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THE UGANDA SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FRAMEWORK

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Title: THE UGANDA SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FRAMEWORK


1
THE UGANDA SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE FRAMEWORK
  • Karatunga Ali Mohammed
  • Karamoja Data Centre
  • Office of the Prime Minister
  • Kampala Uganda

SDI Ad-Hoc Experts Group Meeting, (3-7 Feb. 2002
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
2
Introduction
  • The Government of Uganda is currently
    implementing
  • a number of Programmes all geared towards
    achieving the objective of poverty eradication
  • these programmes include among others
  • Poverty eradication Action Plan (PEAP)
  • Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA)
  • The Decentralization Programme
  • Universal Primary Education (UPE)
  • Promotion of Private Sector investment
  • Good Governance
  • Environmental Management
  • Disarmament Programme
  • The Road Sector Development Programme (RSDP)

3
  • Most of these programmes are a result of
    policies based on ad-hoc and inadequate
    information.
  • Though the National Constitution recognizes the
    right to information, there is no national policy
    addressing the role of geo-spatial information in
    the nations sustainable development process.

4
SDI Policy GuidelineUganda shall have the
spatial data infrastructure needed to support its
economic growth, its social and environmental
interests, backed by national standards,
guidelines, and policies on access to data and
information.
5
This presentation gives an overview of current
initiatives towards the establishment of a Uganda
Spatial Data Infrastructure (USDI). Emphasis is
placed on the following aspects of the SDI
framework
  • Existing GIS activities or initiatives
  • Institutional Framework/National Coordination
  • Core/Fundamental Datasets
  • Mandates
  • Data Exchange Mechanisms
  • Policy and Memoranda for sharing data
  • Obstacles SDI implementation in Uganda

6
Institutional Categories and Existing GIS
Initiatives
  • Core Institutions (These are sectors that fall
    within the governments Priority Programme Areas
    (PPA)
  • - Education
  • - Water
  • - Health
  • - Works Transport and Communication
  • - Agriculture
  • Supporting (These have functions and mandates to
    provide information that are essential to the
    functions of the core organizations).
  • - Ministry of Finance, Planning and
    Economic Development
  • - Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS)
  • - Department of Land and Surveys
  • - National Biomass Study, Forest
    Department
  • - Ministry of Local Government
  • - Karamoja Data Centre, Office of the
    Prime Minister

7
Peripheral Institutions(These do not have a
direct impact on the operations of the main focus
institutions but deliver premises to the central
policy and are essential users in the SDI
environment).
  • The National Environment Management Authority
    (NEMA)
  • - Coordinates the Environment
    Information Network (EIN)
  • - A data standards committee
    was set up by the network to address issues of
    exchange of
  • data, software
    compatibility, coding and classification systems,
    and general information
  • quality control among the
    institutions participating in the network.
  • Makerere University
  • Offers GIS Course Units in 6 different
    Disciplines
  • - Surveying
  • - Environment
  • - Forestry
  • - Urban Planning
  • - Geography
  • - Agricultural Engineering

8
Institutional Framework/National Coordination
  • Use of GIS in Uganda can be characterized
    as user or
  • project driven and not due to any
    government policy.
  • There is no central body concerned with
    implementation
  • or mandated to co-ordinate of SDI
    activities.
  • A GIS Task Force was established by Ministry
    of Finance,
  • Planning and Economic Development in 2000,
    but has for long
  • been non-functional.
  • The involvement of the Ministry of Finance in
    SDI initiatives
  • is a sign of government commitment
    towards SDI initiatives.

9
Short-term recommendations of the World Bank
Funded Study on Establishment of a Uganda SDI
  • Establishment of SDI sub committees
    on         - Standardisation.         -
    Co-financing.         - GIS Education.
  • Establishment of a Permanent Spatial Data
    Infrastructure Co-ordination Unit.
  • Defining mandates and ownership of the
    core/fundamental datasets.
  • Launching activities for initial conformance
    and data exchange operations.
  • Initiating a feasibility study on Land
    Administration.
  • Ensuring that all future public and private
    sector projects conform to the Rules and
  • Conditions of Ugandan Spatial Data
    Infrastructure
  • Adopting the Principle of Free Exchange of Key
    Spatial Data Sets within the
  • Government Institutions.

