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Title: Healthy Homes Practitioner: Overview


1
University of Maryland Extension Healthy Homes
Training
EFNEP In-Service October 15, 2009
Ms. Lynn Little, Extension Educator Dr. Lis
Maring, Family Life Specialist
2
The connection between housing and health
3
Why are healthy homes important to us?
Young children spend as much as 90 of their time
inside their homes
  • Homes can affect health both physically and
    mentally.

4
Why are healthy homes important to us?
It may be frail its roof may shake the wind
may blow through it the storms may enter the
rain may enter but the King of England cannot
enter all his forces dare not cross the
threshold of the ruined tenement. William Pitt
One of our deepest needs is to be at home.
Timothy Radcliffe
Home is the place where, when you have to go
there, They have to take you in. Robert Frost
Home is where the heart is.Pliny
Where thou art, that is home. Emily Dickinson
Theres no place like home. Dorothy, Wizard of Oz
The strength of a nation derives from the
integrity of the home. Confucius
He is happiest, be he king or peasant, who finds
peace in his home. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
5
Health problems related to housing conditions
  • Asthma
  • Allergies
  • Brain damage
  • Behavior learning problems
  • Lung cancer
  • Injuries
  • Poisonings

6
Children and seniors are most vulnerable
Children spend a lot of time indoors
Seniors spend a lot of time indoors
Breathing problems are easily triggered.
Children eat and drink more than adults (in
relation to body weight)
Children are still developing
Falls are more common
Children behave differently
Seniors can overheat
7
Start with People
  • What good are they?
  • Whats difficult about people?
  • How can you deal with people?

8
No Place Like Home!
When asked to rate their homes from 1 to 10
(1-worst and 10-best)
  • 53 of people surveyed rated their homes as an 8,
    9 or 10 EVEN THOUGH their houses have severe
    problems.
  • 13 of people living below poverty rated their
    home as a 1

Source American Housing Survey (2005)
9
Follow These Seven Principles to Make A Home
Healthy
  • Key reference Help Yourself to a Healthy Home.
  • Key Materials Healthy Homes Toolkits
  • A healthy home is one that is dry, ventilated,
    clean, pest-free, safe, contaminant-free and
    maintained.
  • Materials in Healthy Homes toolkits provided with
    funds from Healthy Homes Partnership, USDA/HUD

10
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

11
How does moisture enter a home?
12
Where is the moisture?
13
There are three ways your house gets wet
Rain through leaks in roof, walls, foundation
Moisture and water leaks inside your home
Condensation
14
How does excess moisture affect health?
15
Health Problems Associated with Mold and Moisture
  • Nose and throat irritation and congestion
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Asthma symptoms
  • Pneumonia (in people particularly sensitive to
    mold)

16
Keep It Dry What You Can Do?
17
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Dry Example
Information for clients (page 20)
18
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Dry Example
Information for clients (page 21)
19
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

20
What does Ventilate Mean?
  • Ventilating means that fresh air is circulating
    in the house
  • Ventilating means that the house has openings for
    pollution to escape from inside

21
Why Well Ventilated?
  • Ventilation is necessary to remove humidity and
    reduce or remove indoor air pollution.
  • Good ventilation can reduce hazards from
  • Moisture
  • Smoke from cigarettes, cigars, incense or candles
  • Allergens (such as cockroach and mice droppings)
  • Mold
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Radon

22
Health Problems Associated with Poor Ventilation
  • Higher rates of respiratory irritation and
    illness
  • Common colds
  • Influenza
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis

and increased rates of absence from school or
work
23
Things that need exhaust ventilation
  • Bathrooms
  • Clothes dryers
  • Kitchen ranges
  • Boilers, furnaces, hot water heaters
  • Fireplaces, wood burning stoves

24
Testing an Exhaust FanThe Charmin Method
25
Local Ventilation in the Kitchen
  • Ventilation in the kitchen removes moisture,
    odors, and grease
  • If you have a gas oven or range, it removes
    carbon monoxide
  • The gas oven or range must be vented to the
    outside
  • If the fan for the gas oven or range is not
    reasonably quiet, many people will not use it.

