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CS 3724 Introduction to HCI

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Title: CS 3724 Introduction to HCI


1
CS 3724Introduction to HCI
  • Dr. Scott McCrickard
  • McBryde 623
  • mccricks_at_cs.vt.edu

2
Who are these people?
  • Dr. McCrickard (professor)
  • third year assistant professor in CS
  • research interests include HCI, notification
    systems, usability evaluation methods
  • Jacob Somervell (teaching assistant)
  • graduate student in computer science
  • interested in large screen displays as
    notification systems
  • Christa Chewar (project coordinator)
  • graduate student in computer science
  • interested in notification systems design and
    evaluation

3
Textbooks
  • Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll, Usability
    Engineering Scenario-Based Development of HCI
    (RC)
  • Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things (DOET)

4
Other Useful Books
  • Ben Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface
  • Deborah Hix and Rex Hartson, HCI
  • Don Norman, The Invisible Computer
  • Fred Brooks, The Mythical Man Month

5
Other Resources
  • Email is the best way to contact Dr. McCrickard
    (mccricks_at_cs.vt.edu), Jacob (jsomerve_at_cs.vt.edu),
    and Christa (cchewar_at_cs.vt.edu)
  • The listserv (cs3724_91394_at_listserv.vt.edu) is
    best for questions and comments
  • Web page (courses.cs.vt.edu/cs3724) contains
    lecture outlines, assignments, and related
    materials

6
Evaluation
  • Group project (50)
  • Activities (20)
  • Midterm (10)
  • Final (20)

7
What is HCI?
  • The Human
  • Single user, groups, I/O channels, memory,
    reasoning, problem solving, error, psychology
  • The Computer
  • Desktop, embedded system, data entry devices,
    output devices, memory, processing
  • The Interaction
  • Direct/indirect communication, models,
    frameworks, styles, ergonomics

8
HCI at VT
  • Scott McCrickard
  • Doug Bowman
  • Chris North
  • Manuel Perez
  • John Carroll
  • Mary Beth Rosson
  • Rex Hartson
  • Others in CS, ISE, etc

9
An Aside VTURCS
  • VTURCS Virginia Tech Undergraduate Research in
    Computer Science
  • Work with professors on ongoing research
    projects.
  • Receive travel money to attend conferences.
  • Present your work at annual symposium.
  • Attend the Project Fair in mid-fall for details
    (see http//vturcs.cs.vt.edu for details)

10
Two VTURCS Opportunities
  • Virtual School Developer
  • NSF-sponsored paid position
  • Develop GUI for system to be used in grade school
    classrooms
  • Java, Swing/JFC, collab application skills
    desired
  • Contact Jacob Somervell (jsomerve_at_vt.edu) or
    Craig Ganoe (ganoe_at_vt.edu) for details
  • Collaborative API Developer
  • For credit or volunteer
  • Create/integrate a collaborative API into a
    programming environment for novice programmers
  • Java application skills needed
  • Contact Pete DePasquale (pjdepasq_at_vt.edu) for
    details

11
Why Usability Engineering?
  • Waterfall models of development do not work
  • Too many unknowns (Brooks No Silver Bullet)
  • Need an iterative discovery-oriented process
  • But at the same time need to manage it
  • Demands well-defined process with metrics
  • Specifying usability goals as objectives
  • Assessing and redesigning to meet these
    objectives
  • Manage usability as a quality characteristic,
    much like modularity or nonfunctional requirements

12
How Should We Measure Usability?
  • Bottom line is whether the users got what they
    wanted, i.e., is the client satisfied
  • Practically speaking, need to break this down so
    that we can operationalize our objectives
  • Our textbook definition
  • The quality of an interactive computer system
    with respect to ease of learning, ease of use,
    and user satisfaction
  • Can the users do what they want to do in a
    comfortable and pleasant fashion?

13
Scenarios in UEA Simple Example
A problem scenario describing current situation
Marissa was not satisfied with her class today on
gravitation and planetary motion. She is not
certain whether smaller planets always move
faster or how a larger or denser sun would alter
the possibilities for solar systems. She stays
after class to speak with Ms. Gould, but she
isnt able to pose these questions clearly, so
Ms. Gould suggests that she re-read the text and
promises more discussion tomorrow.
14
A design scenario describing our initial vision
Marissa , a 10th-grade physics student, is
studying gravity and its role in planetary
motion. She goes to the virtual science lab and
navigates to the gravity room. In the gravity
room, she discovers two other students, Randy and
David, already working with the Alternate Reality
Kit, which allows students to alter various
physical parameters (such as the universal
gravitational constant) and then observe effects
in a simulation world. The three students, each
of whom is from a different school in the county,
discuss possible experiments by typing messages
from their respective personal computers.
Together they build and analyze several solar
systems, eventually focusing on the question of
how comets can disrupt otherwise stable
systems. They capture data from their experiments
and display it with several visualization tools,
then write a brief report of their experiments,
sending it for comments to Don, another student
in Marissas class, and Mr. Arkins, Randys
physics teacher.
15
Why Scenarios?
1.4 Analyze use but let it evolve.
1.3 Make decisions but keep options open.
scenarios describe use in detail, but as a
tentative, working representation
scenarios are concrete
descriptions but are also very flexible
Scenario-Based Development
scenarios offer a vivid description of
use that provokes questions and what if
discussions
scenarios focus on the usability consequences of
specific design proposals
1.5 Be innovative but only if adding value.
1.7 Balance action with reflection.
scenarios describe the problem situation using
natural language understood by all stakeholders
1.6 Be precise but include everyone on the team
16
ANALYZE
claims about current practice
analysis of stakeholders, field studies
Problem scenarios
DESIGN
Activity scenarios
iterative analysis of usability claims
and re-design
metaphors, information technology, HCI
theory, guidelines
Information scenarios
Interaction scenarios
PROTOTYPE EVALUATE
summative evaluation
formative evaluation
Usability specifications
17
Tradeoffs and SBD
  • Design by definition is invention, creativity
  • Never just one approach, never one correct answer
  • BUT some answers are demonstrably better
  • Interactive system design tremendously complex
  • Many interdependencies, eg schedule, cost,
    competitive advantage, local expertise, ...
  • Users and their needs are one large set of
    dependencies
  • Tradeoffs are useful in analyzing these relations
  • Here, we focus on tradeoffs affecting users
    experiences
  • Guides design thinking, also serves as design
    rationale

