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Professional Ethics and Anti-Corruption


In Gauteng, reported cases are captured and compiled on a ... Serves as guide to employees to understand and resolve ethical dilemmas in their daily work ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Professional Ethics and Anti-Corruption

Professional Ethics and Anti-Corruption
  • Presentation by the
  • Public Service Commission to the
  • Portfolio Committee on Public Service and
  • Cape Town
  • 15 May 2002

Presentation on Professional Ethics and Risk
Management reports
  • Requirements for Blacklisting
  • Evaluation of Hotlines
  • Risk Management- Provincial Overview
  • Review of South Africas National Anti-Corruption
  • National Ethics Survey
  • Explanatory Manual on Code of Conduct
  • Whistle-blowing Guidelines

  • Aims
  • To identify existing legislation that supports
  • To establish the gaps in existing legislation,
  • To consider the creation of an accessible
    computerized national data basis of blacklisted
    companies, and
  • To establish where such a data basis could be
    appropriately based

Blacklisting Research Methodology
  • Comparative study of foreign countries,
    international trends and best practices
  • Consultation with institutions implementing it.
  • Determining the institutional, financial,
    procedural and legal requirements for the
    creation of a computerized national database
  • Propose efficient and effective mechanisms and
    structures to detect companies involved in
    corrupt activities and
  • Assess risks underlying blacklisting

Blacklisting findings
  • Key findings
  • State Tender Board Act provides for a form of
    blacklisting-restriction of persons/ tenderers
  • State Tender Board compiles a list of restricted
    suppliers updated and circulated to all
    departments. Distribution of and electronic
    Access to list is problematic
  • Provincial Tender Boards tend to follow
    procedures as set out by State Tender Board

Blacklisting findings continued
  • PFMA and Treasury Regulations create basis for
    system that can be equated with the Register of
    Employees Dismissed used by the Banking Council
    of South Africa
  • Some form of black listing occurs in national and
    provincial departments- process is not uniform or
  • Systematic programme of blacklisting is very
    ambitious, initial implementation may be very

Blacklisting findings continued
  • Risks underlying blacklisting
  • False, misleading or incorrect information
  • Outdated information
  • Information unlawfully obtained
  • More information collated than necessary for
    intended purpose
  • Collation of information infringes on rights to
    privacy and not in line with the constitution
    limitations and justification of reasonable and
    justifiable in an open and democratic society
    based on human dignity, equality and freedom

Blacklisting findings continued
  • Short to medium term measures to address corrupt
    and unethical conduct by companies
  • Anti-Corruption pacts
  • Supplier/Procurement codes
  • Public Information programmes
  • Whistle Blowing mechanism
  • Administrative processes prior to blacklisting

Blacklisting findings continued
  • Options for housing of blacklisting facility
  • National Treasury
  • Office of the Public Service Commission
  • Department of Public Service and Administration

Evaluation of Hotlines
  • Purpose of the report
  • To assess the current situation in South Africa
    regarding existence, operation and management of
    hotlines covering public sector corruption
  • To draw from comparative experience and assess
    how hotlines can be made more effective
  • To make recommendations on the feasibility of
    establishing a national anti-corruption hotline

Hotlines Findings
  • Only eight National Departments have established
  • Trade and Industry
  • Public Works
  • Water Affairs and Forestry
  • Home Affairs
  • Correctional Services
  • Justice and Constitutional Development
  • South African Police Service
  • South African Revenue Services

Hotlines Findings continued
  • Three provinces have not established hotlines
  • Eastern Cape
  • North West
  • Free State Province
  • Provinces with the most efficient hotlines are
    those that are well resourced
  • Only one department (Trade and Industry) has
    established International Best Practice on

Management of information and cases
  • In Gauteng, reported cases are captured and
    compiled on a monthly basis. An estimated 54 of
    the reported cases coming through hotlines were
  • In Northern Cape reported cases are captured and
    callers allowed to remain anonymous. Calls are
    not recorded
  • In Mpumalanga, 3600 calls were received in 2001.
    Twelve criminal charges were laid against
  • In Western Cape Province there were a total of 83
    recorded calls, resulting in 27 successful
    disciplinary/criminal being prosecuted

Hotlines Recommendations
  • There is a need for the establishment of a
    national hotline either in the Public Service
    Commission or Office of the Auditor-General
  • A data management system should be established
    for the national hotline to provide a coherent
    recording of disclosures

Hotlines Recommendations continued
  • Training courses are needed to support the
    specialized staff working on hotlines
  • A Standard Investigating Procedure should be
    developed for the hotline investigation unit
  • There is a need for the implementation of
    International Best Practice
  • Responsibility for day to day operations of the
    hotline system must be at the appropriate
    management level to ensure buy in of senior
    managers and staff in the organization

Risk Management Provincial Perspective
  • First report on risk management practices in the
    public service
  • Provides overview of the status of integrated
    risk management in the public service
  • Emanates from consultative workshops held in
    seven of the nine provinces in 2001. Workshops
    were done in partnership with the KZN Provincial
  • 224 senior and middle managers attended