26
Combustion Products
27
Carbon Monoxide
  • Health Effects from Carbon Monoxide
  • Fatigue, headaches, dizziness, confusion
  • The Silent Killer
  • About 500 deaths a year plus more than 15,000
    healthcare visits per year.

28
What Can Be Done to Prevent Carbon Monoxide
Poisoning?
  • Do not use ovens and gas ranges to heat your
    home.
  • Open flues when fireplaces are in use.
  • Make sure stoves and heaters are vented to the
    outside and that exhaust systems do not leak.
  • Do not use unvented gas or kerosene space
    heaters in enclosed spaces

29
What Can Be Done to Prevent Carbon Monoxide
Poisoning?
  • Make sure your furnace has adequate intake of
    outside air.
  • Ensure that appliances are properly adjusted and
    working to manufacturers instructions and local
    building codes.
  • Obtain annual inspections for heating system,
    chimneys, and flues and have them cleaned by
    a qualified technician.

30
What Can Be Done to Prevent Carbon Monoxide
Poisoning?
  • Do not burn charcoal inside a home, cabin,
    recreational vehicle, or camper.
  • Never leave a car or lawn mower engine running in
    a shed or garage, or in any enclosed space.
  • Install a CO Detector

31
Carbon Monoxide Alarms
  • A carbon monoxide alarm should be placed near
    sleeping area
  • Can be put on every level of a home to provide
    extra protection
  • Should not be installed directly above or beside
    fuel-burning appliances

32
Keep It Ventilated What You Can Do
Landlord Maintenance
  • Install exhaust fans in the bathroom and kitchen
    that vent outside.
  • Make sure that there are working smoke and carbon
    monoxide alarms installed.
  • Maintenance of furnace
  • Maintenance of dryers

33
What If I Have Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?
  • Dont ignore symptoms, especially if more than
    one person is feeling them. If you think you are
    suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, you
    should
  • Get fresh air immediately. Open doors and
    windows. Turn off combustion appliances and leave
    the house. Call 911.
  • Go to an emergency room. Be sure to tell the
    physician that you suspect CO poisoning.

34
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Ventilated Example
Information for clients (page 26)
35
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

36
Health Problems Associated with Cleaning and
Cleanliness
  • Dust mites, mold, mice/rats/cockroaches can
    trigger allergy and asthma attacks
  • Pesticides can cause skin rashes, headaches,
    dizziness, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, and
    respiratory problems
  • Lead paint and lead paint dust can lead to range
    of health problems including neurological damage

37
Dust Mites
  • Homes with high humidity can have a lot of dust
    mites.
  • Keep it clean Keep it dry

38
Dust Control
  • Five steps to limit dust
  • Hard Surface Walkways
  • Outside Grate-Like Mat
  • Inside Carpet Pad
  • Hard Surface Floor
  • Take shoes off

39
Healthy Cleaning
  • Dont dry dust or dry sweep
  • Tips for vacuuming carpets
  • Wet cleaning
  • Use elbow grease
  • Killing dust mites
  • Washing machine water should be gt130 degrees
  • However, faucet water should be lt120 degrees to
    safely
  • avoid burns

40
What cleaning measures are problematic?
  • Soaps and other products that are anti-bacterial
  • Air fresheners
  • Carpet cleaning

41
Label Reading
42
Clutter
  • Whats the problem?
  • Whats the solution?

43
Keep It Clean What You Can Do
If you rent or own, you should
If you rent, your landlord should
  • Vacuum or wet clean floors regularly.
  • Wash bed linens in hot water.
  • Trap dirt and dust outside on a walk-off mat.
  • Take shoes off at the door.
  • Use damp cloth for dusting and lightly mist a
    floor for broom sweeping. Wash rags used for
    dusting.
  • Use cleaning products labeled non-toxic.
  • Use a good vacuum with beater bar on bottom.
    Vacuums with HEPA filters are best.
  • Reduce clutter.
  • Store in plastic boxes.
  • Use mattress and pillow covers for family members
    with asthma or allergies.
  • Help you deal with pest problems by sealing up
    cracks and holes
  • Put in hard surface floors which show dust, can
    be cleaned faster and can be damp mopped.

