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Title: The Clean Cities Program 2008 Update Program Priorities, Budgets


1
The Clean Cities Program2008 UpdateProgram
Priorities, Budgets Legislation, Biofuels
Updates, Future Areas of Emphasis
  • Mike Scarpino
  • U.S. Department of Energy
  • National Energy Technology Laboratory

2
U.S. petroleum production peaked in 1972 (crude
oil in 1970) despite higher prices, advanced
technology, new offshore AK discoveries.
U.S. Oil NGL Production Peaks 1972
3
Peaking of world supply outside of OPEC is
imminent and will magnify the cartels market
power.
4
World Energy Reserves
Based on 145/barrel, the US spends 650 billion
per year on imported oil (or 12.6 billion per
week)
Source US Department of Energy
5
The Clean Cities Program
  • Established in 1993 in response to the Energy
    Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992
  • Provides a framework for businesses and
    governments to work together as a coalition
  • Coordinates the activities of petroleum
    displacement proponents
  • Mission To advance the energy, economic and
    environmental security of the United States by
    supporting local decisions to adopt practices
    that reduce the use of petroleum in the
    transportation sector.
  • Goal To expand and stimulate alternative fuel
    and advanced technology markets to achieve a
    petroleum reduction of 2.5 billion gallons of
    gasoline equivalent (GGEs) / year by 2020.

6
Clean Cities Today
  • 87 Coalitions 5,452 Stakeholders
    5,753 AFV Stations 500,000 AFVs using Alt
    Fuels

7
Clean Cities Technologies (Fuel/Technology
Neutral Approach)
  • Idle Reduction
  • Increase Technology Use/Practices
  • Heavy-duty trucks
  • School Buses
  • Hybrids
  • Expand Market for Vehicles
  • Light- and heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles
  • Fuel Economy
  • Increase Fuel Efficient Technologies and
    Practices
  • Fuel efficient vehicles, behavioral changes,
    vehicle maintenance initiatives, etc.
  • Alternative Fuels
  • Increase Vehicles and Infrastructure
  • Electricity
  • Ethanol (E-85)
  • Propane
  • Natural Gas
  • Hydrogen
  • Biodiesel (B100)
  • Blended Fuels
  • Increase Use of Blends
  • Low levels of alternative fuels with conventional
    fuels
  • 10 ethanol / 90 gasoline blends (E10)
  • 2 biodiesel / 98 diesel blends (B2)
  • 20 biodiesel / 80 diesel blends (B20)

Reduce
Replace
Eliminate
8
  • Clean Cities Program Focus Areas
  • Accelerated Biofuels Initiative- Accelerate
    BioFuels Infrastructure Development Efforts,
    Consumer Outreach, and Technical Support Efforts.
  • Technology Deployment Demonstrations- Niche
    Market Fleet, Adv Vehicle Demos (PHEVs, HD HEVs,
    FCVs, Clean diesel)
  • Consumer Information Education- Fuel
    Economy.Gov (General outreach activities for
    consumers to make educated choices for new
    vehicle purchases
  • Strengthening Coalitions- Specialized training
    workshops
  • Expanded National Partnerships- Work w/ Verizon,
    Enterprise, Kroger, etc.
  • Addressing Technical Barriers Technical
    Assistance for Early Adopters- Coordinate
    specialized training and outreach to public
    safety officials, first responders, fleet
    maintenance personnel, etc. Distribute incident
    response procedures and guidelines. UL
    certifications. CNG Cylinder Program.

9
Clean Cities Coalitions Public-Private
Partnerships
  • Coalition Objectives
  • Identify and educate fleets about alternative
    fuels
  • Build necessary refueling sites
  • Train drivers, mechanics, policymakers and others
  • Educate the public
  • Find adequate resources for AFV projects
  • Encourage governments to pass legislation
    favorable to AFVs
  • Fiscal incentives, e.g. taxes
  • Non-fiscal incentives, e.g. green parking, HOV
    access

10
Funding Program Budgets Past / Future DOE
Solicitations
11
Clean Cities Program Budget
Millions
12
Clean Cities Leverages Funding
  • Grants Awarded to Coalitions in 2006

