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Implementing New Discoveries about Reading and Reading Instruction in a Coherent Reading Plan

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Title: Implementing New Discoveries about Reading and Reading Instruction in a Coherent Reading Plan


1
Implementing New Discoveries about Reading and
Reading Instruction in a Coherent Reading
Plan Stuart Greenberg Associate Director,
Florida Center for Reading Research Maryland
Reading Conference
2
The most important goal of this talk
To share some information and ideas about
reading, reading growth, and reading instruction
that will address the need for initial,
consistently high quality classroom instruction
as the first step in prevention of reading
difficulties, and a set of supplemental
instructional and engaging activities as the
second necessary element.
With the goal being to maximize instructional
efficiency and power for all children
3
What is Reading?
  • the process of simultaneously extracting and
    constructing meaning through interaction and
    involvement with written language (RAND, 2002,
    p. 11)
  • Reading is an active and complex process that
    involves
  • Understanding written text
  • Developing and interpreting meaning and
  • Using meaning as appropriate to type of text,
    purpose, and situation (NAEP Framework, 2009)

4
Two definitions of reading that summarize the
challenges we face in helping students become
proficient readers by 3rd grade
Reading is translating between oral and written
language. (Perfetti, 1985)
Reading is thinking guided by print.
(Perfetti, 1985)
5
Two important goals for improvement
1. Increase the percentage of students reading
at grade level each year at each grade level
from kindergarten through third grade
2. Decrease the percentage of students with
serious reading difficulties each year at each
grade level
Our most important measures of success in doing
this assess student performance on reading
comprehension measures at the end of the
year-particularly at end of third grade
6
Increasing demands for higher levels of literacy
in the workforce require that we do better than
we have ever done before in teaching all children
to read well.
7
How the new research is different--
1. It is much, much more extensive
2. It has been much better funded, so it has been
of higher quality better measures, longitudinal
designs, larger samples of children
3. It has involved a convergence of findings from
both basic science on the nature of reading and
from instructional studies that implement those
findings
8
In 1995, the U.S. Department of Education and
the National Institutes of Health
National Academy of Sciences
Report from the National Research Council 1998
9
(No Transcript)
10
In 1997, United States Congress
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development U.S. Department of Education
Report of the National Reading Panel
11
National Reading Panel
  • Panel reviewed more than
  • 100,000 studies
  • Effective Reading Instruction contains Five Big
    Ideas
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Text Comprehension

12
National Reading Panel
  • For some children, learning to read can be
    difficult and unrewarding
  • Reasons should not automatically be a barrier to
    literacy development
  • Instructional decisions should be based on
    assessments

13
Phonemic Awareness
  • Ability to hear, identify and manipulate the
    individual sounds in spoken words
  • Children learn this before they read print
  • Lack of the awareness of phonology is the core
    deficit for reading disabilities (Dr. Reid Lyon,
    1995)

14
Students with Phonemic Awareness Can
  • Hear and say rhyming patterns in words
  • Recognize when words begin with the same sound
  • Segment words into their component sounds called
    phonemes
  • Blend these parts, or phonemes, into
  • words

15
Building Phonemic Awareness
  • Phoneme isolation
  • Phoneme identity
  • Phoneme categorization
  • Phoneme blending
  • Phoneme segmentation
  • Phoneme manipulation

16
Phonics
  • Phonics instruction teaches children the
    relationship between the letters of written
    language and the individual sounds of spoken
    language.
  • Goal of phonics is to help children learn to use
    the alphabetic principle.
  • Children need systematic and explicit phonics
    instruction.

17
Fluency
  • Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately
    and quickly.
  • Repeated and monitored oral reading improves
    reading fluency
  • Fluency changes depending on what readers are
    reading.

18
Fluent Readers
  • Make connections among the ideas in the text and
    between the text and their background knowledge
  • Can divide text into meaningful chunks
  • Do not have to concentrate on decoding words.
  • Focus their attention on the meaning of text

19
Comprehension
  • Purpose of reading
  • Good readers have a purpose for reading
  • Good readers think actively as they read
  • Text comprehension can be improved by instruction
    that helps readers use specific comprehension
    strategies
  • Children need to learn to monitor their
    comprehension

20
Vocabulary
  • Increases in vocabulary generate increases in
    academic achievement
  • Vocabulary is related to overall achievement
  • Importance of vocabulary knowledge to school
    success and reading comprehension is widely
    documented
  • The brain likes to make connections

21
Vocabulary
  • Children learn the meanings of most words
    indirectly, through conversation, read-alouds,
    and reading on their own
  • Children learn vocabulary through direct explicit
    instruction of individual words as well as
    word-learning strategies

22
Indirect Learning of Vocabulary
  • Exposure to mature conversations
  • Oral reading of material above their
    independent reading level
  • Wide reading on their own

