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On ICT in education: some perspectives

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Title: On ICT in education: some perspectives


1
On ICT in educationsome perspectives
ELFE2
  • Tjeerd Plomp
  • (professor emeritus)
  • University of Twente
  • Enschede, the Netherlands

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
2
Some conclusions ELFE1
ELFE2
  • ICT in education offers opportunities for
  • More up-to-date information
  • Cross-curricular skills
  • Independent learning working
  • Teaching according to each students need and
    resources available
  • Teamwork among both teachers and students

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
3
Some conclusions ELFE1
ELFE2
  • Also some risks of ICT in education mentioned
  • Focus on surface in stead of depth
  • Copying from Web and other students
  • Students left alone in front of screen
  • Less focus on oral, writing and analysis skills
  • Increased workload both for teachers and students

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
4
Some general wisdom
ELFE
  • ICT is means, not goal in itself
  • Our society has transformed from an industrial
    society into an information or knowledge society
  • gt Has consequences for education and for how
    schools function and teachers teach
  • In 21st century our perception of what is good
    education has to change this pertains to all
    components of the teaching-learning (T/L) process

Conference 21-22 November2005
5
Did you know? 3.0 2009 Edition (YouTube)
ELFE
  • The projected top ten in demand jobs in 2010 did
    not exist in 2004 (US Secr o Educ)
  • we are currently preparing students for jobs
    that do not exist, where they will use
    technologies that havent been invented yet to
    solve problems we dont even know are problems
    yet
  • Reported bout Google that
  • in 2006 up to 2.7billion searches/month
  • now 31 billion searches/month!

Conference 21-22 November2005
6
This presentation
ELFE2
  • 1. Importance of curricular perspective
  • 2. Education in 21st century
  • 3. International/global initiatives
  • 4. Some research findings
  • (such as from SITES 2006 study)
  • 5. Concluding comments

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
7
Curricular perspective
ELFE2
Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
8
Components of a curriculum
ELFE
Rationale/vision Aims-objectives Content Learning activities Teacher role Materials resources Grouping Location Time Assessment
Conference 21-22 November2005
Metaphor of spiderweb it is as strong as its weakest axe (Van den Akker)!
9
ELFE2
  • The Curriculum Spiderweb

Assessment
Time
Aims Objectives
Location
Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
Rationale
Content
Grouping
Learning activities
Teacher role
Materials Resources
10
Curriculum perspective
  • Sources student subject - society
  • Knowledge economy Information society
  • Knowledge no longer primarily knowing facts and
    theories and being able to reproduce them
  • (old knowledge reproductive skills)
  • BUT
  • ability to find relevant data and to derive
    meaning from it (lifelong learning skills)
  • (new knowledge productive skills)

11
Lifelong learning skills
  • In new circumstances, being able
  • to generate and evaluate answers to open,
    non-standardized questions,
  • to set own learning goals,
  • to plan and regulate own learning
  • to evaluate own progress
  • Need for
  • analytical, creative and synthesizing skills

12
21st Century skills(ATC21Skills project)
  • I. Ways of thinking
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision
    Making
  • Learning to Learn
  • II. Ways of working
  • 4. Communication
  • 5. Collaboration (Teamwork)

13
21st Century skills(ATC21Skills project)
  • III. Tools for working
  • 6. Information Literacy (includes research)
  • 7. ICT Literacy
  • IV. Living in the world
  • 8. Citizenship Local and Global
  • 9. Life and Career
  • 10. Personal Social Responsibility incl.
    Cultural Awareness and Competence

14
Implications for education
  • - Other balance needed between old and new
  • enable learners to become more active and make
    them more responsible for arranging their own
    learning process
  • teachers becoming more professional coaches

15
Emerging pedagogical practices for information
society (Voogt Pelgrum, 2003)
  1. New goals students become competent in
    information management, communication, and
    collaboration, and metacognition.
  2. Less structured sources of information as
    learning materials.
  3. Traditional boundaries between subjects to be
    bridged

16
Emerging pedagogical practices for information
society (contd)
  • 4. Gap between discipline-related knowledge
    taught in schools and application of knowledge in
    real life to be bridged
  • 5. Boundaries between the school and outside
    world need to fade.
  • gt More focus on needs of individual learners
  • gt Other ways of assessment more open, more
    formative

17
Obvious role of ICT in realizing new vision on
teaching and learning
  • as a general tool (e.g. word processing),
  • as digital learning resources (e.g. tutorials,
    simulations, web-based materials, digital
    encyclopedia, etc),
  • as network and communication tools (e.g.
    internet browser, email software),
  • as digital tools (e.g. microcomputer based
    laboratories, statistical tools,
    accounting-bookkeeping software)
  • as production tools

18
No neglect of old knowledgewhat has
traditionally been valued as important knowledge
and skills
  • BUT
  • schools should reflect a good balance between
    what is traditionally valued and what is
    considered important in the information society.

