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American Psychological Association APA Writing and Documentation Style Orientation

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Title: American Psychological Association APA Writing and Documentation Style Orientation


1
American Psychological Association (APA) Writing
and Documentation Style Orientation
2
Purchase the APA Manual
  • This orientation is only an overview of APA
    (2001) format.
  • Students still need to purchase and use the APA
    (2001) Manual.
  • Purchase Manual at Phoenix Bookstore
    http//www.thephoenixbookstore.com/
  • (click on-line store) or other on-line retailers.

3
apastyle.org website
  • Info about the APA (2001) manual is found at
    http//www.apastyle.org/pubmanual.html
  • See links to
  • About APA Style
  • Style Tips
  • What's New

4
APA General Requirements
  • 12 point black font (Times Roman, Courier)
  • 1 margin on all sides
  • Major Sections
  • Title Page
  • Abstract (optional, consult faculty and/or
    assignment requirements)
  • Body of Paper or Text
  • References
  • Appendices NOTE Sections such as appendices,
  • Tables tables, and figures may not
  • Figures be appropriate for all papers

5
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases (See chapter
2 in APA Manual)
  • Maintain continuity between words, themes, and
    sections.
  • Use punctuation marks to show relationships.
  • Use transitional words, phrases, and paragraphs.
  • Say only what needs to be said.
  • Avoid jargon, redundancy, and wordiness.
  • Use direct, declarative sentences of various
    lengths that are logically composed.

6
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • Precision and Clarity
  • Do not use third person when speaking about self.
  • Avoid colloquial expressions such as write up for
    report.

7
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • Grammar
  • Use active rather than passive verbs whenever
    possible.
  • Use past tense to express action that occurred at
    a specific time in the past.
  • Use the present tense to express past action that
    did not occur at a specific time or action that
    began in the past and continues to the present.
  • Subject and verb must agree in number (singular
    vs. plural).
  • Noun and pronoun must agree in number.
  • See Section 2.06-2.08 for more details.

8
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • Level of Specificity
  • Gender is a cultural term used to refer to men
    and women as social groups.
  • Sex is used when a biological distinction is
    preferred.
  • Use of Labels
  • Use adjectives to describe people (elderly
    people) or put the person first (people who are
    elderly) rather than saying the elderly.

9
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • Gender
  • Do not use masculine nouns (man) and pronouns
    (he) to refer to both sexes.
  • Do not assume a discipline is one gender (use she
    for all nurses).
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Lesbians and gay men are preferable to
    homosexuals.
  • Racial and Ethnic Identity
  • Use capitalized proper nouns (White, Black).
  • Negro, Afro-American, Caucasian are dated and
    discouraged.
  • Refer to tables 2.1 (chapter 2) for more examples

10
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • Disabilities
  • Do not equate people with a condition
    (schizophrenics or the disabled).
  • The words challenged and special should be
    used only with permission.
  • Age
  • Be specific in providing age ranges.
  • Avoid open ended descriptors such as over 65.
  • Use boy and girl when referring to high
    school age and younger.
  • Use men and women for those aged 18 and
    older.

11
Expressing Ideas and Reducing Biases cont.
  • The first time a term to be abbreviated is used,
    write it out completely and follow it by its
    abbreviation in parentheses.
  • The American Nurses Associations (ANA)
    standards (2001).
  • When referring to the same term later in the
    paper, the abbreviation can be used.
  • The ANA (2001)..

12
The Title Page
13
Contains 5 Elements
  • Page Header and Page Number
  • Running Head for Publication
  • Title of the Manuscript
  • Byline or the Authors Name
  • Institutional Affiliation

14
What is the Running Head?
  • An abbreviated title
  • Never exceeds 50 characters including punctuation
    and spaces
  • Typed flush left at the top of the page below the
    page header
  • Typed in all upper case letters

15
Title Guidelines
  • Contains 10-12 words (capitalize all verbs,
    nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns, both
    words of a hyphenated word, and first word after
    a colon or dash)
  • Stands alone and is easily compressible to form
    the words making up the running head
  • Centered between the left and right margins
  • Positioned in the upper half of the paper
  • Double spaced if it has more than one line

16
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17
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18
The Title Page
  • Your faculty person may ask you to include a date
    of paper submission on the title page.
  • THIS IS NOT AN APA GUIDELINE.