23
Direct Instruction of Vocabulary
  • Teaching targeted words
  • Teaching word meaning, context clues, and
    learning word parts
  • Activities that promote active engagement with
    words

24
Vocabulary Acquisition
  • Strategic and explicit instruction must occur
    with multiple opportunities for practice
    application
  • Meaningful opportunities
  • Students need to visualize, connect and use their
    senses
  • Exposure to words that are above their level of
    independent reading

25
Vocabulary Acquisition, cont.
  • Parents can use the refrigerator or a wall in
    their childs room as a word wall
  • Teachers and parents should have daily
    read-alouds
  • Children hear the sentences and vocabulary and
    can begin to use it in their everyday language

26
Effective early reading instruction must build
reading skills in five important areas
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Fluency
Vocabulary
Comprehension strategies
27
The development of proficient reading skill the
ideal developmental path
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Alphabetic Principle and other word reading
strategies
Acquisition of Fluency
Development of Vocabulary, Knowledge and Thinking
Skills
Development of attitudes-----motivation,
interest, curiosity
28
Reading and the Brain
  • Recent brain research has
  • provided a greater understanding
  • of why some children have
  • difficulty learning to read.
  • This video clip from
  • Reading Rockets discusses the importance of
    identifying deficits in specific reading skills.
    Teaching skills explicitly and systematically
    enable teachers to help children overcome
    reading difficulties.

29
Teaching Reading The Brain
30
5 Year Olds Before Learning To Read
Right
Left
Right
Left
31

Good Intervention Normalizes Brain Activation
Patterns
Right
Left
Before Intervention
normalized
After Intervention
32
First-Grade
Seventh-Grade
33
Changes in the environment and experiences alter
the structure of the brain. This is the
plasticity of the brain making each learner
unique.
34
Brain research shows that every child has
unlimited potential for learning.
  • The acts of reading and writing depend upon
    neural networks working together to extract
    meaning from sources of information letters,
    sounds, spelling patterns, cluster endings,
    syntax, and semantics.
  • Teachers must identify the ways in which students
    process information, and then provide
    differentiated instruction.

35
(No Transcript)
36
The top 5 discoveries
1. It is very important for young children to
acquire strong phonemic decoding skills early in
reading development
2. Many children struggle in learning phonics
because of lack of skill and/or preparation in
phonemic awareness
3. Children must become accurate readers early in
development in order to become fluent readers by
3rd grade and fluency is important for
comprehension
4. The large individual differences in oral
language vocabulary that arise from pre-school
experiences begin to exert a powerful influence
on comprehension by grade three.
5. Many children must be taught explicitly and
directly how to think about what they are
reading to improve comprehension
37
What we know from science about the growth of
reading skills
1. It is very important to get off to a strong
start in learning to read during early elementary
school
Children who catch on to reading early get much
more reading practice than those who catch on
late
Children who catch on early are more accurate
readers-accuracy is important as children form
memories for words that allow them to identify
them at a single glance
Children who read more have more opportunities to
add words to their vocabulary
Children who catch on to reading early develop
stronger motivation for reading
38
What we know from science about the growth of
reading skills
1. It is very important to get off to a strong
start in learning to read during early elementary
school
2. It is critical that children acquire skill in
use of the alphabetic principle to help
accurately identify unknown words early in
development of reading skill
From all these different perspectives, two
inescapable conclusions emerge. The first is
that mastering the alphabetic principle is
essential to becoming proficient in the skill of
reading…. (Rayner, et al., 2001)
Raynor, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A.,
Pesetsky, D., Seidenberg, M.S. 2001. How
psychological science informs the teaching of
reading. Psychological Science in the Public
Interest, 2 31-73.
39
What we know about the growth of reading skills
1. It is very important to get off to a strong
start in learning to read during early elementary
school
2. It is critical that children acquire skill in
use of the alphabetic principle to help
accurately identify unknown words early in
development of reading skill
3. Children who are delayed in the development
of alphabetic understanding and skill struggle to
become fluent readers
4. Accurate and fluent word reading skills
contribute importantly to the development of
reading comprehension
40
In fact, the automaticity with which skillful
readers recognize words is the key to the whole
system…The readers attention can be focused on
the meaning and message of a text only to the
extent that its free from fussing with the words
and letters. Marilyn Adams
41
Differentiation of Instruction
is a teachers response to learners needs
guided by general principles of differentiation,
such as
teachers reading coaches collaborating in
planning
use of data
sequence of instruction
materials resources
flexible grouping
Teachers can differentiate