19

Possible shifts in pedagogy (adapted from
Pelgrum et al., 1997 Pelgrum, 2001)
Less More
School Isolated from society Integrated in society
Most information on school functioning confidential Information openly available
Teacher Initiator of instruction Helps students find appropriate instruct path
Whole class teaching Guides students independent learning
Evaluates student Helps student to evaluate own progress
Places low emphasis on communication skills Places high emphasis on communication skills
20

Possible shifts in pedagogy (contd) (adapted from
Kozma et al., 1999)
Less More
Student Mostly passive More active
Learns at school Learns also outside school
Hardly any teamwork Much teamwork
Takes questions from books or teachers Asks questions OR generates them (projects)
Learns answers to questions Finds answers to questions
Learning outcomes Emphasis on reproductive skills Emphasis on productive skills
21
Change perspective
  • From study ELFE 1
  • Policies on pedagogical innovation using ICT
    often only partially implemented!
  • Fullan (2007)
  • Real innovation is multi-dimensional

22
Dimensions of innovation/change
  1. new materials e.g. computers, educational
    software, open source materials, etc,
  2. new teaching approaches e.g. students working
    more independent of the teachers, often in small
    groups on projects with the teacher in a
    different role
  3. new beliefs about what is good education e.g.
    assumptions about what should be taught and about
    what are appropriate methods.

23
Change is process, not an event!
  • Not reasonable to expect schools and teachers to
    change at a point in time
  • Schools may introduce step-by-step new elements
    in their curriculum and pedagogical approaches
  • Different schools may decide for different
    emphases and priorities!
  • There are many ways leading to Rome

24
3.International/global initiatives
ELFE2
  • Three projects
  • (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
    skills
  • (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
  • (iii) USA / International Experiences with
    Technology in Education (IETE)
  • Also one conference
  • (iv) EDUsummIT

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
25
(i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
skills
ELFE2
  • Multi-stake collaboration
  • Natl Educ Depts Minitries of AUS, FIN, POR,
    SIN, UK (founding countries)
  • Intrntl assessment agencies OECD, IEA
  • Intrntl researchers headed by Barry McGaw
    (UoMelbourne, AUS)
  • Corporations Cisco Intel Microsoft

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
26
(i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
skills
ELFE2
  • Why?
  • - Profound economic and social changes require
    new skills
  • - Many initiatives have focused these 21st
    Century skills BUT
  • Lack connection between 21st C classroom
    practices and national and international
    assessments.
  • Growing consensus on what 21st C skills are but
    little agreement on measurable definitions.
  • There are many methodological and technological
    issues that need to be addressed.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
27
(i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
skills
ELFE2
  • Targeting on following skills
  • (considered critical to individual economic
    success and important to effective functioning at
    the personal and societal levels)
  • Creativity and innovation
  • Critical thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Communication
  • Collaboration
  • Information fluency
  • Technological literacy

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
28
(i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
skills
ELFE2
  • Indicators of success
  • Acceptance, recognition, and participation by
    stakeholders
  • Problems identified, solutions developed, and
    widely available.
  • ICT-based assessment of 21st C skills
    incorporated into national and international
    assessments.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
29
(i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century
skills
ELFE2
  • Final report August 2011
  • For information http//www.atc21s.org/

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
30
(ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
ELFE2
  • Purpose/Goals
  • To identify a set of indicators that are relevant
    for enabling the regular monitoring of the use
    and impact of ICT in primary and secondary
    education.
  • To describe scenarios for monitoring ICT in
    Education in the European Union.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
31
(ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
ELFE2
  • Main products
  • Policy issues and concepts
  • Available and needed indicators
  • Proposal core indicators priorities!
  • Statistical overviews
  • Scenarios for EU ICT monitoring

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
32
(ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
ELFE2
  • Proposed categories of indicators
  • Infrastructure
  • Curriculum content (including pedag approaches,
    assessment)
  • 3. Outcomes and attitudes (e.g. competencies,
    digital literacy)
  • 4. School leadership (e.g. change management)

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
33
(ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
ELFE2
  • Proposed categories of indicators (contd)
  • 5. Connectedness (e.g. natl/internatl
    cooperation, public-private partnerships)
  • 6.Teacher training (e.g. teacher competencies,
    pedag drivers license)
  • 7. Support (e.g. way and extent of technical
    and/or pedagogical support)
  • 8. Transversal issues (e.g. equity, safety,
    financing)

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
34
(ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE)
ELFE2
  • Not much available for outcomes
  • Many indicators for conditional factors
  • Final report October 2009
  • Project director Hans Pelgrum
  • (w.j.pelgrum_at_gw.utwente.nl )

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
35
(iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in
Education (IETE)
ELFE2
  • USA initiated, but similar to EU-project
  • Research questions
  • What international ICT indicators are currently
    being collected?
  • What are limitations of these data?
  • What progress has been made in measuring ICT
    impacts on teachers, instruction, and learning?

