Second International Seville Seminar on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA): Impacts on policy and decision making 28th- 29th September 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Second International Seville Seminar on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA): Impacts on policy and decision making 28th- 29th September 2006

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Title: Second International Seville Seminar on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA): Impacts on policy and decision making 28th- 29th September 2006


1
Second International Seville Seminar on
Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA)
Impacts on policy and decision making28th- 29th
September 2006
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Lucas Luchilo and Mario Albornoz
Centro Redes
2
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
The problem
How can Latin American governments and
universities deal with the impacts of an
increasing international competition for graduate
students
  • The availability of highly-skilled personnel as a
    critical input for national innovation systems
  • Student mobility as one of the strategic
    dimensions of the international mobility of the
    highly skilled and the most salient feature of
    the internationalization of higher education.
  • Governments concern on this issue
  • To maintain excellence and overall leadership in
    science and engineering (SE) research, the
    United States must be able to recruit the most
    talented people worldwide for positions in
    academe, industry,and government. U.S. National
    Academies, Policy Implications of International
    Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in
    the United States (2005)

3
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Main trends and drivers
  • Trends
  • Growth in the number of international students
  • US as the main destination of international
    students
  • China and India as main source countries
  • Intensified competition among OECD countries
  • Drivers
  • Shortages of native students in SE graduate
    programs
  • University strategies and governmental policies.
  • Three main logics
  • mobility as a tool for international cooperation
    between states
  • mobility as a way of attracting qualified human
    resources
  • international students as a source of income
  • Cultural factor the spreading of a "youth
    mobility culture is an increasingly important
    phenomenon in developed countries but also among
    the upper middle class in developing countries.

4
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
International Students in OECD countries
5
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Enrolment of foreign students in advanced
research programmes, 2003

Notes Excluding host countries France, Germany,
Greece, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands and Poland. Source OECD Education
Database, January 2006. Wycoff, A. and Schaaper,
M. (2006)
6
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Main flows of students
Africa
Latin America
Eastern Europe
Western Europe
Asia Pacific
United States
Japan
Australia
7
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Latin America
Scope and Composition of the International Flows
of Latin American Students
  • Small percentage of total foreign students in
    OECD countriesaround 110,000, who are
    approximately 6 of the total.
  • Main destination U.S. (around 60)
  • Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay have more graduate
    students, while Mexico and Central American and
    Caribbean countries show a higher percentage of
    undergraduate students.
  • Latin American students in OECD countries
    represent a small fraction around 1 of total
    university students in the region.
  • Enrollment of foreign students in Latin American
    universities is very low (less than 0.5 of the
    total enrollment).

8
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Latin America
Trends in the Evolution of University Systems
  • Massification
  • Diversification proliferation of institutions
    that differ in size, profile, and quality. In
    several countries, the private sector has
    significantly increased its participation.
  • Shortages of skilled teachers and infrastructure
    deficit
  • Quality assurance rising concern of national
    governments to ensure quality levels, which
    resulted in the creation of quality assurance
    agencies that have nevertheless limited impact.

