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WORK STUDY

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Flow diagram. Operations Chart. Process Chart. Flow Process Charts. Work Cell Load Chart ... Work Balancing (work cell/plant/assy line) Activity/work Sampling ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WORK STUDY


1
WORK STUDY
  • WORK STUDY

(IE411- 2008/2009 Fall)
2
WHAT IS WORK STUDY?
Definitions
Work Study is a generic term for those
techniques, particularly method/motion study
and time study/ work measurement, which lead
systematical investigation of all the factors
that affect the efficiency and economy of the
work being reviewed in order to effect
improvement.
Method/Motion Study is the systematic recording
and critical examination of existing and proposed
ways of doing work, as a means of developing
and applying easier and more effective methods
and reducing costs.
Time Study / Work Measurement is the application
of techniques designed to establish the time for
a specified job at a defined level of performance.
3
WHAT IS WORK STUDY?
METHOD STUDY to simplfy the job develop
more economical methods of doing it (remove
waste/muda)
WORKSTUDY
HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
TIME STUDY to determine how long it should take
to carry out
(SourceInternational Labour Office, Introduction
to Work Study, third edition, page 34)
4
WHAT IS WORK STUDY?
Techniques used
Both Method Study and Time Study are made up of
number of different techniques.
Flow diagram Operations Chart Process Chart Flow
Process Charts Work Cell Load Chart Routing
Sheet Operations Analysis Chart Operator/Machine
Chart
Multiactivity Chart Gang Chart Multimachine
Chart Left Hand/Right Hand Chart Stop Watch Time
Study Work Balancing (work cell/plant/assy
line) Activity/work Sampling Predetermined Time
Standards Sys.
Usually Method/Motion Study preceedes Time Study
when the subject is to set time Standards.
However, time study is used to compare the
effectivenes of alternative Methods.
5
WHAT IS WORK STUDY?
Basic procedure
Basic steps in conducting work study can be
summarized as follows
  • Select the job or process to be studied.
  • Observe and record everything by using the
    appropriate recording technique.
  • Examine the recorded facts critically with
    respect to the purpose of the
  • activity, where it is performed, sequence
    in which it is done, the person
  • or machine which is doing it, the means by
    which it is done.
  • Develop the most economical method by
    considering every thing.
  • Measure the output of the method and calculate a
    standard time for it.
  • Define the new method and related standard time
    to identify it.
  • Implement the new method as standard practice.
  • Maintain the new standard practice by
    appropriate control procedures.

6
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
History
FREDERICK W. TAYLOR (1856-1915)
He is known as the father of scientific
management and industrial engineering. He is the
first person to use a stopwatch to study work
content and, as such, the father of time study.
Throughout his professional life, he worked as an
apprentice machinist, time keeper, expediter,
lathe operator, gang boss, foreman of the machine
shop and chief engineer.
Before Taylor, the work force developed own
methods by trial and error. Taylor wanted
management to reject an opinion for a more exact
science. Thus, he
  • Specified the work method,
  • Instructed the operator in that method
  • Maintained standard conditions for performing
    that work
  • Set time standard goals
  • Paid premiums for doing the task as specified

7
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
He is responsible for the following innovations
  • Stopwatch time study
  • High-speed steel tools
  • Tool grinders
  • Slide rules
  • Functional type organization

FRANK (1868-1924) AND LILLIAN (1878-1972) GILBRETH
They are known as the parents of motion/method
study. Throughout their life time, they searched
for the best method of doing a specific job and
they developed many new techniques for studying
work.
At the beginning of his work life as a
bricklayers apprentice,Frank Gilbreth noticed
that his instructor was using three different
set of motions when laying the bricks
  • One set of motions when he showed Frank how to
    lay bricks,
  • Another set of motions when he is working alone,
  • Third set of motions when he is in a hurry.

8
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
Thus, when he started his own business, he
introduced several competetive advantages of
  • Adjustable scaffolding previously bricklayers
    built the wall from their
  • toes to their highest reach, and the built
    some more scaffolding and start
  • again.
  • Helper for bricklayers At about one half of the
    cost of bricklayer, these
  • helpers would sort, carry, and stack the
    bricks for the bricklayer.
  • Constant mortar mix.
  • Improved motion pattern.
  • 350 bricks/hour instead of previous 120.

Gilbreths developed the terminology defining the
entire range of manual motions. Later on these
elementary subdivisions of motion are called
therbligs in memory of their name.
The predetermined time standards system which is
used today is a newer technique which is built on
Gilbreths work.
9
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
HENRY LAURENCE GANNT (1861-1919)
He worked for Taylor at Midvale and Bentlehem,
and is among the major pioneers of method and
time study.
He invented the task and bonus system or
earned hour plan. On the contrary of Taylors
penalty approach for less proficient worker in
his multiple piecework system, Gannt defended a
livable wage with a sizable bonus for performance
over 100.
While Taylor emphasized analytical and
organizational aspects of work, Gannt was more
interested in operator selection, training and
motivation. His basic notion of the importance of
a leadership function is exactly in line with
todays thinking.
During the First World War, he developed a
technique for scheduling work.
10
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
RALPH M. BARNES (1900-1984)
Dr. Barnes was one of the first and best known
professors of engineering in the field of work
measurement / time study.
His achievements included writing
  • The longest published text on work measurement,
  • A thorough description of the Gilbreths
    micro-motion study,
  • The procedure for work sampling.