19
The Abstract
20
Abstract Guidelines
  • Abstract summarizes the entire paper to no more
    than one paragraph in length.
  • Abstract is dense with information but also
    brief, self contained, and non-evaluative.
  • It is typed, double spaced, as a block of no more
    than 120 words (without indentation).
  • It follows the title page.
  • It begins with Abstract typed at top center of
    the page

21
Introduction to the Paper
22
Introduction Contents Characteristics
  • Type title of manuscript at top center.
  • Capitalize first letter of all verbs, nouns,
    adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and first letter
    of the first word after a colon or dash as well
    as both words of a hyphenated word
  • Exception In titles of books and articles in
    reference lists, capitalize the first word, all
    proper nouns, the first word after a colon or
    hyphen, and only the first word of a hyphenated
    compound.

23
Introduction Contents Characteristics cont.
  • Opens the body of the paper as a summarization of
    relevant arguments, data, and information
  • Is 1-2 paragraphs in length
  • Presents the specific problem under study
  • Describes the research statement
  • Is never labeled because it is clearly identified
    by its position in the paper

24
Seriation
25
Purpose of Seriation
  • Organizes elements of the statement, concept or
    idea
  • Clarifies the sequence or relationship between
    elements
  • Indicated when elements are lengthy or complex
  • Used to facilitate reader comprehension

26
Two Distinct Formats
  • Within a sentence or paragraph
  • Identify each element with a small letter
    enclosed in parentheses.
  • Separate paragraphs in a series
  • Identify each element with a number.

27
Within a Sentence or Paragraph
EXAMPLE WITH COMMAS The nursing process
contains five steps including (a) assessment,
(b) diagnosis, (c) planning, (d) implementation,
and (e) evaluation.
28
EXAMPLE WITH COLONS
Bonnie Wesoricks (1986) research identified
three dimensions of professional practice (a)
independent, which is least reported by hospital
nurses (b) interdependent, which is reported
more frequently than independent and involves
many different disciplines and (c) dependent,
which is reported most frequently by hospital
nurses.
29
Separate Paragraphs in a Series
  • Number paragraphs to itemize conclusions or steps
    in a procedure.
  • Each paragraph of the series is numbered.
  • The number is followed by a period.
  • The number IS NOT enclosed in parentheses.

30
EXAMPLE OF A PARAGRAPH IN A SERIES
  • The literature on Oppressed Behavior indicates
  • nurses exhibit a variety of behaviors in the
    workplace
  • Silence and a lack of voice (paragraph cont.)
  • Inability to organize and form coalitions
    (paragraph cont.)
  • Horizontal violence among and between colleagues
    (paragraph cont.)

31
Headings
32
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33
Examples
  • ONE HEADING
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • (Level 1)
  • TWO HEADINGS
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • (Level 1)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
  • Side Heading (Level 3)

34
Examples
  • THREE HEADINGS
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
    (Level 1)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase, and Lowercase
  • Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph
  • heading ending with a period. (Level 4)

35
Examples
  • FOUR HEADINGS
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level
    1)
  • Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
    Heading (Level 2)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
    Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph
    heading ending
  • with a period. (Level 4)

36
Examples
  • FIVE HEADINGS
  • CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING (Level 5)
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level
    1)
  • Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
    Heading (Level 2)
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase
    Side Heading (Level 3)
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase
    paragraph heading ending
  • with a period. (Level 4)

37
Tables Appendices
38
Constructing Tables
  • Type the word Table and its arabic numeral
    flush left at the top of the table.
  • Double space and begin the table title flush
    left, capitalizing the initial letters of the
    principal words italicize the title.
  • Double space the title if more than one line.
  • Center column heads and subheads over the
    appropriate columns within the table capitalize
    only the initial letter of the first word of the
    heading.

39
Constructing Tables cont.
  • Allow at least three spaces between columns.
  • Double space all lines.
  • Separate the table title from the headings and
    the headings from the body with a line.

40
Table 1 The Nurses Activity Scale Measure
and variable Score Mean
SD Variable 1
8 3 1.0 Variable
2 5
8 .5 Variable 3
7 5
2.5 Variable 4
6 6
0 Variable 5
9 4 1.5
41
Constructing Appendices
  • Begin each appendix on a new page.
  • Type the word Appendix and the identifying
    capital letter (A, B, C, etc) at the top of the
    page centered The letters are used in the order
    the appendix is mentioned in the text).
  • If there is only one appendix, type Appendix at
    the top of the page, centered.
  • Double space all lines.

