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## Review of the Gas Laws

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### Charles's Law. Temperature and volume are directly proportional. ... Law. isobaric & isochoric. Moles of gas and ... Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review of the Gas Laws

1
Review of the Gas Laws
• PV nRT

2
PV nRT
• Boyles Law (isothermal fixed amount)
• Charless Law (isobaric fixed amount)
• ????? Law (isochoric fixed amount)
• ????? Law (isothermal isochoric)
• ????? Law (isobaric isochoric)

3
Boyles Law
• Pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
• As pressure increases, volume decreases.
• If pressure increases by 2x, volume cuts in
half.

4
Charless Law
• Temperature and volume are directly proportional.
• As temperature increases, volume also increases.
• If temperature increases by 2x, volume also
doubles.
• Temperature must be measured in Kelvin.

5
• Moles of gas and volume are directly
proportional.
• As the number of moles increases, the volume also
increases.
• If the number of moles increases by 2x, the
volume also doubles.

6
????? Law isothermal isochoric
• Moles of gas and pressure are directly
proportional.
• As the moles of gas increase, the pressure also
increases.
• If the number of moles of gas increases by 2x,
the pressure also doubles.

7
????? Law isobaric isochoric
• Moles of gas and temperature are inversely
proportional.
• As the number of moles of gas increase, the
temperature decreases.

8
Units of Pressure
• 1 atm 760 torr 760 mmHg
• 1 atm 101.325 kPa
• 1 bar 105 Pa 100 kPa
• 1 Pa

9
How does 1 atm 101.325 kPa?
Let the area of the base of a cylinder 1 m2
Volume area x height 1 m2 x 0.76 m 0.76 m3
Convert volume to cubic centimeters.
Use the density of mercury and the acceleration
due to gravity to calculate the weight of mercury
in the column.
10
Continue How does 1 atm 101.325 kPa?
Pressure is force (or weight) per unit area.
Divide the weight of mercury by the area it is
resting on.
11
Let the area of the cylinder 1cm2
12
Barometric Formula
As elevation increases, the height of the
atmosphere decreases and its pressure decreases.
Check units.
13
Continue Derivation of Barometric Formula
Write in differential form.
density
Rewrite PV nRT as
Therefore,
14
Continue Derivation of Barometric Formula
Substitute the expression for density into the
differential eqn.
Divide both sides of the above equation by P and
integrate.
15
Continue Derivation of Barometric Formula
Integration of the left side and moving the
constants outside the integral on the right side
of the differential equation gives,
16
Continue Derivation of Barometric Formula
Evaluating the integral between the limits of Pi
at zero height and Pf at height h, gives
17
Sample Problem Using the Barometric Formula
18
Daltons Law of Partial Pressures