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Introduction to Database Systems

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Title: Introduction to Database Systems


1
Introduction to Database Systems
  • CMPSC363/607
  • Lecture 1

2
  • Classes D218A, 1000 AM 1150 AM MW
  • Instructor Zhiyong (John) Xu
  • Office F437B
  • Office hours
  • 130 PM 330 PM, MW or by Appointment.
  • Email zxu_at_mcs.suffolk.edu
  • URL http//cartan.cas.suffolk.edu/zxu/teaching/F
    -08/C363/C363.htm

3
Course Overview
  • Background and History
  • Data Models
  • E/R Model
  • Relational Model
  • Object Oriented Model
  • XML and Database
  • Database Programming
  • Relational Algebra
  • SQL
  • Object Oriented

4
Textbook
  • Jeffrey D. Ullman and Jennifer Widom, A First
    Course in Database Systems, Third Edition,
    Prentice Hall, 2007
  • Hector Garcia-Molina, Jeffrey D. Ullman and
    Jennifer Widom, Database Systems The Complete
    Book, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2008
  • Other useful textbooks
  • Fundamentals of Database Systems (Elmasri and
    Navathe)
  • An Introduction to Database Systems (C. J. Date)
  • Database Management Systems (Ramakrishnan)

5
Prerequisites
  • Data Structures
  • Algorithm
  • Any Programming Language
  • Discrete Math etc.

6
Tentative Schedule
  • Introduction (1-2 classes)
  • E/R Model (2-3 classes)
  • Relational Model (3-4 classes)
  • Other Models (2-3 classes)
  • Relational Algebra (3-4 classes)
  • SQL (4-5 classes)
  • Constraints and triggers (1-2 classes)
  • System Aspects of SQL (3-4 classes)
  • XML (3-4 classes)

7
Course Load
  • 10 - 12 homework assignments
  • 1 project
  • 2 or 3 Midterm Exams
  • A Final Exam
  • Homework and project assignments are due in the
    beginning of class one or two weeks that follows.
    Late homework will not be accepted, and a score
    of zero will be assigned for that assignment.

8
Course Policy
  • exams no access to any material nor discussion
    with anyone (except the instructor) is allowed.
  • assignments solutions should be developed
    independently. Stealing, giving or receiving any
    code drawings, diagrams, text, or designs from
    another person is not allowed.
  • max penalty for academic dishonesty F in the
    course reported to the university.

9
Grading Policy
  • The grade will be calculated using the following
    weights
  • Homework and Quizzes 25
  • Project
    15
  • Mid-term Exams 30
  • Final Exam
    30
  • A 90, B 80, C70, D 60, F lt60

10
  • Starting from now
  • Something completely different!

11
What is Database?
  • Essentially, a database is a set of data, or a
    collection of information. These data are
    related.
  • Examples
  • Student Information
  • human genome sequence
  • company products information

12
More Examples
  • Airline Reservation Systems
  • Reservations by a single customer on a single
    flight, including such information as assigned
    seat or meal preference
  • Information about the flight, the airports thy
    fly from and to, the departure and arrival times,
    etc.
  • Ticket prices, requirements, and availability
  • Banking Systems
  • Customers, accounts, loans and the balances
  • Deposit or withdraw money

13
Whats DBMS?
  • DataBase Management System (DBMS)
  • A powerful tool for creating and manage large
    amounts of data efficiently and allowing it to
    persist over long periods of time, safely. It
    also provides efficient accesses to multiple
    users.
  • It is used to manage databases.

14
DBMS capabilities
  • Persistent Storage
  • Programming Interface
  • Transaction management

15
DBMS capabilities (Cont.)
  • Allow users to create databases and specify their
    schema, using data-definition language.
  • Allow users to query and modify the data, using
    data-manipulation language.
  • Support the storage of very large amount of data
    over a long period.
  • Data consistency and failure recovery.

16
File System
  • Why not using file system?
  • Can be used to store data information for a long
    period as well.
  • Consistency and failure recovery capability
  • Problems
  • no query language, no efficient access for a data
    item
  • support of the creation of database is limited
  • consistency control is not adequate
  • Management of Data is complex

17
DBMS Evolution
  • File Systems
  • Hierarchical Model (Tree-based)
  • Network Model (Graph-based)
  • Relational Model
  • Object Oriented Model
  • Object/Relational Model

18
Relational Database System
  • Ted Codd 1970
  • The view of data relations
  • relations, tuples, attributes
  • tables, rows, columns
  • Queries could be expressed in high level
    language, it is simple and efficient
  • It is widely used in most commercial systems

19
Example 1.1
Bank Account Information (Accounts)
20
Example 1.1 (Cont.)
  • Check the balance
  • SELECT balance
  • FROM Accounts
  • WHERE accountNo 67890
  • Check the accountNo
  • SELECT accountNo
  • From Accounts
  • WHERE typesavings AND balance lt 0

21
Major DBMS Products
  • Oracle
  • IBM DB2, Informix
  • Microsoft SQL Server, Access
  • Sybase
  • MySQL
  • Postgres
  • All are "relational" (or "object-relational")
    database systems at their core.

22
Schema versus data
  • Schema describes how data is to be structured -
    defined at set-up time, rarely changes (part of
    the "metadata")
  • Data is actual "instance" of database, may change
    rapidly
  • Comparable to types and variables in programming
    languages

23
Data Definition Language (DDL)
  • Commands for setting up schema of database
  • Process of designing schema can be complex, may
    use design methodology and/or tool

24
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
  • Commands to manipulate data in database
    RETRIEVE, INSERT, DELETE, MODIFY
  • Also called "query language"

25
People
  • DBMS implementer builds system
  • Database designer establishes schema
  • Database administrator loads data, keeps whole
    thing running
  • Database user queries/modifies data

26
DBMS Evolution Trends
  • Size
  • smaller and smaller
  • using personal computer, similar to
    applications such as spreadsheet and word
    processing
  • bigger and bigger
  • terabytes or even petabytes data, using
    tertiary storage and parallel computing
    techniques.
  • Architecture
  • Client-server architecture (Two-Tier)
  • client database Server
  • Multi-Tier architecture
  • client application server
    database server

27
DBMS Trends (Cont.)
  • Versatile Data type
  • integers, characters
  • small storage requirement
  • videos, audios
  • large storage requirement
  • Integration
  • Data warehouses, data mining

28
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29
Overview of DBMS
  • DDL commands
  • DBA DDL Complier Execution engine
  • Query Processing
  • Answering the query
  • User Query Compiler Execution engine
  • Transaction processing

30
Storage and Buffer Management
  • Buffer manager
  • Storage manager
  • Data the contents of the database
  • Metadata (Schema) structure of the database
  • Statistics data properties
  • Indexes

31
Transaction Processing
  • Transaction manager
  • Logging
  • Concurrency control
  • Deadlock resolution

32
Query Processor
  • Query complier
  • Query parser
  • Query preprocessor
  • Query optimizer
  • Execution engine

33
Outline of Database System
  • Database design
  • Determine the database structure
  • Database programming
  • Perform database operations
  • Database system implementation
  • Build the database

34
Next Class
  • E/R Concepts
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