10
Core/Fundamental Datasets
  • There are no defined datasets to be considered of
    common interest or part of a common
    infrastructure.
  • Some of the executed donor projects have
    established data of common interest, and thus
    initiated an informal infrastructure.
  • The National Biomass Study Project. In addition
    to the Landcover dataset, the project developed
    a digital database of six additional layers, and
    has since established itself as a major source of
    basic geo-spatial data layers.
  • The major problem is the maintenance and updating
    of these data since they do not fall within the
    sphere the NBS activities, and as a result the
    layers have deteriorated with time.
  • There is no defined set of aggregated data for
    national planning

11
Mandates
  • The Institutional Mandates for Data Ownership,
    Acquisition, Maintenance are not in line with the
    present situation.
  • The mandates are partly out of date, and partly
    in conflict with current technological
  • advancement.
  • Some overlapping of responsibilities exists
    between Land and Surveys and UBOS
  • in the area of administrative mapping. This
    creates a potential ground for conflict of
  • interests between the two institutions
  • Since the NBS has established itself as a major
    source of basic geo-spatial data
  • layers, Several institutions have adopted the
    Biomass Project datasets and started
  • their own updating process.
  • This has lead to double work and problems with
    future updating.

12

To overcome the problem of duplication and
inconsistencies in the core dataset, the
World Bank funded study made the following
recommendations and were adopted by the GIS
Task Force
  • The ownership and thus the responsibilities for
    each dataset should be clearly defined.
  • For each dataset there should be only one
    owner/custodian.
  • The principle shall be that each dataset shall
    be owned by the
  • organization that has the mandate to decide
    on changes and use
  • of the dataset.

13
Recommended Data Owners/Custodians
  • Administrative Units Ministry of Local
    Government
  • Protected Areas Forest Department/Uganda
    Wildlife Authority
  • Hydrology (lakes rivers) Department of Land
    and Surveys
  • Transport Infrastructure Ministry of Works,
    Transport and Communications
  • Manmade Structures  Land and Surveys
  • Topography (elevation) Land and Surveys
    Department
  • Aerial photographs and satellite Imagery
    Department of Land and Surveys
  • Land Cover (Land Use) Forest Department
  • Water Points Directorate of Water Development
  • Population Uganda Bureau of Statistics
  • Health Data Ministry of Health
  • Education Data Ministry of Education and
    Sports
  • Land holdings/Parcels Department of Land and
    Surveys

14
Standards and Data Exchange Mechanisms
  • There is no formal or common data exchange
    mechanism.
  • Data exchanges are commonly done on
    institution-to-institution basis on demand by use
    of CD-ROMS or PC-PC cable connections and
    sometimes on floppies.
  • The Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS)
    has developed a number of standards which are for
    commercial goods and services but not for
    geographic information.
  • The National Environment Management Authority
    (NEMA) has initiated some standardisation but
    there is lack of focus.
  • Development of comprehensive geographic
    information standards is not a simple task and
    would require a lot of investment in time and
    human resources.
  • Under the World Bank initiative, Preliminary Data
    Exchange Specification for Uganda were developed
    to
  • - Promote the efficient and
    effective use of Basic digital geographical
    information,
  • - Enable the integration,
    combination and interchange of datasets and to
    facilitate
  • the national standard for
    geographic data exchange future development and
  • implementation.