42
Appropriate Citation of Quotes and Paraphrasing
43
Paraphrasing versus Quoting
  • It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than
    quote, the ideas of others unless the wording is
    so wonderful that a quote is warranted.
  • How could you paraphrase the above sentence?

44
Paraphrasing
  • Original wording
  • It is preferable to paraphrase, rather than
    quote, the ideas of others unless the wording is
    so wonderful that a quote is warranted.
  • Paraphrased wordingIt is generally better to use
    your own words to describe someone elses ideas
    instead of restating someone elses words
    verbatim.

45
Key Points to Remember
  • Quotations (words and phrases not developed by
    the author) and paraphrasing (ideas not developed
    by the author but in the authors own words) must
    be properly cited.
  • There may be more than one citation in a
    paragraph.

46
Key Points to Remember cont.
  • Citations should follow every sentence where the
    words and ideas are not original unless it is
    clear from the context that multiple sentences
    came from the same source.

47
Two Types of Quotations
  • Short Quotations are less than 40 words.
    Incorporate into the text and enclose with double
    quotation marks ( ).
  • Long Quotations are more than 40 words Display in
    a double spaced block, indented five spaces from
    the left, with no quotation marks.

48
Rules for all Quotations
  • Anything that is directly quoted from someone
    elses work must be encased in quotation marks
    and properly cited or with ellipsis points.
  • Use 3 ellipsis points () to indicate that
    material has been omitted within a sentence.
  • Use 4 ellipsis points (.) to indicate material
    has been omitted between sentences (the first
    point indicates the period at the end of the
    first sentence quoted).

49
Rules for all Quotations cont.
  • Provide the author, year of publication, and
    specific page number of quote.
  • Include a complete reference for all quotations
    in the reference list.

50
Referencing Sources in the Body of the Paper
51
Secondary Sources
  • Cite the secondary source in the reference list.
  • In text, name the original work and give a
    citation for the secondary source.
  • Text Citation
  • Blocks study (as cited in Kubsch
    Gallagher-Lepak, 2004) ..
  • Reference List Entry
  • Kubsch, M., Gallagher-Lepak, S. (2004). Nursing
    models for the postmodern era. Advances in Green
    Bay Nursing Chronicle, 22, 446-450.

52
  • ONE WORK BY ONE AUTHOR
  • Author surname and year of publication
  • Kubsch (2003) compared nurse staffing
    patterns
  • In a recent study of nurse staffing patterns, it
    was found that ..(Kubsch, 2003).
  • ONE WORK BY TWO AUTHORS
  • Always cite both names every time the reference
    appears
  • Connect the last names of a multiple author work
    with an ampersand (Smith Smith, 2004).

53
  • ONE WORK BY THREE, FOUR, or FIVE AUTHORS
  • Cite all authors the first time the reference
    occurs.
  • All further references, include only the surname
    of the first author followed by et al. and the
    year in parentheses.
  • (first citation) Block, Kubsch, and
    Gallagher-Lepak, (2003) found..
  • (second citation) These authors found that .
    (Block et al., 2003). OR Block and colleagues
    (2003) found that.

54
  • ONE WORK BY SIX OR MORE AUTHORS
  • Cite only the surname of the first author
    followed by et al. and the year for the first and
    all subsequent citations
  • In the reference list, provide the initials and
    surnames of the first six authors, and shorten
    any remaining authors to et al.

55
  • WORKS WITH NO KNOWN AUTHOR(S)
  • Cite the first few words of the reference list
    entry (usually the title) and the year.
  • Use double quotation marks around the title of an
    article or chapter.
  • Italicize the title of a periodical, book,
    brochure, or report.
  • When the work is designated as Anonymous, cite
    the word followed by a comma and the date.

56
  • TWO OR MORE WORKS WITHIN THE SAME PARENTHESES
  • Cite the works in the same order they appear in
    the reference list.
  • Separate the citations with semicolons.

57
  • PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
  • Includes letters, memos, e-mail, electronic
    bulletin boards, personal interviews, telephone
    conversations, etc.
  • Are cited only in the text but not included in
    the reference list because information is not
    recoverable
  • Give initials and surname of the communicator and
    the exact date of the communication
  • M. J. DeVillers (personal communication, April 6,
    2001) found..
  • Scholars do not always view nursing as a
    profession (M. J. Devillers, personal
    communication, April 6, 2001).