44
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Clean Example
Information for clients throughout book because
Keep it Clean crosses other topic areas
45
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

46
What do we mean by pests?
  • Rats and mice
  • Roaches
  • Fleas
  • Bedbugs
  • House flies
  • Mosquitoes
  • Dust mites
  • Regional pests

47
Health Problems Associated with Pests/Pesticides
  • Health effects associated with pesticides
    include
  • Eye, nose, throat irritation
  • Skin rashes, stomach cramps, nausea
  • Central nervous system damage
  • Kidney damage
  • Increased risk of cancers

48
Why Pest Free?
  • Some pests are associated with asthma or asthma
    symptoms
  • Dust mites
  • Cockroaches
  • Mice dander
  • Rat bites are also a problem
  • Rats and mice have been associated with a variety
    of diseases.

49
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • Keep them out and give them no place to hide
  • Change what is around a house or building
  • Block where they come in, walk through or hide
  • Dont leave out food they could eat
  • Practice proper food storage and disposal
  • No dirty dishes in the sink overnight
  • Clean crumbs, grease etc.
  • Get rid of the pests that are already in the
    house
  • Use traps
  • Use less-toxic pesticides when necessary

50
See the creature, be the creatureWhat to look
for and where to look
51
(No Transcript)
52
What To Do About Pests Cleaning
  • Get rid of food sources and grease
  • Vacuum
  • Hard to reach locations and places pests frequent
  • Direction of work work from top to bottom
  • Wash hard surfaces and floors
  • De-grease oven, stove, and counters
  • Two-bucket method
  • Restrict water distribution
  • Spray-bottle application

53
What To Do About Pests Better Storage
  • Food Store in containers that pests cant get
    into or find it hard to get into
  • Other household items Store in an organized
    fashion so that any pest activity can easily be
    seen
  • Clutter Reduce or get rid of stored items that
    arent really needed

54
Pest proof food storage
55
http//www.epa.gov/pesticides/controlling/index.ht
m
56
Keep It Pest-Free What You Can Do?
57
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Pest-Free Example
Information for clients (page 43)
58
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

59
Keep it Safe There are many ways to be injured
in the home
60
What are the most common causes of home injury
deaths?
  1. Falls
  2. Poisoning
  3. Fires and burns
  4. Choking and suffocation
  5. Drowning
  6. Guns
  7. Other

61
Which age groups are most at risk?
  • Infants are most likely to be injured or die from
    choking and suffocation.
  • Children up to 14 years old and seniors are most
    likely to be injured from falls.
  • Children from 1 14 years old are most likely to
    be injured by fires and burns.
  • Adults who are over 80 years old are most likely
    to die from any injuries in the home.

62
Falls
About ½ of households with 2nd floor windows do
not have window locks or safety guards to protect
children.
63
Poisoning
  • 82 of households keep medicines in unlocked
    drawers or cabinets.
  • 69 of homes with young children store household
    chemicals in unlocked areas.

64
Pesticides and Poisonings
  • Almost half of all households with children
    under five stored pesticides within reach of
    children.
  • In 2003, Poison Control Centers reported
    113,000 cases of pesticide poisoning.