13
2006 Clean Cities Infrastructure Awards
  • 8.6 Million Awarded in 2006 to Increase the Use
    and Availability of Alternative Fuels
  • Refueling Infrastructure for E85 and Alternative
    Fuels (13 Projects)
  • 180 AFV Refueling Sites in 25 States and DC
  • Installation of biodiesel blending capabilities
  • CNG/LNG Infrastructure (2 projects)
  • Incremental Cost for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (1
    Project Propane)
  • Idle Reduction Training and Awareness for School
    Districts (2 Projects)
  • Total Project Value is gt 25M
  • Planning to issue a similar solicitation for FY 09

14
I-65 Corridor Project
  • The Indiana Office of Energy Defense
    Development was awarded 1.3 million from the
    U.S. Department of Energy to fund E85 and B20
    fueling stations along Interstate 65 from Gary,
    Indiana to Mobile, Alabama
  • 886 Miles of I-65 in the states of Indiana,
    Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama are impacted by
    this project
  • 31 E85 and 5 B20 pumps are being funded
  • Funding also supports 1 biodiesel blending
    facility in Ohio, near the Indiana State line

With the proposed stations in place, one would be
able to travel the entire length of I-65 and be
no more than a quarter of a tank from the nearest
E85 station.
15
Biodiesel Terminal Blending
  • National Biodiesel Board Biodiesel Terminal
    Blending Project
  • As of 9/30/07, 5 of 6 terminals are complete
  • 2 in New York
  • 1 in Pennsylvania
  • 1 in Florida
  • 1 in Indiana
  • 22,518,431 gallons of B99 have been dispensed
    since the project began on 10/1/06.

16
Potential Funding Categories for FY 09
Solicitation
  • 1. Infrastructure for Alternative Fuels
  • - intend to fund a percentage of the
    infrastructure cost associated with developing
    alternative fuel fueling capability.
  • 2. Education/Outreach Workshops
  • - intended to provide technical support to help
    accelerate the transition to biofuels and other
    alternative fuels in the transportation sector.
    This may include the development of educational
    materials, direct technical assistance, and
    workshops on subjects such as, Vehicle/Fuel
    Benefits and Availability, Fuel Handling
    Quality, First Responder Training, the Safe and
    Proper use of AFVs and refueling
    equipment/stations, working with local public
    safety and regulatory officials, etc.
  • 3. Incremental Cost of Alternative Fuel Vehicles
  • - intend to fund a percentage of the
    incremental cost associated with purchase of
    dedicated alternative fuel vehicles.
  • 4. Biofuels College/University Program
  • - intend to fund projects to support an
    integrated program from curriculum through
    application to demonstrate production and use of
    biofuels on campus (vehicle fleets, heating,
    off-road vehicles, etc.)

16
17
Potential Schedule for FY 09 Clean Cities
Program Solicitation
  • NETL will have Project Management and
    Administrative oversight
  • Estimated Date to Issue Solicitation late Oct /
    early Nov 2008
  • Estimated Due Date For Proposals late January,
    2009
  • Estimated Award Date Spring 2009
  • Estimated Funding Available 6 million in DOE
    funds over 2 year funding period (i.e. 3 million
    in FY 09 funds 3 million in FY 10 funds).
  • Note Some awards may be jointly funded by
    Clean Cities and the DOE Biomass Program (OBP).
    All funding estimates are contingent upon final
    Federal budget appropriations for FY09 and future
    years.

17
18
Federal Laws Incentives
19
EPAct 2005 Tax Incentives
  • Alternative Motor Fuel Vehicle Credit
  • (P.L. 109-58, Sec. 1341)
  • Provides for tax credits for the following types
    of vehicles
  • Alternative Fuel Motor Vehicle, 50-80 of
    incremental cost for vehicles 4,000 max. for
    LDVs and 8,000-32,000 max. for MDVs/HDVs
  • Fuel Cell Vehicle, 8,000-40,000
  • Hybrid Motor Vehicle, up to 3,400 (LDV) or
    1,500 - 12,000 for MDVs/HDVs
  • Advanced Lean Burn Technology Motor Vehicle, up
    to 3,400 (LDVs only)
  • Aftermarket conversions also qualify

