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Project Management

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Project Management ... Depends on Project Manager's negotiating skills. Less flexibility for 'pure project' ... Project Management. Project Development. Time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management


1
Project Management
  • Project
  • series of related jobs usually directed toward
    some major output and requiring a significant
    period of time to perform.
  • Project Management
  • planning, directing, and controlling resources
    (people, equipment, material) to meet the
    technical, cost, and time constraints of the
    project.
  • Project or Program?

2
Project Management
Project Development
Management of Projects
Work Breakdown Structure
Pure Project Structure
Gantt Chart
Critical Path Scheduling
Functional Structure
Network Diagram
Matrix Structure
Three Time Estimate
Single Time Estimate
Find Expected Activity Times
Early Start Schedule
Find Activity Variance
Late Start Schedule
Identify the Critical Path
Activity Slack
Inferences about duration
Identify the Critical Path
Time Cost Models
3
Work Breakdown Structure
4
Work Breakdown Structure
  • Requirements
  • Elements may be worked on independently
  • Elements are manageable in size
  • Program can be monitored and measured
  • The required resources are provided

5
Organizational StructurePure Project--Advantages
  • The project manager has full authority over
    the project
  • Team members report to one boss
  • Shortened communication lines
  • Team pride, motivation, and commitment are high

6
Organizational StructurePure Project--Disadvanta
ges
  • Duplication of resources
  • Organizational goals and policies are ignored
    (also an advantage!)
  • Lack of technology transfer
  • Team members have no functional area "home"

7
Functional Project
8
Organizational StructureFunctional
Project--Advantages
  • A team member can work on several projects
  • Technical expertise is maintained within the
    functional area
  • The functional area is a home after the project
    is completed
  • Critical mass of specialized knowledge

9
Organizational StructureFunctional
Project--Disadvantages
  • Aspects of the project that are not directly
    related to the functional area get short-changed
  • Motivation of team members is often weak
  • Needs of the client are secondary and are
    responded to slowly

10
Matrix Project
11
Organizational StructureMatrix--Advantages
  • Enhanced inter-functional communications
  • Pinpointed responsibility
  • Duplication of resources is minimized
  • Functional home for team members
  • Policies of the parent organization are followed
    (also a disadvantage!)

12
Organizational StructureMatrix--Disadvantages
  • Two bosses
  • Depends on Project Managers negotiating skills
  • Less flexibility for pure project
  • Potential for sub-optimization

13
Project Management
Management of Projects
Project Development
Work Breakdown Structure
Gannt Chart
Critical Path Scheduling
Network Diagram
Three Time Estimate
Single Time Estimate
Early Start Schedule
Late Start Schedule
Activity Slack
Identify the Critical Path
14
Network-Planning Models
  • A project is made up of a sequence of activities
    that form a network representing a project.
  • The path taking longest time through this network
    of activities is called the critical path.
  • The critical path provides a wide range of
    scheduling information useful in managing a
    project.
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) helps to identify the
    critical path(s) in the project networks.

15
Critical Path SchedulingPERT and CPM
  • CPM (critical path method)
  • J. E. Kelly of Remington-Rand and M. R. Walker of
    Du Pont (1957)
  • Scheduling maintenance shutdowns of chemical
    processing plants
  • PERT (program evaluation review technique)
  • U.S. Navy Special Projects Office (1958)
  • Polaris missile project

16
Critical Path Scheduling
  • A project must have
  • well-defined jobs or tasks whose completion marks
    the end of the project
  • independent jobs or tasks
  • and tasks that follow a given sequence.

17
CPM with Single Time Estimate
Consider the following consulting project
Develop a critical path diagram and determine
the duration of the critical path and slack times
for all activities
18
First draw the network
C, 1
19
Gannt Chart
20
Determine early start and early finish times
ES4 EF6
ES0 EF2
ES2 EF3
ES3 EF4
?
C, 1
ES4 EF9
21
When I can start depends on when predecessors
finish
ES4 EF6
ES0 EF2
ES2 EF3
ES3 EF4
ES9 EF14
ES14 EF15
C, 1
ES4 EF9
22
Determine late starts and late finish times
ES4 EF6
ES0 EF2
ES2 EF3
ES3 EF4
LS7 LF9
C, 1
ES4 EF9
LS14 LF15
LS9 LF14
?
LS4 LF9
23
Dont delay the project
ES4 EF6
ES0 EF2
ES2 EF3
ES3 EF4
LS7 LF9
C, 1
ES4 EF9
LS14 LF15
LS9 LF14
LS4 LF9
24
Critical Path Slack
ES4 EF6
D, 2
ES0 EF2
ES2 EF3
ES3 EF4
LS7 LF9
C, 1
ES4 EF9
LS14 LF15
LS9 LF14
E, 5
LS4 LF9
Duration 15 weeks
25
Project Management
Management of Projects
Project Development
Work Breakdown Structure
Gannt Chart
Critical Path Scheduling
Network Diagram
Three Time Estimate
Single Time Estimate
Find Expected Activity Times
Find Activity Variance
Identify the Critical Path
Inferences about duration
26
CPM with Three Activity Time Estimates
27
Expected Times
28
C, 14
E, 11
H, 4
A, 7
D, 5
F, 7
I, 18
B 5.333
G, 11
Duration 54 Days
29
What is the probability of finishing this project
in less than 53 days?
30
(Sum the variance along the critical path.)
31
p(Z lt -.156) .5 - .0636 .436, or 43.6
(Appendix D)
There is a 43.6 probability that this project
will be completed in less than 53 weeks.
32
Exercise What is the probability that the
project duration will exceed 56 weeks?
p(Z gt .312) .5 - .1217 .378, or 37.8
(Appendix D)
33
Problem 5 - What is the probability of completing
the project in less that 16 days?
34
Project Management
Management of Projects
Project Development
Work Breakdown Structure
Pure Project Structure
Gannt Chart
Critical Path Scheduling
Functional Structure
Network Diagram
Three Time Estimate
Single Time Estimate
Matrix Structure
Find Expected Activity Times
Early Start Schedule
Find Activity Variance
Late Start Schedule
Identify the Critical Path
Activity Slack
Inferences about duration
Identify the Critical Path
Time Cost Models
35
Time-Cost Models
  • Basic Assumption Relationship between activity
    completion time and project cost
  • Time Cost Models Determine the optimum point in
    time-cost tradeoffs
  • Activity direct costs
  • Project indirect costs
  • Activity completion times

36
Problem Crashing a Project
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