58
Citing Electronic References in the Text
  • Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or
    equation at the appropriate point in the text
  • Always give page numbers for quotations (see
    section 3.34)
  • The words page and chapter are abbreviated
  • (Collins, 2000, p. 232)
  • (Katz, 1989, chap. 3)

59
Citing Electronic References in the Text
  • If the electronic source does not provide page
    numbers, use the paragraph number preceded by the
    paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para
  • If the paragraph and page number are not
    visible, cite the heading and the number of the
    paragraph following it to direct the reader to
    the location of the material (see section 3.39)
  • (Wilson, 2000, 5)
  • (Spender, 2000, Conclusion section,
    para. 1)

60
Citing Electronic References in Text No Author
Listed
  • If you cannot find an author, cite the first few
    words of the reference list entry (usually the
    title and year).
  • The homepage of UW-Green Bays Professional
    Program in Nursing (2003) has a PowerPoint
    presentation about APA format (American
    Psychological Association Writing, 2003).

61
The Reference List
62
  • Start the reference list on a new page
  • Type the word References center top of page
  • Double space ALL LINES between and within entries
  • Use a hanging indent format
  • Arrange alphabetically
  • If same first author arrange by year of
    publication
  • Rules

63
Table 1 Acceptable Abbreviations for Reference
List Entries Abbreviation
Reference list entry chap. chapter ed. edition
Rev. ed. revised edition 2nd ed. Second
edition Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors Trans. Trans
lator(s) n.d. no date p. (pp.) page
(pages) Vol. Volume (as in Vol.
4) vols. volumes (as in 4 vol.) No. Number Pt.
Part Tech Rep. Technical Report Suppl. Suppl
ement
More Rules
64
Generic Format of Entries
Periodical (includes journals and scholarly
newsletters) Author, A. A., Author, B., B.,
Author, C. C. (2003). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, vol.(issue), page
numbers. Nonperiodical (includes books, reports,
manuals, and AV media) Author, A. A. (2003).
Title of book. Location Publisher. Chapter in an
Edited Book Author, A. A., Author, B. B.
(2003). Title of chapter. In A. Editor,
B. Editor, C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp.
). Location Publisher.
65
Journal Citations on the Reference List
66
  • One Author
  • Brookfield, S. (1993). On impostorship, cultural
    suicide, and other dangers How nurses learn
    critical thinking. Journal of Continuing
    Education in Nursing, 24, 197-205.
  • Two Authors
  • Kane, D., Thomas, B. (2000). Nursing and the
    F word. Nursing Forum, 35(2), 17-24.

67
  • Three to Six Authors
  • Ossana, S. M., Helms, J. E., Leonard, M. R.
    (1992). Do womanist identify attitudes
    influence college womens self esteem and
    perceptions of environmental bias? Journal of
    Counseling and Development, 70, 402-408.

68
  • More than Six Authors
  • Sherr, M., Maddox, J. E., Mercandante, B.,
    Prentice-Dunn, S. I., Jacobs, B., Rogers, R. W.,
    Katz, M., et al. (1982). The self-efficacy scale
    Construction and validation. Psychological
    Reports, 81, 663-671.

69
Book Citations in the Reference List
70
General Information
  • Give the name of the publisher as briefly as
    possible
  • Write out the names of associations,
    corporations, and university presses
  • Omit superfluous terms such as Publishers,
    Co., or Inc.
  • Retain words such as Books and Press

71
Table 2 Cities Not Needing State, Territory Code,
or Country Name in the Reference List
American cities Other
cities Baltimore New York Amsterdam
Paris Boston Philadelphia Jerusalem
Rome Chicago San Francisco London
Stockholm Los Angeles Milan
Tokyo Moscow Vienna
72
Table 3 Use Post Office Abbreviations for States
and Territories Location
Abbreviation Location Abbreviation Alabama AL
Missouri MO Alaska AK
Montana MT American Samoa AS
Nebraska NE Arizona AZ
Nevada
NV Arkansas AR New Hampshire
NH California CA New Jersey
NJ Canal Zone CZ
New Mexico NM Colorado
CO New York NY Connecticut
CT North Carolina
NC Delaware DE
North Dakota ND District of
Columbia DC Ohio
OH Florida FL
Oklahoma OK Georgia
GA Oregon
OR
73
Table 3 cont. Abbreviations for States and
Territories Location Abbreviation
Location Abbreviation Guam GU Pennsylvania
PA Hawaii HI Puerto Rico PR Idaho ID Rhode
Island RI Illinois IL South
Carolina SC Indiana IN South
Dakota SD Iowa IA Tennessee TN Kansas KS T
exas TX Kentucky KY Utah UT Louisiana LA V
ermont VT Maine ME Virginia
VA Maryland MD Virgin
Islands VI Massachusetts MA Washington WA Mich
igan MI West Virginia WV Minnesota MN Wiscons
in WI Mississippi MS Wyoming WY
74
Examples of Book Citations
Vaill, P.B. (1996). Learning as a way of
being. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
Hayes, E., Flannery, D. (2000). Women
as learners. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
75
  • With an Edition
  • hooks, b. (2000). Feminist theory From margin to
    center (2nd ed.). Cambridge South End Press.
  • NOTE bell hooks, a Black feminist does not
    capitalize her name in any publication,
    therefore, she is cited appropriately.
  • With an Organization as Author, Edition, and
    Capitalization of Proper Nouns
  • The American Nurses Association (2003).
    Nursings Social Policy Statement (2nd ed.).
    Washington DC Author.

