
  • Goals Objectives
  • To review various literatures on relevant
    terminologies concepts including environmental
    policies, protection and management, EMS, GIS,
    University Campus and sustainability, etc
  • To study and analyze the implementation of EMS in
    major universities in the world and learn lessons
    from their experiences
  • To develop a framework for implementing a
    GIS-based EMS for universities using KFUPM as a
    prototype
  • To recommend ways by which universities can
    improve their planning and implementation of EMS

7
Chapter One
cont.
  • Scope and Limitations
  • to develop a framework for implementing a GIS-
    based Environmental Management System (EMS) for
    universities towards achieving sustainable
    campuses
  • Data Source
  • secondary sources journal articles, maps, text
    books and conference papers search engines on the
    internet, hard copies and library
  • primary sources university administration, works
    and maintenance, housing, transport, planning and
    quality departments
  • Thesis organization
  • Project is divided into five chapters- 1
    introduction 2 Literature Review 3 University
    EMS 4 Framework for Implementing a GIS-Based
    EMS in KFUPM 5 Conclusion and Recommendation

8
Chapter Two Literature Review
  • Environment An Overview
  • refers to a complex of surrounding
    circumstances, conditions, or influences in which
    a thing is situated or is developed, or in which
    a person or organism lives, modifying and
    determining its life or character
  • Environmental Policy
  • A managements declaration of its commitment to
    the environment.
  • framework for setting environmental objectives
    and targets on prevention of pollution and
    environmental degradation, Continual
    environmental improvement and Compliance with
    relevant laws and regulations etc
  • serve as the foundation for EMS and provide a
    unifying vision of environmental concern by the
    entire organization
  • Environmental Management
  • effective active measures taken for the
    protection conservation of the environment,
    heritage and natural resources for which a
    government, organization or individual is
    responsible
  • The mobilization of resources to control the use,
    improvement or conservation of environment and to
    reduce conflicts created by its use
  • planning implementation of actions geared to
    improve the quality of the human environment.

9
Chapter Two cont
  • Environmental Protection
  • Various wide-ranging Activities in different
    fronts aimed at conserving and safeguarding the
    environment against pollution, degradation
    abuse etc
  • To limit global environmental threats (such as
    global warming, draught, waste) to safeguarding
    individuals from the effects of poor air quality
    or toxic chemicals
  • It produces benefits such as housing (through
    improved energy efficiency of buildings), social
    progress (through action to combat fuel poverty)
    and economic growth (through more efficient use
    of resources, such as re-use, recycling and
    recovery of waste
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Continuity of economic, social, institutional and
    environmental aspects of human society, as well
    as the non-human environment
  • preserving biodiversity and natural ecosystems,
    and planning and acting for the ability to
    maintain these ideals in a very long term
  • conservation and enhancement of the resources
    base by using nature's resources at a rate at
    which they can be replenished naturally
  • economic, social and cultural development that
    would be compatible with a safe environment

10
Chapter Two
cont.
  • University Campus
  • Heterogeneous environment for Learning, Living,
    Research Development. Etc
  • Contains various structures, activities and land
    uses.
  • Ideal Campus Environment
  • clean air water
  • quiet and serene atmosphere for learning
  • beautiful landscape and scenic environment
  • green transport infrastructure (footpaths,
    cycleways, greenways, etc)
  • public parks and gardens
  • campus squares and recreation facilities
  • water bodies (like rivers, streams, fountains
    etc)
  • Mountains, forests etc
  • Sustainable University Campus
  • A healthy and stable University benefiting the
    present and future students, staff and Lecturers
  • A clean and enjoyable campus environment with
    equity and social justice
  • A prosperous University economy through energy
    and resource conservation, waste reduction and
    efficient environmental management

11
Chapter Two
cont.
  • Merits of EMS Implementation
  • reduce waste, resource depletion and
    environmental pollution
  • design products for minimizing environmental
    impact in product use and disposal
  • control environmental impact of raw material
    sourcing and new product development
  • promote environmental awareness among employees
    and within the community
  • provide a platform for companies and
    organizations to demonstrate their commitment to
    environmental protection
  • help management pursue continual improvement in
    environmental performance
  • provide a world-wide focus on environmental
    management
  • promote a voluntary, consensus standard approach
    for environmental issues
  • harmonies national environmental rules, labels,
    and methods
  • demonstrate a commitment to moving beyond
    regulatory compliance
  • improve global environmental management and
    promote sustainable development through trade and
    minimize environmental trade barriers.
  • Levels of EMS Implementation
  • Corporate and Industry level Companies,
    industries etc (Ammenberg and Sundin, 2005)
  • Local and municipal areas Cities, Metropolis,
    etc (Keen and Sullivan, 2005)
  • Organizations and Institutions Universities,
    military barracks and hospitals etc (Barnes and
    Jerman, 2002)