process
interactions
content
according to

Adapted from the work of Carol Tomlinson
group size
time
data
42
Reading stimulates general cognitive
growthparticularly verbal skills
43
What Reading Does For The Mind
A student at the 10th percentile reads about
60,000 words a year in 5th grade
A student at the 50th percentile reads about
900,000 words a year in 5th grade
Average students receive about 15 times as much
practice in a year
(Anderson, R. C., 1992)
44
Optimizing Student Learning
  • Are students reading in pairs?
  • Are students clarifying and writing summaries?
    Why is this important ?
  • Are students using graphic organizers? In what
    ways am I challenged to think in this lesson?
  • Are students generating questions?
  • Teachers demonstrate this strategy by generating
    questions aloud during reading. Readers then
    practice generating questions and answers as they
    read the text. Teachers provide feedback on the
    quality of the questions asked or assist the
    student in answering the question generated.
    Teachers teach the students to evaluate whether
    their questions covered important information,
    whether the questions related to information
    provided in the text, and whether they themselves
    could answer the questions.

45
What we know about the growth of reading skills
5. Oral language vocabulary and other forms of
verbal and conceptual knowledge also contribute
importantly to the development of reading
comprehension.
46
Relationship between Vocabulary Score (PPVT)
measures in Kindergarten and later reading
comprehension
End of Grade One -- .45
End of Grade Four -- .62
End of Grade Seven -- .69
The relationship of vocabulary to reading
comprehension gets stronger as reading material
becomes more complex and the vocabulary becomes
becomes more extensive (Snow, 2002)
47
What we know about the growth of reading skills
5. Oral language vocabulary and other forms of
verbal and conceptual knowledge also contribute
importantly to the development of reading
comprehension.
6. Children must also develop and actively use a
variety of comprehension monitoring and
comprehension building strategies to reliably
construct the meaning of text.
48
What we know about the growth of reading skills
5. Oral language vocabulary and other forms of
verbal and conceptual knowledge also contribute
importantly to the development of reading
comprehension.
6. Children must also develop and actively use a
variety of comprehension monitoring and
comprehension building strategies to reliably
construct the meaning of text.
7. Motivation for learning to read is important
to early reading development, and continued
motivation to read is critical for reading
development after basic skills are well
established growth of reading skills after
3-4th grade is heavily influenced by amount of
reading the child does.
49
What Can We Do?
  • Read to children/students
  • Repeated readings
  • Rich discussions after reading
  • Read material together

50
More Exposures Deeper, Lasting
Understanding.. How?
  • Picture to word matches
  • Word webs using drawings and personal
    experiences
  • Explore multiple meanings of words
  • Create word walls
  • Exposure to a wealth of written
  • materials

51
How? cont.
  • Books on tape
  • Cloze activities
  • Concentration
  • Flip Charts to study for vocabulary tests
  • Read-Alouds/Think-Alouds
  • Word Bags

52
Each Childs Potential Can be Realized!
  • Bombard them with
  • Rich auditory language experiences
  • Systematic instruction using visualizations
  • Many opportunities to
  • Apply the new vocabulary
  • Become increasingly more independent

53
Read Aloud
  • Make Reading a Part
  • of Every Day!

54
How to Read Aloud
  • Say the title of the book, name of author
  • Bring the author to life
  • Discuss the illustration on the cover
  • Make connectionsbuild on background knowledge
  • Ask questionshave students make predictions?

55
How to Read Aloud, cont.
  • Interact and involve the child in the story, have
    them point to pictures
  • Read with lots of expression
  • Read slowly enough for the child to build mental
    pictures
  • Talk about the story when done

56
Research
  • Repeat readings associated with gains in
    vocabulary (Senechal, 1997)
  • Active participation during reading impacts
    learning (Dickerson Smith)

57
Why is reading aloud so effective?
  • Children learn sounds and structure of the
    English language
  • Conditions the childs brain to associate reading
    with pleasure
  • Creates background knowledge
  • Builds vocabulary
  • Provides reading role model

58
Interactive Read Aloud
59
What skills, knowledge, and attitudes are
required for good reading comprehension?
60
What we know about the factors that affect
reading comprehension
Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by
Accurate and fluent word reading skills
Oral language skills (vocabulary, linguistic
comprehension)
Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge
Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive
strategies to improve comprehension or repair it
when it breaks down.
Reasoning and inferential skills
Motivation to understand and interest in task and
materials
61
  • Life Experience
  • Content Knowledge
  • Activation of Prior
  • Knowledge
  • Knowledge about
  • Texts
  • Oral Language Skills
  • Knowledge of Language
  • Structures
  • Vocabulary
  • Cultural Influences

Reading Comprehension
  • Prosody
  • Automaticity/Rate
  • Accuracy
  • Decoding
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Motivation
  • Engagement
  • Active Reading
  • Strategies
  • Monitoring Strategies
  • Fix-Up Strategies