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
36
(iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in
Education (IETE)
ELFE2
  • Research questions (contd)
  • What policies and systems are in place to guide
    effective ICT investments?
  • What set of indicators will be most informative
    for policy and feasible to collect on ongoing
    basis?
  • What partnerships and data collection methods
    will be required to make possible an annual
    compendium?

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
37
(iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in
Education (IETE)
ELFE2
  • High-priority areas
  • Improving student learning through enhanced
    instruction
  • Increasing teacher capacity to teach
  • Data systems to support continuous improvement
  • Project identify gaps and needed indicators

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
38
(iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in
Education (IETE)
ELFE2
  • Survey of Ministries of Education of 24
    highest productivity countries
  • No new data collections
  • Final report August 2010
  • Country profiles
  • Recommendations for annual compendium
  • For more information Bob Kozma
    (bob_at_robertkozma.com )

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
39
Few conclusions on projects
ELFE2
  • It is good to have - apart from national
    initiatives - a number of international/global
    projects
  • 21st century skills linked with ICT not only to
    teach, but also to assess
  • EU and USA project on indicators for ICT in
    education talk to each other and will suggest
    clients to communicate gt one common set of
    indicators

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
40
EDUsummIT
ELFE2
  • International Summit on the Future of ICT in
    Education A Call to Action
  • The Hague (Netherlands) - June, 2009
  • Researchers, policy makers and practitioners
    discussing summary of 40-50 years of research on
    ICT in education compiled in International
    Handbook on ICT in Primary and Secondary
    Education
  • (Joke Voogt Gerald Knezek, Eds)

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
41
EDUsummIT
ELFE2
  • From Call to Action (amongst others)
  • (see www.edusummit.nl)
  • To better understand student technology
    experiences in informal learning environments, in
    order to inform work in formal settings
  • To develop new assessments designed to measure
    outcomes from technology enriched learning
    experiences

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
42
EDUsummIT
ELFE2
  • From Call to Action (contd)
  • To develop and use distributed leadership models
    for technology use in schools and teacher
    education programs
  • To develop and use models for teacher learning on
    technology use in schools and classrooms at the
    pre- and in-service levels
  • Also attention for the needs of developing
    countries

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
43
Research (1) - SITES 2006survey of pedagogical
practices and the use of ICT in it.
  • Survey of
  • Schools (principals and IT coordinators)
  • Math Science teachers.
  • Grade 8 is target grade.
  • Random selection of 400 schools and (in
    principle) per school 2 math and 2 science
    teachers

SITES 2006
44
Research questions
  1. What are the pedagogical practices adopted in
    schools and how is ICT used in them?
  2. What ICT is used and how is it used in specific
    situations where ICT has been employed relatively
    extensively within a pedagogical practice
  3. What teacher, school, community and system
    factors are associated with different pedagogical
    practices and ICT-use?

SITES 2006
45
Conceptual framework
SITES 2006
46
Participating education systems
Alberta, Canada Catalonia, Spain Chile Chinese Taipei Denmark Estonia Finland France Hong Kong SAR Israel Italy Japan Lithuania Moscow, Russian Fed Norway Ontario, Canada Russian Federation Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Thailand
SITES 2006
47
Pedagogical orientations
  • Traditional orientation
  • focus on content goals
  • typically the teacher plays the main role as
    instructor and assessor in the learning process
  • the students follow instructions and work on
    assigned close-ended tasks

SITES 2006
48
Pedagogical orientations
  • Lifelong learning orientation
  • Typically require students to work in teams on
    open ended real world problems
  • Emphasis on developing problem solving,
    collaborative and organizational skills
  • Students play an active role in identifying the
    learning problem as well as how to tackle it
  • The teacher plays a facilitative role in the
    learning process

