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Interventions in the Workplace Planned Change Models, Change Management Intervention Skills

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... Intervention Skills & Professional & Ethical Issues. ... Ethical and professional issues in organisational interventions ... Professional-Ethical Dilemmas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interventions in the Workplace Planned Change Models, Change Management Intervention Skills


1
Interventions in the Workplace Planned Change
Models, Change Management Intervention Skills
Professional Ethical Issues.
2
Overview
  • The scope of the organisational intervention
  • Change Management Models
  • Core interpersonal skill requirements
  • Ethical and professional issues in organisational
    interventions
  • The future of Occupational Psychology in
    Organisational Intervention

3
Organisational Interventions How to shape/manage
employee attitudes and behaviours
  • Meyer (1997) research to date has looked at.
  • Recruitment
  • Socialisation and Training
  • Promotion
  • Compensation Benefits
  • Change Management...

4
Organisational Interventions
  • Why is change management important?
  • What type of change is required?
  • Tweaking (adjustive or transitional change) or
  • Trashing(transformational)
  • Level of focus?
  • Individual
  • team
  • organisation-wide
  • Types of Intervention
  • early 1980s New Technology
  • mid 1980s Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • 1990s Business Process Engineering (BPE)

5
The Planned Approach to Organisational Change
  • famous management gurus
  • Charles Handy, Rosabeth Kanter, Tom Peters
  • Blake Mouton (1976), French Bell (1984)
  • The 3-step model
  • Action Research Phases of Planned
  • Change Model
  • Kurt Lewin
  • Research Center for Group Dynamics (f.1945)

6
Lewins work
  • Action Research (see previous notes)
  • The Three Step Model of Change Lewin (1958)
  • Unfreezing the present level
  • Moving to the new level
  • Refreezing the new level
  • Phases of Planned Change
  • Lippitt et al (1958) 7-phase model
  • Cummings Huse (1989) 8-phase model
  • Bullock Batten (19785) Integrated 30 different
    models gtgtgt 4-phase model
  • Exploration Phase
  • Planning Phase
  • Action Phase
  • Integration Phase

7
Case Study
  • A high street bank has decided that in order to
    remain competitive, it needs to offer alternative
    ways of banking to its customers (e.g. telephone
    banking and internet banking).
  • Following Bullock Battens 4-stage process
    consider how the organisation may go about
    implementing this change in its business practice
  • 1. Exploration Phase Activities becoming aware
    for the need for change, searching for outside
    assistance, establishing consultant contracts
  • 2. Planning Phase Activities collecting
    information to ensure correct diagnosis of
    needs establish change goals and actions to
    achieve goals get decision makers support
  • 3. Action Phase Activities implementation of
    changes - getting buy in from all employees
    affected evaluation of implementation
    activities
  • 4. Integration Phase Activities consolidating
    and stabilising changes so they become part of
    the organisations normal activities (reinforcing
    behaviours, decreasing reliance on change
    consultants)

8
Emergent Approach to Organisational Change
  • Dawson (1994) Wilson (1992)
  • Tenets
  • reactive not proactive
  • change is a process that unfolds through the
    interplay of multiple variables... within an
    organisation N.B. non-linear
  • individuals/gps/orgs. are shifting coalitions of
    individuals and groups with different interests,
    imperfect knowledge, short attention spans
  • Aim reach an understanding of the complexity of
    issues and identifying range of viable options .

9
Change Management Consultancy Skills
  • Core Interpersonal Skill Requirements
  • Respect non-judgemental, open, receptive
  • Empathy ability to sense what it feels like to
    be in that situation reflection
  • Genuineness sincerity and immersion,
    self-awareness
  • Active Listening
  • What is your personal listening style?
  • Under what conditions do you listen best vs.
    barriers to effective listening
  • Questioning
  • questioning as a means of listening
  • challenging (when, what and how)
  • Johari Window (Hopson, 1973)

10
Issues in Organisational Interventions
Professional-Ethical Dilemmas
  • OD approach advocates that managers solve their
    own problems/take ownership
  • Professional values vs. client organisation
    values
  • Organisational vs Individual values
  • Disagreement over problem definition/recommendatio
    ns for change
  • Intervention bandwagons
  • Quality control
  • others?.

11
Conclusion Future challenges for OD
interventionists
  • Collaboration with other disciplines
  • Increasing challenge to the assumption of
    homogeneity of individuals within organisations
  • gtgtgt culture sensitive business strategies
    (Pruegger, 1995)
  • gtgtgt power relations (Harrison, 1994)
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