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Applying the template of Bengal

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9 academy awards. Hagiographic. timing. personal interest. Support of ... Ben Kinglsey (best actor) Conclusion. Gandhi's campaign. built on previous efforts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Applying the template of Bengal


1
Applying the template of Bengal
  • the value of direct action
  • the promise of change
  • Gandhi unites efforts but cannot dissolve
    difference
  • the British still matter

2
Overview Partition of Bengalpatterns for
modern Independence
  • Partition 1905 1911
  • ? politics and personality of Governor General
    shape Indian policy
  • ? British back Muslim community, then renege on
    that
  • ? more and less radical groups in INC brought
    together
  • ? develop successful political strategies that
    mobilize all from elite right down to
    family-based producers
  • ? British back down Bengal reunited increased
    political voice
  • splits Congress
  • read as success template for more change

3
WWI and its Effecton reform in South Asia
  • India declared to be in a state of war
  • exodus of ICS, army (15 000) and Europeans
    civilians
  • politically, professionally, their chance
  • support for the effort expected reward of Home
    Rule
  • also, increased radicalism
  • 2 million men 100 million gift
  • rise in Muslim nationalism allied with Congress
    1916
  • caliphate
  • In active service
  • fought, wounded and died alongside fellow critics
    of British rule
  • enjoyed the pleasures of Europe no divide
  • nationalism

4
The fallacy of modern nationalismspilled blood
make citizens?
  • As with other colonies
  • men volunteered because of
  • pay
  • pride in community
  • protect nation
  • connection to the
  • Crown
  • Unlike settler colonies
  • no dominion status
  • Gandhi phase begins

5
that naked fakir ??????? ?????? ?????
  • Mohandas Karamchad Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • Gujerati (modh) brahmin
  • father politician mother vaishnava Jain
  • trained as a barrister at UCL
  • Civil Disobedience in South Africa
  • 1893-1908
  • Independence Struggle in India
  • 1915-45
  • assassinated 30 January 1948

6
Gandhi jayanti
  • Honorifics mahatma Great Soul
  • Rabindranath Tagore
  • bapu father (Gujerati)
  • Father of the Nation
  • October 2 National Holiday
  • from 15 June 2007
  • International Day of non-Violence

7
Known for
  • ahimsa 1930 Salt March
  • advocated
  • Sanskrit term meaning to do no harm
  • rule of conduct that bars the harming or killing
    of living beings
  • satyagraha
  • holding firmly to truth i.e. not passive
  • vindication of truth, not by infliction of
    suffering on the opponent, but on oneself
  • cooperating with your opponent to meet a just end
    that the opponent in unwittingly obstructing
  • the means are no different than the end
  • Quit India Movement

8
Namaskar
  • Harper says I recognize the importance of you
    attending
  • Tomorrow night
  • 6pm
  • 9 Hillcrest Street
  • History Society invites you to
  • Potluck and games
  • night

9
Another Gandhi
  • authoritarian leadership
  • unpredictable
  • unelected, managed to take control of INC
    symbols Gandhi topi
  • he defined, began and ended campaigns as he saw
    fit (1921 visit PofW)
  • held elected officials hostage ended fast to
    death 2 wks before he died
  • satyagraha or power?
  • refusal to disrupt Indian social and economic
    hierarchy
  • his vision of village simplicity at expense of
    other possibilities
  • insistence on unity across caste
  • opposed industrialization
  • absolute opposition to contraception
  • Hindu tradition overlapped 19C concerns
    (purity and sex)

10
Gandhi (1982) dir. Richard Attenburough 9
academy awards
  • Hagiographic
  • timing
  • personal interest
  • Support of Nehru I. Gandhi and GOI
  • Historically flat
  • British
  • other nationalists
  • he was, in fact, not a saint
  • But worthwhile
  • Ben Kinglsey (best actor)

11
Defining success
  • to convert, not to coerce, the
  • wrong-doer
  • cooperate with the opponent to meet a just end
    that the opponent is unwittingly obstructing. The
    opponent must be converted, at least as far as to
    stop obstructing the just end, for this
    cooperation to take place.
  • So assess the movie the meeting and ? ?
  • the protest in SA ?
  • the protest in the saltworks ?

12
If satyagrahim won independence,
  • why any violence at all?
  • human not mahatmas
  • effective is not right

13
Sabarmati Ashramprinciples for satyagrahis
  • Nonviolence (ahimsa)
  • Truth living fully in accord with and in
    devotion to that which is true
  • Non-stealing
  • Chastity (brahmacharya) subordination of other
    sensual desires to allow primary devotion to
    truth
  • Non-possession
  • Body-labor or bread-labor
  • Control of the palate (including no alcohol)
  • Fearlessness
  • Equal respect for all religions
  • Economic strategy such as boycotts (swadeshi)
  • Freedom from untouchability

14
Now the British forced to respond
  • Administrative
  • India Act (1919)
  • Simon Commission, 1926
  • Round Table Conferences (London) 1931, 1932
  • Government of India Act (1935)
  • Cripps Mission (1942), then 1946 Independence
    declared summer 1947
  • Violence
  • Amritsar Massacre
  • Pathans of the NW Frontier Province - aerial
    bombardment April 1930
  • military vs. public welfare spending in 1930s 25
    to 451
  • India in WWII without consultation
  • famine again (maybe 3 million died during WWII)
  • using army against street protestors
  • public whippings and shooting entire villages
    destroyed strafing protestors from planes

15
some of the untouchables are worse than cows in
understanding Gandhiji
  • Women
  • sexuality unclean women especially need
  • to be protected from through self-control
  • humiliation
  • Solution?
  • all caste girls should marry harijan husbands
  • uplift of harijans religious based
  • no scriptural base for 5th caste
  • not change their role re-evaluate their status
  • brahmins rejected untouchables rejected

16
Conclusion
  • Gandhis campaign
  • built on previous efforts
  • managed, could not solve issues of communal
    identity, regional or class difference
  • Gandhi
  • mahatma
  • problematic beliefs/policies
  • manipulator
  • Independence
  • won by Indians
  • deserted by a war-worn Britain?
  • internal difference could not be solved
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