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Career Needs and Career Development Programs: An Investigation of the Concept of Gap

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Human Resource Development International. Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L. ... 5 stages. childhood growth (up to the age of 14) search and inquiry (up to the age of 25) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Career Needs and Career Development Programs: An Investigation of the Concept of Gap


1
Career Needs and Career Development Programs An
Investigation of the Concept of Gap
  • Pao-Long Chang
  • Department of Business Administration
  • Feng Chia University
  • 2005-05-12

2
  • Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L., and Yeh, C.W. An
    investigation of career development programs, job
    satisfaction, professional development and
    productivity The case of Taiwan. Human Resource
    Development International
  • Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L., and Yeh, C.W. (2004). A
    study of career needs, career development
    programs, job satisfaction and the turnover
    intentions of RD personnel. Career Development
    International, 9(4), 424-437.
  • Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L. and Yeh, C.W. (2003). The
    study of career needs, career development
    programs and job satisfaction levels of RD
    personnel The case of Taiwan. International
    Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6),
    1001-1026. (SSCI)
  • Chen, T.Y., Chang, P.L. and Yeh, C.W. (2003).
    Square of correspondence between career needs and
    career development programs for RD personnel.
    Journal of High Technology Management Research,
    14, 189-211

3
Career Stage (I)
  • Supers theory(1957)
  • 5 stages
  • childhood growth (up to the age of 14)
  • search and inquiry (up to the age of 25)
  • establishment (up to age 45)
  • continuity or maintenance (up to age 56)
  • decline or disengagement
  • age ? career stage
  • age ? social roles child, student, leisure
    seeker,
  • citizen,
    worker, home-maker

4
Career Stage (II)
  • Super, Savickas and Super (1996) give the
    description of Supers stages (1)
  • growth stage
  • dealing with the tasks associated with becoming
    concerned about the future, increasing control
    over ones own life, committing to school and
    work, acquiring competent work habits and
    attitudes
  • exploration stage
  • encounter crystallizing, specifying and
    implementing occupational choice

5
Career Stage (III)
  • Super, Savickas and Super (1996) give the
    description of Supers stages (2)
  • establishment stage
  • beginning of ones career the tasks are
    stabilizing, consolidating and advancing in ones
    occupational position
  • maintenance stage
  • concerned with issue of middle crisis the tasks
    of holding on , keeping up and innovating.
    (career plateau)
  • disengagement stage
  • phasing out and retirement

6
Career Stage (IV)
  • Levinsons theory (1978)
  • Seasons of mans life
  • childhood
  • early adulthood
  • middle adulthood
  • late adulthood

7
Career Stage (V)
  • Dalton, Thompson and Price (1977)
  • focus on professional growth and managerial
    development
  • apprentices
  • autonomous work
  • mentoring others
  • direction, representation, sponsoring

8
  • In our study, we focus on professional life with
    specific stages of
  • exploration
  • establishment
  • maintenance
  • disengagement

9
Career Practices in 1990s Studies (I)
  • Job postings
  • external recruitment vs. internal recruitment
  • Formal education / tuition reimbursement
  • a first degree in engineering an MBA
    professional and vocational qualification courses
  • insecurity and instability of investment in
    people
  • Performance appraisal for career planning
  • PA is the most fundamental practice of all career
    practices
  • Counseling by manager
  • individual interest
  • career options

10
Career Practices in 1990s Studies (II)
  • Lateral moves
  • the flattening of organization
  • job rotations and role changes
  • Counseling by HR
  • knowledge of organizational goals and
    development HRM planning for the whole
    enterprise
  • Pre- retirement programs
  • financial programs
  • psychological programs
  • Information on leisure activities and other
    fulfilling tasks
  • Succession planning
  • to decide on the possible replacement of every
    manager within the organization

11
Career Practices in 1990s Studies (III)
  • Mentoring
  • bring togather a person with managerial potential
    and an experienced manager
  • Common career path
  • to lead people through various departments and
    units within the organization and in overseas
    subsidiaries
  • Dual ladder
  • a different promotion path for non-managerial
    staff
  • Career booklets / pamphlets
  • Information on career paths, the competencies
    required for each position on the path, time
    scales , ……

12
Impact factors
  • size
  • age
  • globalization
  • workforce diversity

13
Career Needs (I)
  • Schein (1978, 1980), Hall (1986) and Meehan
    (1995) mentioned the importance of the concept of
    career needs.
  • We define career needs as
  • Career goals focus on existing career needs and
    determination of the direction and aims of an
    individuals current efforts.
  • Career tasks pertain to the career needs that
    exist during the achievement of these career
    goals.
  • Career challenges relate to future career needs
    which arise from subsequent career development
    opportunities or obstacles.

14
Career Needs (II)
  • Using RD personnel in high-tech industries as
    example.
  • a higher turnover rate exists among RD personnel
    in high-tech industries than average level for
    industry as a whole

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19
The concept of Gap between career development
programs and career needs
  • Three types of the gap
  • the gap between career goal needs and
    corresponding career development programs
  • the gap between career task needs and
    corresponding career development programs
  • the gap between career challenge needs and
    corresponding career development programs

20
Hypotheses (I)
  • Three types of the gap between career development
    programs and career needs will be positively
    influenced with turnover intentions
  • Three types of the gap between career development
    programs and career needs will be negatively
    influenced with job satisfaction
  • We expect job satisfaction to mediate the
    relationship between gap and turnover intentions
  • Career stages may moderate the effect on job
    satisfaction from the gap between career
    development programs and career needs

21
Hypotheses (II)
22
Data source
  • The sample was drawn from RD personnel in
    high-tech industry in HSIP
  • 1300 questionnaires were distributed,
  • 367 valid questionnaires.
  • Overall return rate 28.2

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Measurements (I)
  • Career stages

25
Measurements (II)
  • Career Needs a 32-item scale
  • factor analyses confirm the underlying
    constructs
  • (all Cronbachs a are larger than 0.7)
  • Career development programs a 33-item scale
  • (all Cronbachs a are larger than 0.7)

26
Measurements (III)
  • The gaps are measured by subtracting the average
    awareness values of career development programs
    from the average career needs values
  • Job satisfaction-- Job Descriptive Index scale of
    Smith et al. (1987), using a composite of 5
    sub-scales pay, promotion, supervisors,
    co-workers and work (Cronbachs a0.92)
  • Turnover intentions-- based on Mobley, Horner and
    Hollingsworth (1978) (Cronbachs a0.88)

27
Empirical Results (I)
28
Empirical Results (II)
29
Empirical Results (III)
30
Empirical Results (IV)
31
Empirical Results (V)
32
Empirical Results (VI)
33
Research Issues
  • Scale development for general use
  • Explanatory power of gap vs. programs only
  • Procedual and distributive justice
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