20
EPAct 2005 Tax Incentives
  • Expiration Dates for Vehicle Credits
  • Fuel Cell Vehicles 12/31/2014
  • Advanced Lean Burn Technology Motor Vehicle
    12/31/2010
  • LD Hybrid Motor Vehicle 12/31/2010
  • MD/HD Hybrid Motor Vehicle 12/31/2009
  • Alternative Fuel Motor Vehicle 12/31/2010

Subject to phase-out per 60,000 vehicle
threshold, includes both hybrid and lean-burn
vehicles sold by a manufacturer
21
EPAct 2005 Tax Incentives
  • AFV Refueling Property Credit (P.L. 109-58, Sec.
    1342)
  • Provides for tax credits of
  • Up to 30 of fueling equipment cost (max. credit
    of 30,000)
  • Up to 1,000 for a residential installation
  • Form 8911, AFV Refueling Property Credit
    available
  • Instructions clarify that credit may be taken for
    more than one refueling property
  • Not clear if multiple dispensers at single
    location qualify
  • Not clear if upgrades to stations qualify
  • Credits expire 12/31/2009 (except 12/31/2014 for
    Hydrogen)

22
Alternative Fuel Tax Credit
  • Enacted as part of SAFETEA-LU
  • (P.L. 109-59, section 11113)
  • AFs included LPG, LNG, CNG, and liquefied
    hydrogen
  • Credit worth 50 per gal. (CNG per 121 cubic
    feet)
  • Credit generally goes to retail sellers, but can
    also go to users that operate their own fueling
    station(s)
  • If you use another fleets private station, they
    get the credit
  • Public entities and tax exempt entities qualify
    for the credit/payment.

Source Jeff Clarke, NGVAmerica
23
Alternative Fuels Tax Credit (cont.)
  • Effective period Oct. 1, 2006 Sept. 30, 2009
    (2014 for H2)
  • Claiming the credit IRS forms which may be
    required, depending on circumstances Form 637
    Form 720 Form 8849, Schedule 6 and Form 4136
  • Additional sources of information
  • IRS Guidance www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/n-06-92.pd
    f
  • IRS Forms www.irs.gov/formspubs/lists/0,,id9781
    7,00.html
  • NGVAmerica Summary
  • http//www.ngvamerica.org/pdfs/Notice2006-92RegSum
    2.pdf

Source Jeff Clarke, NGVAmerica
24
Energy Independence Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
  • December 2007, Congress Passes and President
    Signs the Energy Independence and Security Act of
    2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140)
  • What EISA did
  • Expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) to 36B
    gal/yr of renewable fuel by 2022 (vs. 7.5B gal/yr
    by 2012, from EPAct 2005)
  • - Corn Ethanol limited to 15B of 36B gallons
    in 2022 remaining 21B gallons is Advanced
    Biofuels Biodiesel must be at least 1B gallons
    in 2022
  • Increased Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
  • - Increases CAFE levels to 35 mpg overall by
    2020 estimated to save 0.9M barrels per day by
    2020, and 2M barrels per day by 2030
  • What EISA did NOT do
  • Create New Tax Incentives

25
EISA Biofuels Utilization
  • Sec. 244 Renewable Fuel Infrastructure
    Fueling Station Grants
  • Calls for DOE to administer grants for renewable
    fuel infrastructure (blends of gt10 up to 85
    with gasoline (no cap for diesel blends)) up to
    33 of costs, up to 180,000 for any single
    retail outlet. No double benefit w/tax credits.
  • Also allows for technical/marketing assistance.
  • Also includes refueling infrastructure corridor
    program
  • up to 10 areas,
  • maximum of 20M/applicant,
  • requires involvement of EERE Vehicle Technology
    deployment program participants
  • 200M/yr Authorization, FY2008-2014. No funds
    appropriated.
  • Authorization DOES NOT EQUAL Appropriation just
    because Congress authorizes money doesnt mean
    the program gets it.