65
(No Transcript)
66
Fires and Burns
75 of households did not know the temperature
setting on their water heaters. 91 were unaware
of the temperature of hot tap water.
67
Choke hazards?
Electric shock hazard?
68
Keep It Safe What You Can Do
If you rent or own
If you rent, your landlord should
  • Prevent Slips, Trips, and Falls
  • Keep your floors clear of toys, shoes and other
    things
  • Clean up spills right away to prevent slipping.
  • If you have rugs, use non-skid mats.
  • Poison-Proof Your Home
  • Put safety latches on all cabinets with harmful
    products or put products where children cant
    reach.
  • Prevent Fires and Burns
  • Place working smoke alarm near every sleeping
    area and working fire extinguisher near kitchen
    stove.
  • Keep space heaters out of doorways, halls, or
    other busy areas. Keep them at least 3 feet from
    curtains, bedding, or other things that could
    catch fire.
  • Put outlet covers over unused electrical outlets.
  • Prevent Choking and Suffocation
  • Keep young children away from curtains,
    window-blind cords and extension cords.
  • Make sure that working smoke alarms are installed
    near every sleeping area.
  • Install a carbon monoxide alarm in your apartment
    or house.

69
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Keep It Safe Example
Information for clients (page 48-54)
70
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

71
Contaminant Priorities
  • Lead and Lead-Based Paint
  • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • Asbestos
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Radon

72
Sources of Contaminants
  • Bring It In
  • Building Structure
  • Building System
  • Living Things

73
Lead and Lead-Based Paint
  • Peeling, Chipping Paint / Deteriorated Paint
  • Dust
  • Soil
  • Drinking water
  • Consumer Products such Pottery, Cribs, Jewelry,
    Candle Wicks
  • Cultural Items

74
Lead Age of Housing Matters
75
Why Avoid Lead?Related Health Effects
  • Reduced IQ
  • Learning disabilities
  • Impaired hearing
  • Reduced attention spans, behavior problems
  • Anemia
  • Kidney damage
  • Damage to central nervous system
  • Coma, convulsions, death

76
Lead and Old Paint Indoors
  • Fix peeling paint- Do not dry scrape or dry sand!
  • Use damp method to mop, dust.
  • Thoroughly clean furniture, carpets, and
    draperies to remove settled dust and dirt
  • frequent vacuuming
  • Wash kids hands!

77
Minimize Exposure to Lead
  • Hose off sidewalks, porches, and steps often so
    that lead-containing soil or dust isnt tracked
    into the house
  • Periodically clean doormats to reduce tracking
    dirt and soil into the home.

78
Available Testing
Trained and certified inspectors can test for
lead in
  • Paint chips
  • Dust
  • Bare soil
  • Drinking water

79
Letting Buyers and Renters Know About Lead
  • Its the law
  • Before a lease or sales contract is signed,
    owners must tell the buyer or renter about
    lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards in
    the house or apartment building.

80
Health Problems From Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • Second-hand smoke increases the number of asthma
    attacks that children have and how severe the
    attacks are
  • It increases the risk that children will develop
    asthma
  • Responsible for 150,000 to 300,000 cases of
    bronchitis, pneumonia and flu symptoms in infants
    and children less than 18 months of age
  • Causes lung cancer in non-smokers

81
Non-smokers Exposed to Tobacco Smoke Have
Increased Risk of Acute and Chronic Disease
  • Respiratory illness (including arrested lung
    development)
  • Asthma attacks and development
  • Middle ear effusions
  • Irritant effects
  • Children affected by smoking caretaker

82
What Can You Do About Tobacco Smoke in Homes and
Cars?
  • Quit, if youre ready theres help
  • Dont smoke around children
  • Smoke outside
  • Exhaust vent the places where people smoke

83
Asbestos
84
Why avoid asbestos?
  • Health effects
  • - Lung Cancer
  • - Mesothelioma
  • - Asbestosis
  • Smokers are at greater risk!

85
How to handle asbestos
  • LEAVE IT ALONE (if in good condition).
  • Look for signs of wear or damage such as tears,
    abrasions, or water damage but avoid touching the
    material.
  • If damaged or renovation might disturb it, repair
    or removal by a licensed professional is needed.

