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Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking Results

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Resistance due to heating and cooling coils, filters, etc. Duct sizing and layout ... Water Cooled chillers are more efficient. Wide variation in overall ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking Results


1
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2
Energy Benchmarks
  • Goal
  • Identify Energy Efficiency Opportunities in
    Cleanrooms Through Comparison of Benchmark Data

3
Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking
  • In California many industries rely on Cleanrooms

4
Why Benchmark High-tech Buildings?
  • From PGEs perspective
  • PGE saw that the market was large and growing.
    In California
  • 9400 GWH in 1997 (all high tech buildings)
  • 4.2 million sq. ft. of operating cleanrooms
  • Semiconductor and Biotech exhibited high growth

5
Why Benchmark Cleanrooms?
  • Owners perspective
  • Cleanroom owners and facility engineers saw an
    opportunity to determine their energy end use,
    compare their efficiency to others, and
    potentially find efficiency improvement
    opportunities or uncover operational problems.

6
Why Benchmark Cleanrooms?
  • From a public goods perspective
  • Under-served Market Emphasis on product
    rather than cleanroom
  • Explore some Myths
  • Energy is not a controllable expense
  • We already considered efficiency
  • Of course its efficient, we just built it.
  • California would like to keep high-tech
    companies in the state
  • And the usual save the planet reasons

7
What we hope to accomplish
  • Identify energy efficiency opportunities
  • Integrate current best practices into operation
    and future design
  • Research new approaches and technologies
  • Reduce electrical demand to improve reliability
    and room for growth
  • Apply lessons learned in California cleanrooms in
    other regions and other building types

8
Benchmarking Process
  • General plan informs participants
  • Enlist Benchmarking participants
  • Site specific plan developed
  • On-site measurement and data collection
  • Draft site report
  • Final participant report and anonymous version
  • Data and results entered in data base and
    summarized on web site

9
Metrics
  • Ability to compare performance regardless of
    process
  • Focus on system efficiency rather than production
    efficiency

10
Cleanroom HVAC metrics
  • Recirculation air system cfm/kW
  • Make-up air system cfm/kW
  • Exhaust system efficiency cfm/kW
  • Cleanroom air changes ACH/hr
  • Air velocity in cleanroom - ft/sec

11
Central Plant metrics
  • Chiller efficiency kW/ton
  • Cooling tower efficiency kW/ton
  • Condenser water pump efficiency kW/ton
  • Chilled water pump efficiency kW/ton

12
Vision - an Energy Benchmark Data Base
  • Anonymous reporting
  • Comparison of similar class systems
  • Comparison of components
  • Comparison of overall facility
  • No production metrics
  • Sufficient data to identify best practices

13
Cleanroom Benchmarking
  • Some Results and observations to date

14
Energy End Use
15
Energy End Use
16
Process Related Efficiency Issues
  • Energy intensity varies greatly depending upon
    the process in the room
  • Estimating process (heat) loads during design is
    a challenge so HVAC systems are often oversized
  • HVAC equipment sized and controlled appropriately
    operates more efficiently
  • Benchmark data can help determine realistic
    design loads to integrate into future projects
    for similar processes
  • It is difficult to compare process energy
    efficiency unless nearly identical processes are
    occurring

17
Process Loads
18
Energy Intensive systems
  • Recirculation of air in cleanrooms

19
Recirculation Air Comparison
20
Recirculation Systems Design vs. Measured
21
  • Why are Design Efficiencies less than Measured
    Efficiencies?
  • Design efficiency is generally understated
    because larger power consumption (kW) is
    generally assumed. (nameplate vs. actual)

22
Benchmarks as Design Criteria
  • Idea! As a building owner,
  • Why not specify a system efficiency?

23
Recirculation Air Comparison
System Performance Target
24
What is the cost impact?
25
Fan-Filter Standardized Reporting
  • LBNL and the Industrial Technology Research
    Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan are advocating a
    standard test procedure for fan-filter units
  • The Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA)
    is organizing member companies to develop such a
    standard

26
Make-up Air Comparison
27
Make-up Air System Considerations
  • Efficiency is influenced by
  • Right sizing exhaust and pressurization
  • Resistance of make-up air path
  • Adjacency of air handler(s)
  • Air handler face velocity
  • Duct sizing and layout
  • Fan and motor efficiency
  • VFD controls

28
Make-up Air Design vs. Measured
29
Why is make-up air system efficiency lower?
  • Retrofitted systems with less than optimal
    configurations
  • High face velocity air handlers (due to space
    constraints or just inefficient design)
  • Older less efficient equipment (motors, fans)
  • Resistance due to heating and cooling coils,
    filters, etc.
  • Duct sizing and layout

30
Air-Change Rate Comparison
31
Air Change and Velocity Observations
  • Wide variation
  • All processes had acceptable yields (so why do
    some get by with less airflow?)
  • All cleanrooms were certified
  • Some velocities exceeded (and some were below)
    IEST recommended ranges
  • IEST provides recommendations based upon
    historical adequacy not science based
  • Air velocity reduction and ceiling filter
    coverage are efficiency improvement opportunities

32
Chilled Water Systems Comparison
33
Chiller Comparison
34
Chilled Water System Observations
  • Wide variation in overall efficiency
  • Surprise! Name plate chiller efficiency is
    different than measured
  • Pumping energy can be significant over pumping
    sometimes occurs
  • Chiller performance dominates
  • Water Cooled chillers are more efficient

35
Chilled Water System Resources
  • Existing efficiency information for chilled
    water plants is under-utilized.

36
Chilled Water System
  • PGEs CoolTools
  • http//www.hvacexchange.com/cooltools/

37
Non-energy benefits of Benchmarking
  • Operational problems revealed
  • Controls
  • Setpoints
  • Maintenance needs identified
  • Leaks
  • Motors, pumps, Fans
  • Filters
  • Chillers, boilers, etc.
  • Safety issues uncovered
  • Hazardous air flow

38
(No Transcript)
39
New Construction or Retrofit Efficiency
Opportunities
  • Air Change Rate Reduction
  • Temperature Set Point
  • Chilled Water System Pumping
  • Better Use of Cooling Towers
  • Chilled Water Temperature

40
More Efficiency Opportunities
  • Control Problems
  • Filter Coverage and Type of Filter
  • Removal of Pre-filters
  • Humidification
  • Minimize reheat
  • Lighting controls
  • Pressurization losses
  • Exhaust Reduction

41
Efficiency Considerations during Programming
  • LBNL Cleanroom Programming Guide Provides a Way
    for Owners and Designers to Explore Efficient
    Options During the Early Stages of a Project.
  • http//ateam.lbl.gov/cleanroom/guide/
  • ProgrammingGuide-LBNL49223.pdf

42
Benchmarking Can Be Used to Establish Efficiency
Goals
  • Energy Budget
  • Total facility
  • End use
  • Integrate Efficiency Targets as Design
    Requirements for Key Systems and Components
  • Cfm/KW
  • KW/ton
  • System resistance i.e. Pressure drop
  • Face velocities

43
Benchmarking highlights some important issues
  • Designing and operating at higher cleanliness
    than is needed does not improve yield, but it
    does use more energy
  • Air change rates can be reduced in many cases
  • Chilled water pumping may be excessive
  • Flow resistance has a big effect
  • on life cycle cost
  • Overcooling and reheating
  • often represents opportunity

44
My Recommendation
  • Designers (and constructors) will provide
    what their customers ask for.
  • If you are an owner and want efficient systems,
    ask for them.
  • If you are a designer, show owners the benefits
    of an efficient design often lower first cost
    or early payback. Huge benefits over the life
    cycle.
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