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King Fahd University of Petroleum

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Title: King Fahd University of Petroleum


1
King Fahd University of Petroleum
Minerals Department of Management and
Marketing MKT 345 Marketing Research Dr.
Alhassan G. Abdul-Muhmin
  • Communication Methods in Survey Research
    Reference Chapter 9

2
Learning Objectives
  • At the end of this discussion you should be able
    to
  • list the different communication methods
    available for data gathering in survey research
  • identify and explain the key characteristics of
    each communication method
  • compare the advantages and disadvantages of the
    different communication methods
  • identify key issues in the choice of survey
    communication method
  • explain the concept of response rate in surveys
    and list the approaches to increasing survey
    response rates

3
Broad Classification of Communication Methods in
Survey Research
  • Interviewer-administered survey methods
  • Personal Interviews.
  • Telephone Interviews.
  • (Respondent) Self-administered survey methods.
  • Paper-based
  • Electronic
  • Mixed-mode surveys.

4
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
  • Personal Interview A form of direct
    communication in which an interviewer asks
    respondents questions face-to-face.
  • Door-to-Door Interviews Interviews conducted at
    respondents doorsteps (in their homes)
  • Mall Intercept Interviews (Shopping Center
    Sampling) Interviews conducted by intercepting
    respondents at a central location in a shopping
    mall
  • Pre-arranged Meetings Interviewing respondents
    at other mutually agreed upon places

5
Advantages of Personal Interviews
  1. Opportunity for feedback.
  2. Opportunity to probe complex questions.
  3. Willingness of respondents to spend longer time
    on interview.
  4. Reduction in rate of item nonresponse
    (completeness of questionnaire).
  5. Possibility of using visual aids props.
  6. High response rate / willingness of respondents
    to participate.

6
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews
  1. Interviewer influence.
  2. Respondent cannot be anonymous.
  3. There may be a need for several callbacks
    (attempts to re-contact individuals who have been
    selected for a sample but who were not available
    during the earlier visit)
  4. High cost.

7
TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS
  • Interviewer-administered interviews that are
    conducted over the telephone.
  • Telephone interviews are the most widely used
    method in commercial survey research
  • Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Central Location Interviewing.
  • Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview.
  • Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone
    Interviewing.

8
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Central Location Interviewing
  • Conducting telephone interviews from a single
    central location from which all interviewers work
  • Usually through WATS (Wide Area
    Telecommunications Service) contracts that
    provide fixed long-distance rates, and allow
    unlimited calls within a specific geographic area
  • Allows Supervision and control.

9
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)
  • Telephone interviewing system in which the
    interviewer reads questions from a computer
    screen and enters the answers directly into the
    computer
  • Usually incorporate telephone management systems
    that handle
  • Phone number selection.
  • Automatic dialing.
  • Sample selection.
  • Automatic callback scheduling.
  • Reporting on number of completed interviews.

10
Telephone Interviewing Systems
  • Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interviews
  • Computer assumes responsibility for all aspects
    of the interview administration
  • It dials the respondent, asks the questions, and
    records the responses.
  • Used mainly for short, simple questionnaires.

11
Advantages of Telephone Interviews
  1. Relatively high speed of data collection.
  2. Inexpensive compared to personal interviews.
  3. Better respondent anonymity than personal
    interviews.
  4. Relatively higher respondent cooperation ? lower
    nonresponse compared to personal interviews.

12
Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews
  1. Problems in getting representative samples
    unlisted phone numbers random digit dialing as
    solution.
  2. Problem of answering machines faxes.
  3. Need for callbacks.
  4. Respondent can easily hang up.
  5. Inability to use visual aids.
  6. Need for shorter forms of questioning.

13
RESPONDENT SELF-ADMINISTERED SURVEYS
  • Surveys in which respondents take the
    responsibility for reading and answering the
    questions.
  • Present a special challenge in questionnaire
    design because self-administered surveys rely on
    the efficiency of the written word rather than
    the skill of the interviewer.
  • Self-administered questionnaires can be
    classified into paper-based (printed) or
    electronic (non-printed)

14
EXHIBIT 9.1 Self-Administered Questionnaires Can
Be Either Printed or Electronic
15
Paper (Printed) Self-Administered Questionnaires
  • Distribution Methods
  • Mail (or Postal) Surveys using regular mail
    system (now usually called Snail Mail Surveys).
  • Drop-off / Pick-up method.
  • Fax surveys
  • Inserts e.g. in product packages, magazines,
    etc.
  • Direct distribution to customers e.g. in
    restaurants, airplanes, banks.
  • Warranty / Owner registration cards.