86
xylene
benzene
styrene
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Tetrachloro- ethylene
P-dicholoro- benzene
Methylene chloride
87
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCs)
  • Common sources of VOCs
  • Paints
  • Strippers and other solvents
  • Aerosol sprays
  • Cleansers disinfectants
  • Moth repellents
  • Air fresheners
  • Stored fuels
  • Automotive products
  • Hobby supplies
  • Dry-cleaned clothing

88
Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • Carpets
  • Pressed wood furniture
  • Vinyl floors

89
(No Transcript)
90
Why Avoid Volatile Organic Compounds?
  • Potential health problems from volatile organic
    compounds
  • Eye, nose, throat irritation
  • Headaches, nausea, coordination
  • Liver, kidney, and brain damage
  • Some can cause cancers

91
Radon A Serious Health Concern
  • Radon is a naturally occurring gas that comes
    from the ground.
  • 2nd leading cause of lung cancer after smoking
    with more than 20,000 deaths annually
  • Leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and
    people who have never smoked.

92
Where is radon found?
  • It moves up through the ground to the air above
    and into your home through cracks and other holes
    in the foundation.
  • Your home traps radon inside, where it can build
    up.
  • Any home may have a radon problem new and old
    homes, well-sealed and drafty homes, and homes
    with or without basements.

93
How can you check for radon?
  • Short-term or long term radon test.
  • A long-term test more likely to estimate your
    homes year-round average radon level.
  • If the level is above 4 pCi/L, information about
    corrective measures is included with the results.

94
How do you fix radon problems?
  • Seal cracks in basement floors and walls with
    polyurethane caulk.
  • Vent gas through the roof

95
Testing for Radon
  • Testing Options
  • For kits call 1-800-SOS-RADON, purchase retail,
    or from certified company
  • Hire a professional

96
Keep It Contaminant-Free What You Can Do
  • Test children under age 6 for lead exposure.
  • If your home was built before 1978 and paint is
    peeling, chipping or flaking, you should have the
    paint tested for lead.
  • If any remodeling work will be done on your
    house, find out if work is happening on an area
    that contains lead-based paint.
  • Do not smoke in the house.
  • If you see damaged insulation or plaster, dont
    disturb it, it may contain asbestos.
  • Avoid using products that have volatile organic
    compounds.
  • Test your house for radon.

97
  • If you rent, your landlord should
  • Know whether your home has been tested for
    lead-based paint (if built before 1978).
  • If there is lead-based paint, take steps to deal
    with it in a safe way.
  • Be aware of possible asbestos when working on
    insulation or plaster.

98
Using Help Yourself to a Healthy Home as a Client
Resource A Contaminant Free Example
Information for clients (page 29- 32)
99
7 Healthy Homes Principles
  • Keep It
  • Dry
  • Ventilated
  • Clean
  • Pest-Free
  • Safe
  • Contaminant-Free
  • Maintained

100
Maintenance
  • Plumbing problems (for water leaks)
  • Roof, walls, foundation (for water leaks)
  • Heating, cooling and humidity
  • Cooking
  • Ventilation
  • Storage and Organization

101
One example
102
Another example
A clogged furnace filter makes it hard for air to
flow.
103
When?
104
Keep It Maintained What You Can Do
If you rent or own
If you rent, your landlord should
  • Call your landlord or skilled maintenance person
    as soon as you notice moisture, cockroaches,
    mice, or holes in your home.
  • Call landlord or skilled plumber if your toilet
    overflows.
  • If you own, make sure to replace furnace filters
    on a regular basis.
  • Clean grease filter on your stoves range hood
  • Check gutters and downspouts in spring and fall
  • Watch for freezing pipes that crack and leak. Fix
    if you own. Contact your landlord if you rent.
  • Fix water leaks or water damaged areas.
  • Fix all cracks and holes.
  • Help you to get rid of cockroaches and mice.
  • Maintain furnaces and hot water heaters in good
    condition and replace furnace filters on a
    regular schedule.
  • Check gutters and downspouts for clogs caused by
    leaves.
  • Fix pipes that have frozen, cracked and leaked.
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