15
  • Standards and Data Exchange Mechanisms (Cont.)
  • It is to serve as one of the first steps in the
    range of measures and activities directed to the
    implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructure in
    Uganda
  • These specifications were developed in accordance
    with the recommendations of Open GIS Consortium
    and are in harmony with ISO/TC211.
  • This specification consists of three main parts
  • - Establishment of basic
    principles of geographic data exchange,
  • - Requirements for a transfer
    format
  • - Prototype Feature Catalogue.
  • The prototype Feature Catalogue is limited to the
    existing datasets that were digitized by the
    National Biomass Study Project from topographic
    maps of scale 150,000
  • The specification is to cover, to some extent,
    the immediate needs in geographic information
    exchange, integration and its use.
  • It is a subject to change and is open for further
    development, modification and improvement in
    accordance to the needs of the society.
  • These specifications have not yet been adopted by
    any institution due to lack of a formal
    coordinating body.

16
Policy and Memoranda for Sharing Data
  • There is no central policy or MoU for data
    access or exchange in the country
  • however, some MOU exist among the various
    institutions.
  • There is no national principle for pricing of
    data, but a practice of charging for
  • datasets exists in some institutions
  • The Biomass data are charged around US 20
    per layer of 150 000, a price
  • considered high by the users.
  • Under the World Bank assignment, an SDI
    decree was formulated stipulating
  • that
  • - Organisations should reach agreement
    on what fundamental datasets are
  • required in the national interest,
  • - To what standards they should be
    collected and maintained,
  • - Which agencies should have
    custodianship of those data,
  • - What the national priorities are for
    collection of those data.

17
Metadata Initiatives
  • There exists some internal documentation
    describing the data in some institutions.
  • However, there is no Metadata for national use.
  • There is no formal Metadata distribution system.
  • NEMA has developed a Metadata for its GIS
    datasets and is available at www.nemaug.org.
  • The World Bank assignment also developed a
    Metadata for the institutions considered relevant
    in the establishment of the Uganda Spatial Data
    Infrastructure,
  • Developed using Active Server Pages (ASP)
    language to make it dynamic on the Web, and is
    hosted at www.blom.no/Uganda the consultants
    server.
  • In order to develop a national metadata, The
    Standardisation Committee shall have the mandate
    to make a national profile for Metadata of ISO
    19115, or adopt any existing profile on Metadata.
  • This Standardisation Committee shall identify the
    metadata elements required in Uganda, based on
    the core Metadata elements in ISO 19115.
  • Every organisation that is an owner or a
    custodian of spatial data shall be responsible to
    organise Metadata for their data sets.
  • The Metadata owner shall be responsible for the
    quality and the updating of Metadata and to
    disseminate the Metadata on Internet according to
    the rules and procedures set up by the
    Standardisation Committee.

18
Obstacles to SDI Implementation in Uganda
  • The following have been identified as bottlenecks
    in the implementation of a
  • National Spatial Data Infrastructure in Uganda.
  • Lack of adequate capacity both at the Central and
    Local Government levels
  • Lack of appropriate national policy and
    legislation on access to data or information
  • Lack of a national driving force
  • Absence of a Competent Authority to handle GIS
    initiatives
  • Weak government institutions technically,
    politically and financially
  • Undefined, overlapping and sometimes conflicting
    mandates
  • Disjointed and scanty data providers lack of a
    one stop Information Centre
  • Tendency to re-invent the wheel
  • Job mobility
  • Temporary and donor driven initiatives
  • Empire building

19
  • Obstacles to SDI Implementation (Cont)
  • Lack of GIS awareness among planners and
    decision makers
  • Lack of data integration
  • Lack of focus
  • Institutional laxity
  • Lack of updating mechanism
  • Lack of a sustainable financial mechanism
  • Lack of private sector involvement

20
Conclusion
  • The basic framework exists for the implementation
    of the Uganda Spatial Data Infrastructure
    however there is a general lack of awareness
    among planners and policy makers on the role of
    SDI as key to improving the efficiency of service
    delivery.
  • Lack of a central SDI coordinating body will
    drive all SDI initiatives in the country to waste.

21
YOU ARE A VERY NICE AUDIENCE THANK YOU
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