1994 2003
Number of students 7.500.000 14.000.000
Gross enrolment rates in HE 17,5 28,7
9
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenarios main assumptions
As Regards the Global Context
a. The tendency towards the international
mobility of graduate students continues. b. The
distribution of foreign students among regions is
partially modified. The U.S. maintains the
preeminence, but is threatened by others
competitors. Europe secures its position as an
important competitor. Third countries
particularly Asian increase their relative
participation. c. The number of universities
with research capacities seeking to become
attractive targets for foreign graduate students
increases. U.S. research universities maintain
their leadership. d. The main destinations for
Latin American graduate students the U.S. and
Europe suffer a decline in the relative
participation of South East Asian graduate
students. This results in attempts to recruit
students from other regions, among them Latin
America.
10
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenarios main assumptions
As Regards the Latin American University Context
a. The main tension to which higher education
systems in Latin America are subjected is how to
manage the gap between rising enrollment and
limited available resources. The scope of the gap
and the capacity to manage it vary according to
the country and the university. These variations
are very important in defining possible
scenarios. b. Universities general orientations
continue. From the point of view of research and
graduate education, the universities in the
region that are committed to quality improvement
processes and to an international perspective
continue with this strategy.
11
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenarios
Main issues a. The impact of the trends described
above on the emigration of university students to
pursue graduate studies abroad. b. The
possibility for Latin American universities to
attract foreign students to pursue graduate
studies. Key factor Orientation of government
policies vis-à-vis the challenges posed by the
internationalization of higher education. Three
scenarios Scenario 1 Passive Globalization Scenar
io 2 closed nationalist response Scenario
3National Management of Internationalization
Source OECD, Education at a Glance, 2005
12
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenario 1 Passive Globalization
Main features
  • Passive adaptation to predominant trends as
    regards the internationalization of higher
    education. Two reasons a general ideological
    preference for neoliberal policies and/or reduced
    capacity of national administrations and
    universities to propose and carry out more active
    options.
  • The increased international demand for graduate
    students leads to a more important brain drain to
    the U.S. and to Europe
  • Intraregional flows continue at a low level, as
    national universities cannot compete with those
    to developed countries.

13
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenario 1 Passive Globalization
Main outcome
  • The rise of the international demand in this
    context contributes to erode the science and
    technology capabilities of Latin American
    countries.
  • The basic mechanism represents a downward spiral.
    Faced with the relative decline of the supply of
    graduate students from East Asia, the U.S. and
    Europe apply strong pressure on the Latin
    American pool of potential graduate students.
  • In the first stage, this pressure triggers a
    remarkable brain drain, not only of students but
    of senior researchers, thus reducing the
    capacities of source countries.
  • The pressure continues, albeit with declining
    results given that the loss of education
    capacities in source countries means a smaller
    stock of potential graduate students.

14
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenario 2 closed nationalist response
Main features
  • Strong reactive position against the
    internationalization trends in higher education.
    Governments emphasize the asymmetries in
    students flows and the benefits gained by a
    small group of countries.
  • Regulations for transnational education become
    stringent. Likewise, graduate studies abroad are
    discredited.
  • Graduate students mobility to study abroad
    tension between the governments purpose of
    restricting mobility, and the students potential
    interest to continue their studies abroad.
  • The dynamics of this scenario does not fit well
    with the possibility of increasing the flows of
    foreign graduate students. The price of closed
    nationalist policies is the loss of international
    references for national scientific and
    intellectual production.

15
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenario 3National Management of
Internationalization
Main features
  • Some countries in the region attempt to
    integrate their higher education systems to the
    processes of internationalization. The tensions
    between enrollment and funding are managed with
    greater margins of action, maintaining funding
    flows for research and graduate education
    activities.
  • Some universities that are competitive at the
    international level and capable of leadership at
    the national level are able to assert themselves
    and multiply their networks with foreign
    institutions and groups.
  • International student mobility unequal
    competition between the appeal of U.S. and
    European universities, and of Latin American
    universities.
  • .

16
Universities and International Competition for
HRST Scenarios for Latin America
Scenario 3National Management of
Internationalization
Main features
  • Increase of foreign students pursuing graduate
    studies in the regions universities. Main flows
    come from students of the same region, favored by
    cooperation agreements between Latin American
    countries, lower costs of living, and advantages
    of migration laws and management.
  • Changes in the orientation of national university
    policies that include the internationalization of
    higher education as an inevitable trend.
    Cooperation among universities and governments to
    deal with the international competition
    (cooperation agreements with other countries,
    graduate study scholarships for students from
    other Latin American countries, migration
    facilities, housing facilities)
  • Key policy challenge efforts by governments and
    universities to strengthen their research and
    graduate education capabilities may result in a
    flow for foreign destinations seeking to meet the
    growing demand of developed countries.

Source OECD, Education at a Glance, 2005
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