26
EISA Rulemaking for State Fuel Provider
Program
  • EISA Section 133 calls for DOE to allocate
    acquisition credits under the SFP Program for
    the following
  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • Medium or Heavy duty Electric Vehicles
  • Neighborhood Electric Vehicles
  • Plug-In Electric Vehicles
  • Investments in AF refueling equipment or off-road
    equipment
  • Investments in emerging technologies
  • DOE is required to allocate these credits by
    1/31/09. This action requires a rulemaking.
  • Notice of Proposed Rulemaking anticipated to be
    issued in summer 2008.

27
EISA Renewable Fuel Standard
  • Expands the Renewable Fuel Standard to 36B gal/yr
    of renewable fuel by 2022 (vs. 7.5B gal/yr by
    2012, from EPAct 2005)
  • Fuels include
  • Corn ethanol
  • Advanced biofuels
  • Cellulosic ethanol and ethanol from other
    non-corn biomass sources
  • Biomass-based Diesel (Biodiesel)
  • Biogas
  • Butanol and other alcohols from biomass
  • Other fuels from cellulosic biomass
  • EPA will develop regulations to implement
  • Corn Ethanol limited to 15B of 36B gallons in
    2022 remaining 21B gallons is Advanced Biofuels
  • Biodiesel must be at least 1B gallons in 2022

28
Food For Fuel Truths Myths
29
Food vs. FuelFactors Affecting Food Costs
  • Higher Agricultural Commodity and Energy Prices
  • Growth in Foreign Demand
  • Reduced Foreign Competition and Supply
  • Depreciating U.S. Dollar
  • Buying of Grain and Oilseed Futures
  • Weather, Drought

30
Food vs. FuelFactors Affecting Food Costs
  • Less than one third of U.S. retail food contains
    corn as a major ingredient.
  • Corn exports increased from 53.9 metric tons in
    2006/2007 to 63.5 metric tons in 2007/2008.
  • USDA, FAS, 5/2008
  • Ethanol production and availability may have
    positively impacted fuel costs.
  • Across all food consumed, 30 higher corn prices
    increase all average food prices by 1.1
    percent.
  • Center for Agricultural and Rural
    Development, Helen H. Jensen, Bruce A. Babcock,
    Iowa Ag Review, Summer 2007

31
Components of Retail Food Costs
Source USDA
Direct energy costs and transportation costs
account for roughly 8 of retail food costs in
2005. Main Street
Economist, Vol. III, Issue I 2008 Federal
Reserve Bank of Kansas City
32
Food vs. Fuel Corn as Feed
  • Feed Corn Usage
  • 2.6 lb of corn to produce 1 lb of chicken
  • 6.5 lb of corn to produce 1 lb of pork
  • 7 lb of corn to produce 1 lb of beef
  • With corn at 2.28/bushel (20 year average), 56
    lb/bushel or .04/lb of corn, feed corn adds
  • .10/lb of chicken
  • .26/lb of pork
  • .29/lb of beef
  • Using the 2007 average price of corn of 3.40 and
    assuming price increases would all be passed on
    to the consumer, prices would have increased
  • .05/lb for chicken
  • .13/lb for pork
  • .14/lb for beef

Amber Waves, Vol. 6, Issue 1 USDA
33
Food vs. Fuel Corn Products for Human
Consumption
  • An 18-oz box of corn flakes contains
    approximately 12.9-oz of milled field corn
  • With corn at 2.28/bushel (20 year average), 56
    lb/bushel or .04/lb of corn, the corn value of
    the corn in this box is .033.
  • Using the 2007 average price of corn of 3.40 and
    assuming price increases will all be passed on to
    the consumer, prices would increase by .016.
  • A 2-liter bottle of soda contains approximated 15
    oz of corn in the form of high-fructose corn
    syrup.
  • With corn at 2.28/bushel (20 year average) the
    value of the corn is .038.
  • Using 3.40/bushel prices would increase by .019.