76
  • Edited Book
  • Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N.
    R., Tarule, J. M. (Eds.). (1997). Womens ways
    of knowing. New York Basic Books.
  • No Author or Editor
  • Rogets II The new thesaurus (3rd ed.). (1995).
    New York Houghton Mifflin.

77
  • Chapter in a Book with an Unknown Editor
  • Jarvis, P. (1992). Learning practice knowledge.
    In Professionals ways of knowing New findings
    on how to improve professional education (pp.
    89-95). San Francisco Jossey-Bass.

78
  • Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Hofstader, R., Munger, P. D. (1990). Education
    in the workplace An integral part of the
    development of professionals. In R. M. Cervero
    J. F. Azzaretto (Eds.), Vision for the future of
    continuing professional education (pp. 79-109).
    Athens The University of Georgia.

79
Dissertations
  • Published
  • Martin, L. (1992). Structural Racism Maintaining
    hegemony in a white society. Dissertation
    Abstracts International, 54(01), 296A. (UMI
    No.2643857)
  • Unpublished
  • Alfred, M. (2001). The maintenance of an
    underclass with manmade language and
    institutionalized patriarchy. Unpublished
    doctoral dissertation. University of
    Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

80
Electronic References
81
Always
  • Direct readers as closely as possible to the
    information being cited reference specific
    documents rather than home or menu pages.
  • Provide addresses (URLs) that work.

82
Minimum Requirements
  • Authors name whenever possible (may be the web
    cite name go back to the home page or navigate
    around the site to find it)
  • If you cannot, find an author, cite the first few
    words of the reference list entry (usually the
    title) and the year
  • Document title or description
  • Date of publication, update, or the date of
    retrieval
  • An Internet address or Uniform Resource Locator
    (URL)

83
Transposing a URL to the Reference List
  • Copy the URL directly from the address window in
    the browser and paste it into the paper.
  • Do not insert a hyphen if the URL needs to be
    broken..
  • Always break a URL after a slash or before a
    period.
  • Test the URL regularly.
  • If the document cited has moved, update the URL.
  • If the document is no longer available,
    substitute another source or drop it from the
    paper.

84
General Form for Electronic References
  • Online periodical
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author,   C.
    C. (2003). Title of article. Title of  
    Periodical, volume, page numbers.
  • Retrieved month, day, year, from URL.
  • Online document
  • Author, A. A. (2003). Title of work.
    Retrieved month day, year, from source.

85
Internet Article Based on a Print Source
  • 1. Articles are duplicates of print versions,
    therefore, the same basic primary journal
    reference is used
  • 2. Make a note of electronic version
  • Goldberger, N. (1997). Ways of knowing Does
    gender matter? Electronic Version. Journal of
    Continuing Education in Nursing, 5, 117-123.

86
Article in an Internet Only Journal
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7).
  • Cultivating positive emotions to
  • optimize health and well-being.
  • Prevention Treatment, 3, Article
  • 0001a. Retrieved November 20,
  • 2000, from
  • http//journals.apa.org/prevention
  • volume3/pre0030001a.html

87
Stand Alone Document Organizational Author
University of Wisconsin Green Bay (2000).
The Green Bay idea. Retrieved July 10,
2001, from UWGB website
http//www.uwgb.edu/idea/uwgb-idea3.htm
88
Electronic Article Retrieved from a Data Base
Roberts, S.J. (2000). Development of a positive
professional identity Liberating oneself
from the oppressor within. Advances in
Nursing Science, 22(4), 71-82. Retrieved
July 20, 2000, from CINAHL.
89
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