SITES 2006
49
Pedagogical orientations
  • Connectedness orientation
  • Provide opportunities for students to learn from
    local and/or international experts
  • Provide opportunities for students to work and
    learn with peers in other schools, which may be
    located in the neighborhood or in distant
    locations
  • Provide opportunities for students to develop
    global understanding cultural sensitivity
    through collaborating with students from other
    countries

SITES 2006
50
SITES 2006 - Pendulum swing 1998 - 2006 Change in
presence of lifelong learning approaches in
schools as reported by principals

51
Pendulum swing - Denmark
ELFE2
  • Bryderup, Larson Trentel (2009)
  • 2003 policy considerable increase in control of
    what is learnt in compulsory school goals per
    subject per grade level
  • 2006 introd of natl tests for subject skills and
    knowledge gt in school culture with increased
    focus on assessment
  • gt support traditional paradigm
  • in spite of the fact that the teachers in 2006
    claimed to subscribe to aims and values equally
    related to the two paradigms, the traditional
    paradigm was dominant in the actual teaching and
    learning.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
52
Pendulum swing - Denmark
ELFE2
  • Bryderup, Larson Trentel (2009)
  • Case of DEN illustrates that use of ICT does not
    automatically foster a paradigm in line with the
    needs of the knowledge society.
  • Especially if the system level environment
    induces other forces.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
53
ELFE2
Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
54
SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT
ELFE2
  • LOw vs HIgh proportion of MAth teachers
  • LOMA countries TWN, JPN, SLV
  • HIMA countries CAN-Ont, CHL, CAN-Alb
  • Research question (Pelgrum Voogt, 2009)
  • How do HIMA and LOMA countries differ on
  • (i) characteristics of change (pedag approach,
    lifelong learning competencies)
  • (ii) teacher and school level factors affecting
    implementation of ICT?

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
55
SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT
ELFE2
  • Findings Pelgrum Voogt (2009)
  • In HIMA more then in LOMA countries
  • Math teachers apply learner-centred approach and
  • focus on lifelong learning competencies
  • School leaders stimulate more active use of ICT
    and
  • encourage teachers to apply new ways of teaching
    and learning

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
56
SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT
ELFE2
  • Findings Pelgrum Voogt (2009)
  • School-level factors influencing ICT use
  • 1. active communication,
  • 2. school leadership development,
  • 3. assessment orientation,
  • 4. ICT use by school leaders and
  • 5. bottom-up change orientation.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
57
2008 International report SITES 2006 study
SITES 2006
58
Research (2)
ELFE2
  • Personal entrepreneurship of teachers (PET)
  • 2nd analysis of ICT monitor (survey) among Dutch
    primary teacher educators (Drent, 2005)
  • What factors influenced innovative use of ICT by
    teacher educators?
  • Exploratory study

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
59
Personal entrepreneurship of teachers
ELFE2
  • innovative use of ICT
  • Scale of 5 items (Cronbachs a .61)
  • Information gathering
  • Data processing
  • Presenting
  • Introducing of new subject
  • Problem solving
  • Represents growth in use of ICT!

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
60
Personal entrepreneurship of teachers
ELFE2
  • Important factors (from PLS analysis) influencing
    innovative use of ICT
  • Student oriented pedagogy
  • Positive attitude towards ICT
  • Years of computer experience
  • Personal entrepreneurship
  • 3 and 4 strongest influence
  • Note ICT knowledge/skills no direct influence,
    but via other factors

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
61
Personal entrepreneurship of teachers
ELFE2
  • Based on two manifest variables
  • communication/interaction degree of having
    contacts with colleagues (inside/outside) about
    use of ICT
  • utilizing professional network of
    organizations/persons from which teacher educator
    gets support in using ICT
  • amount of contacts (inside/outside) initiated by
    teacher educator for own professional development
    in pedagogical use of ICT

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
62
Personal entrepreneurship of teachers
ELFE2
  • - Has direct influence on innovative use of ICT
  • Also indirect influence, as PET has direct
    influence on other important factors
  • ICT attitude
  • Pedagogical approach
  • ICT competence
  • Metaphor of a system of seizing cogwheels
  • if one cogwheel moves, the others will also start
    moving!