Amber Waves, Vol. 6, Issue 1, USDA
34
Corn Farming Productivity
  • Long-term trend for yield increase since 1940
  • Acres planted generally decline or remain
    constant
  • Fertilizer application increased rapidly until
    about 1980 then leveled off
  • Yield increases continued unabated
  • Less fertilizer per bushel
  • Precision farming (GIS)
  • Improved crop strains
  • Tillage has also been reduced

35
Farming Practices
  • The primary ecological impacts of biofuels are in
    agriculture
  • Significant economic incentives to farm with less
    inputs
  • Farm output per unit of energy down more than 50
    in 60 years
  • Large growth (3x) in no-till farming
  • Data also show reduced use of pesticides and
    dangerous pesticides

36
Land Use
  • 2007/2008- Out of the 86 million corn acres
    harvested, 21 million acres were used to produce
    approximately 6.5 billion gallons of ethanol.
  • 2017/2018- Out of the 85 million harvested corn
    acres, USDA projects 28 million acres will be
    used to produce 4.9 billion bushels of corn for
    ethanol. This translates into approx. 13 billion
    gallons of ethanol using current published
    ethanol production yields (2.8 gallons/ bushel)

Sources USDA- Long Term Agricultural Projection
Tables released February 2008, RFA Ethanol
Industry Outlook 2008, USDA Amber Waves, April
2006
37
EISA 2007 Renewable Fuel Standard
  • 36 billion gallons of total renewable fuels by
    2022
  • 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels
  • 1 billion gallons of biodiesel
  • 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels
  • 4 billion gallons from any source
  • 15 billion gallons from corn ethanol

38
Possible 2017/ 2018 Scenario
Assuming trends, farm legislation, weather, and
crop yield growth continue to track as in the
past and CRP land can be used for corn and
perennials
  • Gallons Ethanol
  • Crop Residue Cellulosic 9.4 - 12.2 billion
    (Only 28 of land can have residual removed due
    to erosion concerns)
  • CRP Cellulosic 4.2 - 12 billion(12
    million acres out of 37 million acres in CRP)
  • CRP Corn 2.6 - 3.1 billion(CRP
    acreage suitable for corn of 6.4 million acres)
  • Corn 11.3 - 13.7 billion(28.3 million
    acres)
  • Total for 2017/2018 27.5 - 42 billion

Sources USDA Long-Term Agricultural Projection
Tables, February 2008 RFA Ethanol Industry
Outlook 2008 USDA Amber Waves, April 2006 USDA
Amber Waves, November 2007 USDA Agricultural
Baseline Projections U.S. Crops 2008-2017,
February 2008 ORNLBiomass as Feedstock for a
Bioenergy and Bioproduct Industry The Technical
Feasibility of a Billion- Ton Annual Supply,
April 2005, NAICC Annual Meeting Presentation,
Hal Collins, USDA-ARS NRDC Growing Biofuels How
Biofuels Can Help End Americas Oil Dependence,
Nathanael Greene, December 2004, EERE Biomass
Program Web site
39
Corn Use
  • 2007/2008 2017/2018
  • Feed 45 40
  • Exports 19 17
  • Ethanol 25 33

Source USDA Long Term Agricultural Projection
tables released February 2008
Distillers grains from each bushel of corn used
to produce ethanol substitutes for about a fifth
of a bushel of direct corn feeding in livestock
rations. Source USDA Ethanol Expansion in the
United States- How Will the Agricultural Sector
Adjust?, Paul C. Westcott, FDS-07D-01, May 2007)
40
EIAs Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (March 2008
early release)
  • Although the situation is very uncertain, the
    current state of the industry and EIAs present
    view of projected rates of technology development
    and market penetration of cellulosic biofuel
    technologies suggest that available quantities of
    cellulosic biofuels before 2022 will be
    insufficient to meet the new RFS targets for
    cellulosic biofuels, triggering both waivers and
    a modification of applicable volumes The
    modification of volumes reduces the overall
    target in 2022 from 36 bilion gallons to 32.5
    billion gallons

41
Water Usage
  • 96 of field corn used for ethanol is not
    irrigated
  • Water consumption for the other 4 is
    approximately 1.2 acre-feet of water per acre or
    approximately 785 gal for every gallon of
    ethanol produced
  • Water usage for ethanol production ranges from
    3-4 gal of water per gallon of ethanol produced.
  • Future cellulosic production is estimated to use
    1.9-6 gal of water per gallon of ethanol
  • Water usage for petroleum refining ranges between
    45-50 gal consumed per barrel of crude or 2-2.5
    gal per gallon of gasoline

Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol
Production, Andy Aden, National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, Southwest Hydrology, 9-10/2007
42
Price Impact on Gasoline
  • The growth in ethanol production has caused
    retail gasoline prices to be 0.20 to 0.40 per
    gallon lower than would otherwise been the case.
  • The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and
    Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability
    of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry, Working Paper
    08-WP 467, April 2008, Xiaodong Du and Dermot J.
    Hayes, Center for Agricultural and Rural
    Development, Iowa State University
  • Oil and gas prices would be about 15 higher if
    biofuel producers werent increasing their
    output.
  • Francisco Blanch, Merrill Lynch, The Wall Street
    Journal, 3/2008
  • The use of 10 ethanol blend saved Missouri
    drivers .077 per gallon at the retail pump in
    2007.
  • Impact of Ethanol on Retail
    Gasoline Prices in Missouri, John M. Urbanchuk,
    LECG LLC, 4/2008

43
Global Impacts Increasing Food Prices
  • ? Global Supply
  • ? Global Demand
  • ? Value of the Dollar
  • ? Oil Demand
  • ? Buying of Grain and Oilseed Futures

44
Global Demand Increases
  • Growth in foreign exchange holdings by major food
    importing countries (OPEC, Russia, Ukraine,
    China, Japan and other Asian countries)
  • Protective policies by importers as food security
    measures
  • Reduced import tariffs and subsidies for
    consumers
  • Biofuels
  • Devaluation of the dollar, which may reduce
    importing costs
  • Increased per capita income in developing
    countries, which increased per capita consumption
    of staples and diversified diet to include more
    meat and dairy
  • Population Growth

Economic Research Service, USDA, WRS-0801, 5/2008
45
Global Supply Fewer Sources and Reduced Supplies
  • Adverse Weather
  • Droughts in Ukraine, Russia, Turkey, Australia,
    and other countries
  • Decreased yields due to weather in other
    countries
  • Protective policies by exporters to reduce food
    price inflation
  • Eliminated export subsidies, export taxes,
    quantitative restrictions, export bans
  • Reduction in research and development focused on
    yield-enhancing technologies slowing production
    growth

Economic Research Service, USDA, WRS-0801, 5/2008
46
Stakeholder General Public Information and
Education Tools Services
47
Clean Cities Website Tools
Clean Cities
AFDC
FuelEconomy.gov in partnership with EPA
48
Clean Cities and AFDC Website Tools
  • Alternative Fuel Station Locator
  • Financial Opportunities
  • Incentives and Laws
  • Clean Fleet Guide
  • Success Stories
  • Current Model Listing and Listing for 2001 2007
  • Clean Cities, Vehicle Manufacturers and Industry
    Contacts Listing
  • Natural Gas, Hybrid, and Flex Fuel Cost
    Calculators
  • Idle Reduction Equipment Listing and Search
    Options
  • Searchable Document Database
  • Related Links
  • Vehicle Make/Model - Heavy- and Light-Duty
    Vehicles

49
Incentives and Laws
50
Refueling Station Locator
51
Technology Bulletins
  • Technological breakthroughs, issues, and news

52
Data, Analysis Trends
  • Data, Analysis Trends are available for
  • Vehicles
  • Fuels
  • Infrastructure
  • Biomass Resources
  • Geographic
  • Incentives and Laws
  • Clean Cities
  • State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets
  • Federal Fleets

53
Geographic Coordination Tools
54
E85 Fleet Toolkit
  • E85 handling and use handbook (recently updated)
  • E85 refueling equipment conversion checklist
  • Step by step guidelines for obtaining and
    installing new infrastructure
  • Training materials for station operators
  • Case Studies

55
E85 Retail Business Case When and Why to Sell
  • Developed in conjunction with NACS other key
    fuel retailers
  • Highlights challenging market that gasoline
    retailers are operating in.
  • Shows how E85 can augment known tactics to be
    more competitive
  • Analyzes E85 equipment as an investment
  • Tests the impact of various factors on payback
    for E85 investment
  • Offers guidance for retailers to maximize
    profitability and assess if E85 would be a good
    investment for them