He conducted numerious methods studies of
activities with motion picture cameras and
developed rating films for training time study
technologists.
There are also other people like, Harrington
Emerson (1853-1931), Marvin E. Mundel
(1916-1996), Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990), and
Professor Elton Mayo who contributed the studies
in the field of Work Study.
11
HISTORY OF WORK STUDY
CRITICS ON THE WORK OF FOUNDERS IN THE FIELD OF
WORK STUDY
Frederic W. Taylor was criticized as being a
management speed-up artist. Indecent managers
used Taylors techniques, and when workers met
the goals, management raised the standard. Taylor
would have hated this process. We must never
change a standard without due cause.
Lilian and Frank Gilbreth were charged with
dehumanizing work. Because of the reduction of
motions to the absolute best set of procedures
possible, unions defined Gilbreths as antiworker
and as wanting to make machies everywhere.
12
THE HUMAN FACTOR
The human factor in the application of Work Study
  • Good relations must be established before work
    study is applied

Because of their preoccupation with pressing and
important problems, some managers often forget
that people who are working for them are subject
the same feelings, although they may not be able
to express them openly.
The man at the bottom of the ladder also resents
an injustice and fears the unknown which in turn
are the causes of resistance.
It should be always in mind that, work study is
not a substitute for good management. It is only
one of the tools in the managements tool kit.
If a work study is to contribute seriously to the
improvement of productivity, relations between
the management and the workers must be reasonably
good.
13
THE HUMAN FACTOR
  • Work Study and the supervisor / foreman

The work study mans most difficult problem may
often be the attitude of spervisors and foremen.
They represent the management to the workers
at shop floor. Just as any other departmental
manager, they will take their attitude from the
top manager and workers will take theirs from
their supervisors. Before starting a work study,
gaining the support of foreman or supervisor is
at top importance. Main reasons for this can be
given as follows
  • He is the person most deeply affected by work
    study. Even if the efficiency
  • of the operations for which he is responsible
    for years is increased by the
  • study, he may feel that his prestige in the
    eyes of his superiors and of the
  • workers will be lessened.
  • In most firms where specialists are not used,
    planning the work, development
  • of job methods, keeping time sheets, setting
    piece rates, hiring and firing of
  • labor may have been done by the foreman. Fact
    of loosing some of these
  • responsibilities is likely to make him feel
    that his status is being reduced.
  • When disputes arise or workers are upset, he is
    the first person to clear matters
  • up.

14
THE HUMAN FACTOR
When conducting a work study in a foremans area,
the following rules must be obeyed
  • The work study man should never give a direct
    order to a worker. All
  • instructions must be given through the
    foreman.
  • Workers asking questions calling for decisions
    outside the technical field
  • of work study should always be referred to
    their foreman.
  • The work study man should never tell personal
    opinions to a worker.
  • The work study man should ask for foremans
    advice in the selection of the
  • jobs to be studied and in all technical
    matters related with the process (even
  • if he knows a great deal about it).
  • At the start of every investigation, work study
    man should be introduced to
  • the workers by their foreman.

15
THE WORK STUDY MAN
Qualifications of Work Study Man
Following are the basic qualifications of a work
study man which are essential for success
  • Education

The minimum standard of education for anyone who
is to take charge of work study application in
an enterprise is a good high school education. It
is highly unlikely that, someone without this
level of education, can get full benefits of a
complete work study training course.
If such a person is also to be involved in
studying other problems of production management,
auniversity degree in engineering /
management will be an important asset.
  • Practical experience

For candidates of this post, a practical
experience in idustries in which they will be
working is most preferable. Such an experience
should include a period of actual work in one or
more processes of the respective industry.
16
THE WORK STUDY MAN
  • Personal qualities

Anyone who is going to undertake improvements
should
  • have an inventive mind,
  • be capable of devising simple mechanisms and
    devices which serve
  • the purpose of saving time and effort,
  • be able to gain the cooperation of engineers and
    technicians in
  • developing such mechanisms,
  • be good in human relations.

Thus, we can give the essential personal
qualities as
  • Sincerity and honesty,
  • Enthusiasm,
  • Interest in and symphaty with people,
  • Tact,
  • Good appearance
  • Self confidence

17
THE WORK STUDY MAN
Although the results of a work study are obtained
scientifically, work study itself must be applied
as an art just like as any other management
technique.
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