62
Application To be successful in teaching all
students to be grade level readers schools must
do at least three things well
1. Increase the quality and consistency of
instruction in every K-3 classroom
2. Conduct timely and valid assessments of
reading growth to identify struggling readers
3. Provide more intensive interventions to catch
up the struggling readers
63
The top five myths about interventions for
struggling readers
1. If a child is a visual learner, they should
be taught to read using a visual, not an auditory
strategy
2. If a child has not learned phonics by the
end of first grade, they need to be taught to
read in some other way
3. Children who struggle with phonemic awareness,
vocabulary, or phonics in kindergarten and first
grade will frequently catch up if given time.
4. We should take guidance from theories of
multiple intelligences or learning styles to
help us adapt our reading instruction for
different children
5. A little quality time with an enthusiastic
volunteer tutor can solve most childrens reading
problems
64
The consensus view of most important
instructional features for interventions
Interventions are more effective when they
Provide systematic and explicit instruction on
whatever component skills are deficient phonemic
awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading
comprehension strategies
Provide a significant increase in intensity of
instruction
Provide ample opportunities for guided practice
of new skills
Provide systematic cueing of appropriate
strategies in context
Provide appropriate levels of scaffolding as
children learn to apply new skills
65
Two kinds of scaffolding are important
Programmatic Scaffolding
The program of instruction is carefully sequenced
so that students are explicitly taught the skills
and knowledge they need for each new task they
are asked to perform
Oral blending skills before blending printed words
Awareness of phonemes before learning how they
are represented in print
Grapheme-phoneme knowledge before decoding
Vocabulary instruction before reading for meaning
Strategies for oral language comprehension that
support reading comprehension
66
Two kinds of scaffolding are important
Responsive Scaffolding
After an error, or inadequate response, the
teacher provides responsive support to assist the
child in making a more adequate, or correct
response
Through appropriate questioning or provision of
information, the teacher supports the child in
doing a task they cannot immediately do on their
own
67
We can prevent early problems with reading
accuracy in almost all children
Percent of children scoring below the 30th
percentile
Study Amt. of instruction delayed overall
Foorman 174 hrs.- classroom 35 6
Felton 340 hrs. - groups of 8 32 5
Vellutino 35- 65 hrs. 11 tutoring 46
7
Torgesen 88 hrs. 11 tutoring 30 4
Torgesen 80 hrs. 13 tutoring 11 2
Torgesen 91 hrs. 13 or 15 tutoring 8
1.6
Mathes 80 hrs. 13 tutoring 1 .02
68
Growth in Word Reading Ability
75th 50th 25th
National Percentile
October January May
69
The movement and interaction increase breathing
rate and volume and heart rate and volume, which
in turn increase blood supply to the brain.
Increased blood supply to the brain increases the
delivery of oxygen and glucose, the primary
nourishments that fuel s cognitive activity.
Thus cooperative learning structures actually
nourish the brain!
  • Instruction is more effective when it aligns
    with how the brain best attends to, understands,
    and retains information. A number of principles
    of brain-friendly learning have been established.
    It turns out, to a remarkable degree, that
    systematic use of interactive teaching and
    learning processes  implements some of the most
    important principles of brain-friendly learning.
    At the most general level, learning occurs
    through the cognitive engagement of the with the
    appropriate subject matter knowledge.

70
Processing Strategy 102 Theory
  • To reduce information loss, pause for two
    minutes at about ten minute intervals.
  • For every ten minutes or so of meaningful chunks
    of new information, students should be provided
    with two or so minutes to process the
    information.
  • Students can respond and discuss their current
    understanding in various ways.

71
Processing Strategy Think-Pair-Share
  • Process
  • Teacher asks a question.
  • Ask students to think quietly about possible
    answers
  • to the question this usually only about thirty
    seconds
  • To one minute, unless the question is quite
    complex.
  • Have students pair with a neighbor or a
    learning
  • Buddy to discuss their thinking. The discussion
  • Usually lasts two to three minutes.
  • Ask students to share their responses

Think

Pair
Share
72
Think-Write-Share- Strengthen
  • Process
  • Teacher explains a question.
  • Ask students to think quietly about possible
    answers
  • to the question this usually only about thirty
    seconds
  • To one minute, unless the question is quite
    complex.
  • Have students write a response
  • Ask students to share their responses with
    partner or
  • group. Not all students have to
  • Share their answers with the large group.

Think

Write
Share
Strengthen
Based upon input from partner or group-
students strengthen response
73
A concluding thought….
There is no question but that significantly
improving reading outcomes for all children is
going to be a significant challenge…
It will involve professional development for
teachers, school reorganization, and a relentless
focus on the individual needs of every child…
But, its not the most difficult thing we could be
faced with…
74
Deepening Thinking
Adapted from Irene Gaskins
75
Deepening Thinking
Adapted from Irene Gaskins
76
Deepening Thinking
Adapted from Irene Gaskins
77
Deepening Thinking
Adapted from Irene Gaskins
78
? Thank You
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