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
63
Personal entrepreneurship of teachers
ELFE2
  • NOTE PET is directly influenced by internal
    support structure
  • support from management,
  • availability of pedag and technical support
  • So
  • the schools support and the schools
    stimulation of personal entrepreneurship can make
    an important contribution to the realisation of
    innovative use of ICT.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
64
Profile of teacher educator
ELFE2
  • using ICT in innovative way (Drent, 2005 Drent
    Meelissen, 2008)
  • Capable of keeping contacts with colleagues and
    experts on ICT for sake of own professional
    development
  • Sees and experiences advantages of innovative use
    of ICT in own teaching
  • Has a student-oriented pedagogical approach
  • Has ICT competencies complying with 3

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
65
Concluding comments
ELFE2
  • Education nowadays has to pay attention to 21st
    century skills balance between old and new
    needed!
  • Curriculum perspective essential (see spiderweb)
  • ICT use alone does not lead to other education
  • The research discussed shows the relevance of
    certain school and teacher factors

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
66
Concluding comments (cont)
ELFE2
  • gt National policies need to reflect these points
    and to encourage schools to be of our time!
  • Further
  • Link in discussions about ICT the use/integration
    with a pedagogical model patterns of ICT use
  • Crucial role of school leaders and teachers to
    realise 21st C education
  • gt Professional development of both

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
67
Concluding comments (cont)
ELFE2
  • gt National policies need to reflect these points
    and to encourage schools to be of our time!
  • Further
  • Link in discussions about ICT the use/integration
    with a pedagogical model patterns of ICT use
  • Crucial role of school leaders and teachers to
    realise 21st C education
  • gt Professional development of both

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
68
Model for pedagogical use of ICT in schools
(ICTOS, 2006)
Collaboration support
(both technical pedagogical)
L e a d e r s h i p
Vision
Knowldg,skills attitudes
Software / Content
ICT-infrastr
Pedagogical use of ICT for learning
69
Finally change is a process
ELFE2
  • Balance needed between top down and bottom up
  • Top down direction facilitation
  • Bottom up space for entrepreneurship
  • Process of new that gets a place in balance
    with the old!
  • This needs to be reflected at both levels system
    and school

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
70
Finally change is a process
ELFE2
  • Process of new that gets a place in balance
    with the old!
  • This needs to be reflected at both levels system
    and school

care for existing
courage for new
Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
Amount of resources
time
71
Thank you!
  • t.plomp_at_gw.utwente.nl

72
Some references
ELFE2
  • Bryderup, I.M, Larson, A. Trentel, M.Q.
    (September 2009). ICT-use, educational policy and
    changes in pedagogical paradigms in compulsory
    education in Denmark. Education and Information
    Technology, 14 (3)
  • Drent, M., (2005). In transitie op weg naar
    innovatief ICT-gebruik op de PABO. (In
    transition on the road to innovative use of ICT
    in teacher education). Enschede (Netherlands)
    Doctoral dissertation, University of Twente.
  • Drent, M. Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors
    obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use
    ICT innovatively. Computers Education, 51,
    187199.
  • Fullan, M., (2007, 4th ed). The Meaning of
    Educational Change. London Cassell Educational
    Limited.
  • ICTOS (ICT op school) (2006). Dutch ICT-tools for
    a balanced use of ICT in the Netherlands. The
    Hague Kennisnet ICT op school. URL
    http//www.dutchicttools.nl/.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
73
Some references
ELFE2
  • Law, N.,Pelgrum, W.J. Plomp, T. (2008).
    Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world
    Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. Hong
    Kong Comparative Education Research Centre,
    University of Hong Kong also Springer
  • Pelgtum, W.J. (2001). Obstacles to the
    integration of ICT in education results from a
    worldwide educational assessment. Computers
    Education,37,pp 163-178.
  • Pelgrum, W. J., ten Brummelhuis, A. C. A.,
    Collis, B. A., Plomp, T. J., Janssen Reinen, I.
    A. M. (1997). The application of multimedia
    technologies in schools technology assessment of
    multimedia systems for pre-primary and primary
    schools. Luxembourg European Parliament,
    Directorate General for Research.
  • Pelgrum, W.J. Voogt, J. (September 2009).
    School and teacher factors associated with
    frequency of ICT use by mathematics teachers
    country comparisons. Education and Information
    Technology, 14 (3)

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
74
Some references (contd)
ELFE2
  • Voogt.J. Knezek, G. (Eds) (2008).International
    Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and
    Secondary Education. Springer Science.
  • Voogt, J.M. Pelgrum, W.J., (2003). ICT and the
    curriculum. In R.B. Kozma (Ed.) Technology,
    innovation and educational change a global
    perspective. A report of the IEA Second
    Information Technology in Education Study
    Module 2. Eugene (OR, USA) International Society
    for Technology in Education (ISTE).
  • Van den Akker, J. (2003). Curriculum
    perspectives an introduction. In J. van den
    Akker, U. Hameyer, W. Kuiper, (Eds.).
    Curriculum landscapes and trends. Dordrecht
    Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 1-10.

Bled (Slv), 14-15 September 2009
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