12
Chapter Two
cont.
  • Review of some EMS Implementation
  • Successes
  • reduce waste, resource depletion and
    environmental pollution
  • improve the environmental friendliness of their
    respective institutions
  • promote environmental awareness among employees
    and within the community
  • provide a platform for Universities to
    demonstrate their commitment to environmental
    protection
  • help management pursue continual improvement in
    environmental performance
  • provide a world-wide focus on environmental
    management
  • promote a voluntary, consensus standard approach
    for environmental issues
  • harmonise national environmental rules, labels,
    and methods
  • demonstrate a commitment to moving beyond
    regulatory compliance
  • improve global environmental management and
    promote sustainable development through trade and
    minimise environmental trade barriers.

13
Chapter Two
cont.
  • Bottlenecks
  • data were not available because or only available
    in manual form (e.g. via inventory lists in the
    materials stockroom)
  • data were only available via invoices (e.g. waste
    disposal) or were included in files which could
    not be accessed using SQL-enquiries (e.g.
    chemicals)
  • Also, the expected cost involved and the time
    needed to prepare documentation was rated highly
    by the respondents on the survey by Zutshi and
    Sohal (2004a).
  • Cost relating to conducting internal audits and
    external audits were also identified as
    impediments.
  • Training of employees and resistance from
    employees due to changes in operating procedures
    are also noted obstacles. One of the major
    impediments associated with ISO 14001 was the
    high dollar costs associated with actual
    implementation and external auditors fees.
  • Mobilizing resources such as time, personnel and
    finances is difficult in local authorities,
    Limited resources for EMS implementation.
  • According to Lozano and Valles (in press)
    economic costs of the implementation and
    maintenance of the system are high. There is the
    also the risk that EMSs may become add-on
    projects in the organization and not an
    incorporated continuous process (Emilsson and
    Hjelm, 2002)
  • In some German Universities, there is a complete
    lack of a resource-saving comprehensive concept
    (Viebahn, 2002)

14
Chapter Two
cont.
  • Roles of GIS in Environmental Management
  • Environmental Assessment and monitoring
  • Conservation of areas of historic and scenic
    importance etc
  • Infrastructure and utilities management
  • Environmental protection and management
  • Integrating GIS in EMS
  • University site plans and details of site history
    / development
  • Utilities Electricity, Water Drainage plans
    and surveys
  • Maintenance plans and records
  • Sites, location and type of waste generated and
    how it is dealt with
  • Any visible evidence of land or water
    contamination
  • the condition of the overall university campus
    buildings, storage facilities and any pollution
    control measures

15
Chapter Three EMS Process
  • Environmental policy
  • Would be defined and endorsed by University
    management
  • Should address environmental impacts relevant to
    the University
  • It should include commitments to the improvement
    of the university environmental performance
  • Shall also include a commitment to comply with
    its country's environmental laws and regulations,
    and other international requirements or
    obligations to which the institution has agreed.
  • It should provide a framework for setting and
    reviewing environmental objectives and targets.
  • The policy implementation would be maintained and
    communicated to all Stake holders
  • EMS Planning
  • Overall management system which includes
    organizational structure, planning activities,
    responsibilities, practice, procedures,
    processes, and resources for developing,
    implementing, achieving, reviewing, and
    maintaining the environmental policy.
  • Identify priorities and set appropriate
    environmental objectives and targets that support
    the policy and responsibilities.
  • Identify operations plan requirements,
    performance indicators, monitoring and
    measurement methods, and emergency-response
    needs.
  • Identify personnel training and documentation
    requirements
  • EMS Unit defines EMS procedures
  • Compile implementation manual

16
Chapter Three
cont.
  • GIS in EMS Planning
  • Design of a database of operations and plan
    requirements
  • Storage of data on the location of operational
    areas with environmental aspects and impacts and
    their types
  • Storage of data on operational controls
  • Location of environmental aspects and impacts
  • Design of EMS plan
  • Structural and activities documentation.
  • EMS management
  • Public participation
  • The process by which the views concerns of the
    public are identified and incorporated into the
    decision making process of activities affecting
    them
  • Citizens are fully involved in data collection,
    planning and setting up priorities and goals
  • Accomplished via open general public
    meeting/hearing, interview with selected student
    representatives and formation of advisory panel
    of selected people from faculty and staff