18
Learning SBD By Example
  • Virtual science fair as a case study
  • Complement to real world physical science fairs
  • Goal is to extend interactions across time
    space
  • Cumulative, illustrates activities at each phase
  • Detailed examples of the methods used in projects
  • Use as a model for group materials analyses
  • Many details specific to this example
  • E.g., collaboration, community network, education
  • Other case studies under construction on the Web
    at http//ucs.cs.vt.edu

19
Scenarios in Usability Engineering
  • Stories of people and their activities, sometimes
    includes computer use, always includes goals
  • Typical elements of the story are
  • A setting
  • One or more actors or agents
  • An orienting or motivating goal or objective
  • Mental activity, plans or evaluation of behavior
  • A storyline sequenced by actions and events
  • Emphasis on use, i.e., peoples needs,
    expectations, actions, and reactions

20
Scenarios and Claims
  • Scenarios convey what actors are like, what
    forces influence their behavior
  • Claims elaborate on scenarios, explaining how and
    why a feature has impacts
  • Claims analysis documents why scenarios were
    written by isolating the most important features

21
Claims (see pgs 73-4)
Repeated involvement by same students increases competence encourages community - hard to break in
Competition among students for prizes rewards time/effort increases frustration hard to compare diversity
22
Tuesday ActivityHome Page Scenarios
  • Think about scenarios that illustrate how you
    want people to interact with your personal pages
  • Consider (and redesign) your own home pages, and
    list claims you made in creating these pages
  • Come to class ready to talk about these points
    and about past and future changes

23
History and Future of HCI
  • Much of the class will consider systems that are
    in use today
  • Class projects may speculate on emerging (but
    feasible) paradigms
  • To understand present and future, start with the
    emergence of HCI

24
History of HCI
  • Vannevar Bush, 1945 As We May Think
  • Vision of post-war activities, Memex
  • when one of these items is in view, the other
    can be instantly recalled merely by tapping a
    button

25
History of HCI (cond)
  • JCR Licklider, 1960
    Man-Computer Symbiosis
  • Tightly coupled human brain and machine, speech
    recognition, time sharing, character recognition

26
History of HCI (cond)
  • Douglas Engelbart, 1962 Augmenting Human
    Intellect A Conceptual Framework
  • In 1968, workstation with a mouse, links across
    documents, chorded keyboard

27
History of HCI (cond)
  • XEROX Alto and Star
  • Windows
  • Menus
  • Scrollbars
  • Pointing
  • Consistency
  • Apple LISA and Mac
  • Inexpensive
  • High-quality graphics
  • 3rd party applications

28
History (and future) of HCI
  • Large displays
  • Small displays
  • Peripheral displays
  • Alternative I/O
  • Ubiquitous computing
  • Virtual environments
  • Implants
  • Speech recognition
  • Multimedia
  • Video conferencing
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Software agents
  • Recommender systems
  • ...

29
Project Overview
  • Group project with 4-5 people per group
  • Projects will be graded per team, with a
    component of the grade based on individual effort
    as reported by members
  • Choose groups carefully think about when they
    can meet, where they live, what their skills are
  • Maintain and post material on a project Web site
    (email location to coordinator)

30
Project Topics
  • All topics should relate to the emerging field of
    notification systems
  • Select a platform for which you have access (can
    include desktop systems, large screens,
    ubiquitous systems, )
  • Possible domains include
  • Collaborative work support
  • General information tracker
  • Status update screens
  • Reminder systems
  • Recommender systems
  • Software agents
  • Entertainment applications

31
Project Meetings
  • Groups will sign up for hour-long weekly meetings
    with the project coordinator, Christa Chewar
    (cchewar_at_cs.vt.edu)
  • Group leader and others can stop by during that
    time to clarify questions, discuss projects, or
    get help
  • Sign up via email once you have a group
  • Available times are
  • Mon 11 am
  • Tue 1, 2, 3, 4 pm
  • Wed 11 am, noon
  • Thu 4 pm
  • Fri 2, 3 pm
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