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The Basics of Information Systems

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Title: The Basics of Information Systems


1
The Basics of Information Systems
Andrea Carlin Computing
2
What is an Information System?
  • An Information System is a set of interrelated
    components that Collect, Manipulate, and Organise
    data and information and also to provide a
    feedback mechanism to meet an objective.

3
Data versus Information
  • Data Consists of raw facts, such as an
    employees name and number of hours worked in a
    week, or sales orders.
  • Information A collection of facts(or data)
    organised in such a way that they have additional
    value beyond the value of the facts themselves.
  • Process Turning Data into Information.

4
The Process of Transforming Data into Information
The Transformation Process (applying Knowledge
by selecting Organising and Manipulating Data)
Data
Information
5
The Components of an information System
As mentioned previously, an Information System
(IS) is a set of Interrelated elements or
components that collect (input), Manipulate
(process) and Disseminate (output) data
Information And provide a feedback mechanism to
meet an objective.
Processing
Input
Output
feedback
6
Types of Information Systems
  • 1 Manual Information Systems
  • Eg. Some investment analysts manually draw charts
    and trend lines to assist them in making
    investment decisions.
  • 2 Computerised Information Systems
  • The majority of Information Systems now are
    Computer based.

7
Computer Based Information Systems
  • Computer based information systems (CBIS) consist
    of
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Databases
  • Telecommunicatios
  • People
  • Eg. Payroll Systems, stock control systems.

8
Types of Computer Based Information Systems
  • The most common types of Information
  • Systems used in Business Organisations are
  • 1. Electronic Commerce Systems
  • 2. Transaction Processing Systems
  • 3. Decision Support Systems
  • 4. Management Information Systems
  • 5. Expert Information Systems

9
1. Electronic Commerce Systems
  • E-commerce involves any business transaction
    executed electronically between parties such as
    companies (business-to- business), companies to
    consumers (business-to-consumers)
  • Eg. on-line shopping (fastest growing segment as
    consumers are becoming more confident with the
    use of the internet

10
2. Transaction Processing Systems
  • A Transaction is any business-related exchange
    such as payments to employees, sales to
    customers.
  • A Transaction Processing System (TPS), is an
    organised collection of people, procedures,
    software, databases and devices used to record
    completed business transactions.

11
Transaction Processing Systems
  • One of the first business systems to be
    computerised was the payroll system. The primary
    inputs for a payroll TPS are the number of
    employee hours worked during the week and pay
    rate The primary output consists of pay
    cheques.
  • Consider what would happen if an organisation had
    to function without a TPS for even one day…. How
    many employees would be paid?? if paid how many
    of them would be correct??

12
Transaction Processing Systems
  • Transaction Processing systems are used for
    routine, repetitive and ordinary business
    transactions, but transactions that are critical
    to the daily function of that business.

13
Example of a Transaction Prcessing System
14
3. Decision Support Systems
  • A Decision Support System (DSS), is an organised
    collection of people, procedures, software,
    databases and devices used to support
    problem-specific decision making.
  • The focus of a DSS is on decision making
    effectiveness.
  • A DSS helps a manager do the right thing

15
Decision Support Systems
  • DSS are used when the problem is complex and the
    information needed to make the best decision is
    difficult to obtain and use.
  • A DSS operates from a managerial perspective and
    it recognises that different managerial styles
    and decision types require different systems.

16
Decision Support System
17
4. Management Information Systems
  • A Management Information System (MIS) is an
    organised collection of people, procedures,
    software, databases and devices used to provide
    routine information to managers.
  • The focus of an MIS is primarily on operational
    efficiency. Marketing, production, finance and
    other functional areas are supported by MIS and
    linked through a common database

18
Management Information Systems
  • Management information systems typically provide
    standard reports generated with data and
    information from the transaction processing
    system.
  • Eg. A summary report of total payroll costs might
    help an accounting manager control future payroll
    costs.

19
Management Information Systems
  • One report from one department may be useful to a
    manager in another department. For instance, the
    total payroll summary report produced initially
    for an accounting manager might also be useful to
    a production manager to help monitor and control
    labour and job costs.

20
Expert System
  • Expert Systems give the computer the ability to
    make suggestions and act like an expert in a
    particular field.
  • The unique value of expert systems is that they
    allow organisations to capture and use the wisdom
    of experts and specialists.
  • Expert systems can be applied to almost any field.

21
Expert System
  • Expert Systems have been used to monitor complex
    systems such as nuclear reactors, perform medical
    diagnoses, perform credit evaluations.
  • The collection of data, rules, procedures and
    relationships that must be followsed to achieve
    value or proper outcome is contained in the
    expert systems Knowledge Base.

22
Part 2
23
The Information Systems Department
  • Many large organisations have a department
    deadicated to information systems with their
    organisation, we will look at
  • The Role of the IS Department
  • Role Players in an IS Department

24
The Role of the Information Systems Department
  • The Information Systems (IS) department is
    responsible for designing, building, and managing
    an organization's information systems.
  • In years past, the IS department served only the
    informational needs of managers. Today, the IS
    team supports all workers in a business.

25
The Role of the IS Department
  • An IS department's tasks include
  • designing,
  • planning,
  • installing,
  • maintaining systems,
  • generating reports,
  • cost control.

26
Role Players in an IS Department
  • An IS department can include many members with
    many different skills. A large IS staff may
    include
  • Managers
  • Computer Scientists
  • Systems Analysts
  • Trainers
  • Programmers
  • Database Specialists
  • System or Network Managers
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