56
Alternative Fuels Hotline
  • 1-877-337-3463
  • Available 900 a.m. 600 p.m. EST
  • hotline_at_afdc.nrel.gov

57
(No Transcript)
58
Future DOE Vehicle Fuel Areas of Interest
59
DOE RD Biofuels Related Vehicle Technologies
  • ORNL E85 Fuel Efficiency
  • Optimization of an FFV engine operating on E85
    and intermediate blends
  • Intermediate Ethanol Blend Emissions Testing
  • E85 and lower level ethanol blends Coordinating
    Research Council (CRC) tests ending in 2009
  • Materials compatibility
  • Emissions
  • Driveability

60
DOE E85 Engine Optimization Efforts
  • Todays FFVs are closer to ethanol tolerant
    than to ethanol optimized
  • E85 FFVs have reduced fuel economy using E85 due
    to lower energy content of the fuel (relative to
    gasoline)
  • Fuel economy penalty can be reduced due to
    ethanols properties (mainly high octane)
  • DOE recently made seven awards to develop a
    production-intended, ethanol optimized engine for
    FFVs

61
Intermediate Blends (e.g., E15, E20) a Critical
Pathway to Expand the Ethanol Market Past 15 BGY
  • E15 could expand the market to 22 BGY by 2017
  • E20 could expand the market to 30 BGY by 2017
  • Rapid expansion of E85 is very challenging
  • Up to 50 percent of the nations 160,000 stations
    need to carry E85
  • 100 million FFVs would need to be in the vehicle
    stock and use E85

E85
E10
E85
E85
E20
E15
62
DOE RD Investigating the Performance of Legacy
Equipment on Intermediate Blends
  • Testing of legacy fleet vehicles
  • Determining the effects of intermediate blends on
    the vehicles in use today (100 vehicles to be
    tested)
  • Emissions, durability, driveability
  • Testing will include E0, E10, E15 and E20
  • Small, non-road engines
  • Generators, Leaf blowers, line trimmers, etc.
  • Materials compatibility reviews and studies

63
PHEV Testing
  • Vehicle acquisition and instrumentation
  • EnergyCS and Hymotion PHEV conversions
  • Renault Kangoo (rechargeable) HEV
  • Laboratory testing to quantify fuel economy,
    efficiency and emissions
  • Standard vehicle test procedures TBD(ANL staff
    chairs SAE J1711 committee).
  • PHEV-specific data acquisition in process.
  • Field testing for on-road performance, economy
    and operational characteristics
  • Standard procedures TBD
  • Summer testing at INL,balance of year in AZ

64
PHEV Testing
Near-term Focus
  • Benchmark/characterization testing in the
    laboratory and on-road
  • Performance, efficiency, emissions and
    operational characteristics of conversion
    vehicles
  • EnergyCS Prius
  • 9 kWh Valence Li-ion pack replaces Ni-MH
  • Hymotion Prius
  • Additional 5 kWh A123 Li-polymer pack
  • Renault Kangoo Electroad
  • 100 Ah, 132 V SAFT NiCd pack

65
  • FY08 PHEV Technology Acceleration and
    Deployment Activity
  • DOEs Vehicle Technologies Program seeks to
    accelerate development of PHEVs that
  • Substantially reduce petroleum consumption
  • Are fully compliant with FMVSS
  • Meet all relevant emissions regulations
  • Can be economically massed produced
  • Have (minimum) 10-mile cumulative UDDS electric
    range
  • Round I proposals were due 2/13/08, Round II
    4/30/06
  • Each awardee required to demonstrate 80 PHEVs
    over 3 years
  • 10 PHEVs 1st year, 20 in 2nd year, 50 in 3rd year
  • 7 million first year, total of 30 million over
    3 years

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DOE Contact Info
Mike Scarpino U.S. Department of Energy -
NETL P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill
Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 Office
412-386-4726 E-mail Michael.Scarpino_at_netl.doe.gov

DOE Websites
Clean Cities http//www.eere.energy.gov/cleanciti
es/ Alt Fuel Data Center http//www.eere.energy.
gov/afdc/ Fuel Economy.Gov http//www.fueleconom
y.gov/
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