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Who Should Govern

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Close elections: 1876-1892 popular vote margin separating the two parties was 1.5 ... Got More popular votes. One of most corrupt and one of closest elections ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Who Should Govern


1
Who Should Govern?
2
Founders Vision Vs. Gilded Age
  • Nation ruled by enlightened Aristocracy
  • Gentlemen of leisure with the education to debate
    issues rule judiciously
  • Powerful wealthy governed
  • Great industrial and banking magnates literally
    owned the govt and turned it to their personal
    enrichment

3
Stark Contrast
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • Keys to govt held by powerful and wealthy
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • An agrarian republic of independent, thinking,
    farmers

4
The Gilded Age
  • Industrialists Bankers owned Government
  • Morgan, Gould, Rockefeller, Carnegie
  • Post-War Presidents were either weak inept or
    corrupt
  • The Powerless
  • Immigrant laborers
  • Urban poor
  • Homesteaders, women Indians

5
What is the appropriate role of Government in the
Economy?
  • Ideally CapitalismLaissez Faire
  • Realistically Government provided support, and
    protection but little, if any, regulation of the
    economy.

6
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison,
    Cleveland

7
The Politics of Equilibrium
  • Two parties enjoyed strength and stability
    neither would see again.
  • Federal govt was doing little of importance
  • People were very engaged in political activity

8
The Party System
  • Parties remarkably stable
  • Sixteen states Republican
  • 14 states Democratic
  • Five states in doubtOhio New York most
    important
  • National elections were determined by turnout of
    voters

9
Republican Party captured the presidency in all
but two elections
10
Party Influence
  • Close elections 1876-1892 popular vote margin
    separating the two parties was 1.5
  • Republicans Senate
  • Democrats--House

11
Party Loyalty
  • Region
  • Religious and ethnic differences
  • Values

12
Key Issues of the Gilded Age
  • Tariff Policies
  • Currency issues
  • Veterans Pensions
  • Patronage

13
Urban Politics
  • Political Machines and Party Bosses
  • Jobs and services for votes
  • Tammany Hall in NYC

14
Presidents Patronage
  • Rutherford B. Hayes

15
1876 Election Great Compromise
  • Hayes
  • Stalwarts Conkling
  • Halfbreeds Blaine
  • Rum, Romanism Rebellion
  • Lemonade Lucy
  • Tilden
  • Won popular vote
  • Irregularities in electoral vote
  • Lost as result of a compromise

16
James A. Garfield 80
  • Both a Half-Breed Stalwart on the Republican
    ticket
  • Garfield aided by economic upturn
  • Republicans captured both houses of Congress
  • July 2, 1881

17
Arthur Presidency
  • A lifelong stalwart and ally of Roscoe Conkling,
    realized the traditional spoil system did not
    work.
  • 1883 Civil Service Reform was enacted.

18
1884 Election
  • James G. Blaine of Maine, the Plumbed Knight
  • Mugwumps bolted the party in support of an honest
    democrat
  • Grover Cleveland, reform governor of New York
  • Very negative campaign aided at Cleveland

19
Cleveland Presidency
  • Only Democrat elected in Gilded Age
  • Stern and righteous man, opposed grafters,
    pressure groups like Tammany Hall
  • Never supported protective tariffs
  • Congress actually raised taxes

20
1888 Election
  • Cleveland ran for second term
  • Got More popular votes
  • One of most corrupt and one of closest elections
    in history
  • William Henry Harrison
  • Human iceberg
  • Got More electoral votes
  • 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • McKinley TAriff

21
1892 Election
  • Harrison Vs. Cleveland and James B. Weaver
  • Harrison supported protective tariff
  • Cleveland opposed tariff
  • Populist proposed reform
  • Cleveland won

22
Clevelands Second Term
  • Hostility toward social and economic issues
  • Wilson Gorman Tariff reduced tax on a few things
  • Railroad regulation began
  • 1893 Panic swept the nation
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