16
Advantages of Postal and Other Printed
Self-Administered Surveys
  • Geographic flexibility.
  • Lower cost.
  • Respondent convenience
  • Respondent can take time to think about response.
  • Respondent has chance to check records for
    information.
  • Respondent anonymity.

17
Disadvantages of Postal and Other Printed
Self-Administered Surveys
  • Absence of interviewer means
  • Loss of control over the data collection.
  • Respondent can misinterpret questions.
  • Visual props cannot be used.
  • Questions have to be standardized.
  • Takes long time to receive response.
  • Questionnaire has to be short.
  • Low response rates.
  • No assurance that intended subject actually
    completed the questionnaire.

18
RESPONSE RATE ISSUES IN (POSTAL) SURVEYS
  • Response rate
  • Number of completed and returned questionnaires
    divided by number of eligible people contacted.
  • Methods for increasing response rate

19
EXHIBIT 9.2 Example of Cover Letter for Household
Survey
Source Reprinted with permission of John Wiley
Sons, Inc.
20
Methods for Increasing Response Rate
  • Cover letter explaining
  • Study importance.
  • Request for help.
  • Importance of respondent.
  • Sampling method.
  • Description of reward.
  • Promise of confidentiality.
  • Etc.
  • Rewards (monetary non-monetary).
  • Advance notification.
  • Follow-ups.
  • Prestige of sponsoring institution.
  • Color of questionnaire paper.
  • Type of postage
  • Interesting questions.

21
Effects of Different Methods for Increasing
Response Rates in Mail Surveys
Method Increase in response rate over control group
Prior telephone calls 19
Monetary incentives
0.10 17
0.25 19
1 26
0.20 15
22
Effects of Different Methods for Increasing
Response Rates in Mail Surveys
Method Increase in response rate over control group
Non-monetary
Pen 12
Pocket knife 15
Stamp vs. business reply 7
Anonymity (in-company) 20
Anonymity (external) 10
Follow-ups 12
23
Electronic Self-Administered Questionnaires
  • Distribution Methods
  • E-mail
  • Text
  • HTML
  • File attachments
  • Internet
  • Bulletin boards
  • Web HTML
  • Downloadable surveys
  • Kiosk Interactive Surveys
  • On-site computers
  • Disk-by-mail (CD-ROM by mail)

24
Advantages of E-mail Questionnaires
  • Speed of distribution
  • Lower distribution costs
  • Faster turnaround (response) time
  • Greater flexibility
  • Less handling of paper

25
Disadvantages of E-mail Questionnaires
  • Lack of security (Eavesdropping by
    administrators)
  • Lack of anonymity
  • Differences in capabilities of respondents
    computers and e-mail software
  • Difficulties for e-mail novices

26
Advantages of Internet Surveys
  • Speed
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Eliminate cost of paper, postage, and data entry
  • Larger samples can be obtained
  • Visual appeal and interactivity
  • More sophisticated lines of questioning
  • Can use color, sound, animation, and visual
    materials
  • Accurate real-time data capture
  • Easy callback capabilities
  • Personalized and flexible questioning
  • Respondent anonymity

27
Disadvantages of Internet Surveys
  • Non-widespread use of internet in the general
    population
  • Differences in capabilities of respondents
    computers and connection speeds
  • Differences in computer skills
  • Lack of security for personal information

28
Advantages and Disadvantages of Typical Survey
Methods
29
Advantages and Disadvantages of Typical Survey
Methods
30
ISSUES IN CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION METHOD
  • Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?
  • Are respondents interested in the issues being
    investigated?
  • Will cooperation be easily attained?
  • How quickly is the information needed?
  • Will the study require a long and complex
    questionnaire?
  • How large is the budget?

31
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
  • The American Marketing Associations code of
    ethics expresses researchers obligation to
  • Protect the public from misrepresentation and
    exploitation under the guise of marketing
    research
  • Protect respondents right to privacy
  • Avoid the use of deception
  • Inform respondents about the purpose of the
    research
  • Maintain confidentiality and honesty in
    collecting data
  • Maintain objectivity in reporting data
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