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Architecture of the Muslim World

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Architecture of the Muslim World – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture of the Muslim World


1
Architecture of the Muslim World
  • Thoughts on Islamic Architecture
  • Adil Sharag-Eldin, Ph.D.
  • 01/23/07

2
What is Islamic Architecture?
  • Architecture produced by Muslim?
  • Architecture that serves Islamic functions?
  • Architecture produced in the Muslim Lands
    (world)?
  • Architectural Typology or Style?
  • Architecture as a product or reflection to
    Islamic Civilization?

3
Islamic Architecture
4
What is Next?
  • Define some characteristics that identifies IA
  • Know that there are many exceptions
  • Generalization is usually incorrect
  • Generalization may explain some examples but not
    others

5
Characteristics of Islamic Architecture
  • Interiority
  • Courtyard monuments
  • Courtyard houses
  • Small apertures
  • Visibly walled
  • Small openings
  • Effect of these characteristics on urban character

6
Interiorization of building Experiences
  • An urban manifestation of tribal legacy
  • Religious reasons
  • Haram
  • Importance of the individual action
  • Importance of privacy
  • Climatic
  • Buildings are to be viewed from the inside not
    the outside

7
Alcazar Toledo, Spain
8
Alhambra, Spain
9
Bait al-Sihaimi, Cairo Egypt
10
Al Sihaimi house
11
Al Sihaimi House
12
Muslim Houses (Regionalism)
  • Muslim house
  • Similarities
  • Differences

13
Muslim Houses (Regionalism)
  • Muslim house
  • Similarities
  • Differences

14
Islam and Regionalism
  • Characteristic feature of a geographic area
    (dict)

15
Is interiority unique to Muslim Architecture?
16
Roman Houses
17
Roman Houses
18
Chinese house
19
Impact of Interiority on Urban Character
  • Character as a manifestation of grouping

Jerusalem
20
Urban character
  • Hiding of urban features

Images from Cairo
21
Common Characteristics
  • Mostly Urban
  • A clear separation between the private (haram)
    and public areas (in some areas more than others)
  • Manifested in difference between decoration and
    articulation of the façade from the interiors
  • Buildings are experienced from within
  • Egalitarianism and urban characters
  • Un-formal ????
  • Orientation problems???
  • Responded to climatic characteristics of the
    region
  • At the end…Beware of generalization!!!

22
Images
Fatimid Cairo Al-Hakim Mosque and Bab al-Futuh
gate
23
Streets of Cairo
24
Fatimid Mosque Cairo
25
Monuments vs. Interiority
  • Exterior expression is an exception to the rule

26
Monuments from the inside Scale and Detail
27
Calligraphy as an architectural tool
28
Interior Decorations
  • Attention to details
  • E.g. Muqarnas
  • Structural
  • Repetitions

29
Form and Function
  • Lack of a direct connection between form and
    function e.g. four-Iwan courtyard structures
  • An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a
    monumental arched opening on one side

30
Sultah Hasan Mosque and Madrasa
31
Form and Function
  • No clear relationship between form and function
  • Do not display an inherent directional or axial
    quality

32
Formal Unity
  • Buildings are not design as single balanced units
  • Buildings as part of a greater urban complex

33
Islamic Architecture
  • There are enough similarities that justify the
    designation, but
  • Differences
  • For many reasons
  • Cannot be fully understood without knowing
  • Faith and its effect on
  • People
  • Place
  • Time

34
Islamic?
35
A discussion topic
  • In reference to Grubes assertions
  • How can we explain existence of buildings with
    un-Islamic formal expressions such as the dome of
    the Rock and Taj Mahal and other free-standing
    structures in the Islamic context?
  • Always and everywhere in the Muslim world, forms
    of architecture were built that remained
    basically unaffected by the process of
    Islamicization of pre-Islamic or non-Islamic
    cultures unabsorbed by Islamic art, these forms
    were consequently not an expression of Islamic
    culture but of the cultures from which they were
    originally derived

36
Thoughts about Islamic Architecture
  • Modern Interpretation of Tradition

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Public Housing Emirates
45
Palace in the Emirates
46
House in Cairo
47
B2 House Turkey ????????
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