17
Chapter Three
cont.
  • EMS Implementation
  • Establish an implementation and management team
    and a description of operations, organizational
    structure and responsibilities for each.
  • Training would be given to ensure implementation
    through operating procedures.
  • Communication between the various levels and
    functions of the organization will make
    implementation to be more successful. EMS
    Document Control
  • Emergency Response and Preparedness
  • Review Improvement
  • Final stage that reviews the EMS to ensure its
    continuing suitability, adequacy, and
    effectiveness.
  • Measurement Monitoring will enhance agencies
    performance and productivity through performance
    review, budgeting, and profit-and-loss analysis
    and audit. The final stage includes the following
    actions
  • EMS Nonconformance Corrective Preventive
    Action for Compliance
  • Records EMS Audits
  • Administration Review

18
Chapter Three
cont.
  • EMS and Campus Sustainability
  • Not achievable without sound environmental policy
    and management system
  • Process of change that ensures exploitation of
    resources, the direction of investments, the
    orientation of technological development, and
    institutional change are made consistent with
    future as well as present needs
  • clean and protected University environment is an
    important pillar of sustainable development
    (Elizabete et al, 2005)
  • pattern of development that would be compatible
    with a safe environment, biodiversity, and
    ecological balance, intergenerational equity

19
Chapter Three
cont.
  • Experiences of EMS Implementation in some
    Universities in the world
  • University of South Carolina
  • three research Campuses have come together
    through the Sustainable Universities Initiative
    (SUI) to incorporate sustainability into their
    own institutions
  • The Universities began looking seriously at
    environmental management practices in the early
    1990s
  • Student groups and individuals began developing
    environmental management programs to alert
    university personnel to the universitys impact
    on the environment (Barnes and Jerman, 2002).
  • University of South Carolina establishes Center
    for Environmental Policy to handle the system
  • program contains several elements that are
    equivalent to related requirements of the
    National Environmental Achievement Track elements
    and in full satisfaction of the corresponding
    requirements of the national program

20
Chapter Three
cont.
  • Leeds Metropolitan University
  • Second UK university to implement EMS and gain
    ISO 14001 certification
  • EMS planning, implementation and management unit
    consists of Board of Governors, Executive Board,
    Environmental Policy Steering Group,
    Environmental Projects Manager, Environmental
    co-coordinators and some Members of Staff
  • Leeds EMS has achieved a series of savings
  • An annual increase of 2.5 in student numbers
  • A 13 rise in floor space,
  • A 4 reduction in water consumption, through
    investment infrastructure and conservation
    technology
  • Limiting their increase in gas consumption to
    1.7.

21
Chapter Three
cont.
  • Göteborg University, Sweden
  • implemented an EMS during 1998 and 1999 according
    to the recommendations given by the Swedish
    government in "Ecological sustainability
  • make its students and personnel aware of
    environmental and development problems and,
    through research, education and interaction with
    the community
  • aim to prevent or reduce its negative
    environmental impact
  • Environmental considerations are incorporated
    into all decision-making processes- Research,
    teaching, administration, management and
    technical functions, are all characterised by
    environmental accountability.
  • environmental work will be continually improved
    and evaluated by regular environmental audits.
  • comply with applicable environmental legal
    requirements
  • The EMS at the University is certified.

22
References
  • Ammenberg, J. and Sundin, E. (2005) Products in
    environmental management systems drivers,
    barriers and experiences. Journal of Cleaner
    Production, 13, pp. 405-415
  • Arce, R. and Gullon, N. (2000) The application of
    Strategic Environmental Assessment to
    sustainability assessment of infrastructure
    development. Environmental Impact Assessment
    Review, 20, pp. 393402
  • Barnes, P. and Jerman, P. (2002) Developing an
    environmental management system for a
    multiple-university consortium. Journal of
    Cleaner Production, 10, pp. 3339
  • Briffett, C., Obbard, J.P. and Mackee J. (2003)
    Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia.
    Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 23,
    pp.171196
  • Chaker A., El-Fadl, K., Chamas, L. and Hatjian,
    B. (2006) A review of strategic environmental
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    Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26 (1),
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  • Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
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    (2000) Implementation of SEA in Flanders
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23
References Cont
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  • www.epa.gov/ne/assistance/univ/pdfs/emsImpGuide1.p
    df
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24
References Cont
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25
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