Risk Management Workshop Aims
  • Provided officials with a theoretical framework
    of risk management
  • Provided understanding on the roles,
    responsibilities and relationships in the
    application of risk management
  • Provided them with an overview of the risk
    management experience in other provinces.
  • Provided an opportunity to discuss relevant
    provincial barriers

Risk management findings
  • Awareness is high at the level of accounting
    officers and internal audit components due to
    legal imperatives of PFMA
  • Formal Commitment to risk management processes
    exists at highest levels
  • Limited integration into strategic management
    processes is taking place
  • Most fraud prevention plans are not based on risk
  • Departments lack capacity and resources to ensure
    effective learning, provision of background
    information, knowledge, skills and tools to
    implement risk management

Risk management Findings
  • Consultants drive risk management processes.
    Contents of reports not cascaded to lower level
  • Officials at operations level (9-12) not
    empowered to implement risk management practices
  • Treasury Regulations and private sector good
    practice do not provide adequate framework for
    the public service
  • 5 provinces have not repealed the Exchequer Act.
    Some arrangements are in conflict with PFMA and
    it leads to confusion

Risk management findings
  • Pockets of excellence exist in some provinces
  • Comprehensive PFMA compliance monitoring system
    was developed by the Eastern Cape.
  • Best practice was developed and implemented in
    KZN and Western Cape
  • Accountability framework
  • Role clarification
  • Implementation principles and approaches
  • Excel programs were developed to manage and
    monitor risk

Compliance by provincial departments April 2001
100 80-90 50-80 20-50
Gauteng, KZN N West W Cape Limpopo None Eastern Cape N Cape F State
Audit of National Anti-corruption agencies
  • Purpose
  • To conduct an audit of agencies, entrusted with
    aspects of the anti-corruption mandate
  • To establish the possibility of rationalizing
    agencies with similar functions
  • To contribute towards the development of a
    national anti-corruption strategy for the public

Aspects of the assessment
  • Aspects that were investigated
  • Mandates
  • Structural arrangements
  • Legislative reform
  • Resource constraints
  • Public perceptions
  • Case Loads
  • Performance
  • Coordination

Mandates of Agencies
  • Some organizations audited have very specific
    mandates, e.g. Recovery of public funds and
    assets (Asset Forfeiture Unit and SIU)
  • In other cases, mandates are broad and overlap
  • Public Service Commission, AG and Public
    Protector investigate maladministration
  • SIU and SAPS anti-Corruption Unit are the only
    institutions focusing solely on corruption

Resources of agencies
  • Few bodies believe they have sufficient resources
  • ICD only able to fill 100 of 500 desired posts
    while the Public Protector could only fill half
  • Training is seen as a top priority by all
  • Levels of interaction with the public vary across
    agencies. This area requires attention.
  • More needs to be done to determine client
  • Forum shopping occurs as a consequence of the
    multiplicity of agencies

Case Loads
  • Difficult to obtain information on cases
  • Only certain agencies have readily available
    figures (Independent Complaints Directorate, SIU
    and SAPS Commercial Crime Branch)
  • Significant backlogs that need to be dealt with
    urgently. AG is busy with a project in this
  • Cases land up at agency not best placed to deal
    with e.g. Public Protector, PSC, ICD and
    Directorate Special Operations

Performance and cooperation
  • Performance can be improved through better use of
    shared resources
  • Interaction does take place between agencies-
    specifically prosecuting authorities
  • No formal agreement regarding coordination of
    case related information
  • Need for formal co-operation exists

Single agency
  • A Single agency will not be appropriate at this
  • Real concerns exists about the location, funding
    and mandate
  • Not merely encouraged because existing mechanisms
    are not functioning optimally
  • Priority to obtain current agencies with some
    rationalisation and formalising coordination
  • Complimented by an audit on the capacity of
    anti-corruption units in the various national and
    provincial departments in 2002

National Ethics Survey 2001
  • Undertaken in partnership with KPMG, Transparency
    South Africa
  • First ever survey of its kind
  • Purpose to assess the ethical infrastructure in
    place in public and private institutions
  • Provides snapshot of current ethics practices
  • A total of 166 respondents participated 30
    public service, 76 private sector, 60 civil
    society respondents

Ethics Survey Focus areas
  • Ethics documents
  • Ethics related evaluations
  • Responsibility for the ethics function
  • Resolution of ethics problems
  • Reporting mechanisms
  • Ethics training
  • Performance evaluation
  • Risk assessment
  • Future ethics management

Ethics Survey findings
  • Flaws in basic ethics infrastructure- many
    organisations have not integrated ethics
    management practices into other management
  • Few organisations train new employees on the code
    of conduct
  • Many organisations do not assign ethics
    management to a senior manager

Ethics Survey findings continued
  • Findings continued
  • 54 of respondents had access to confidential
    reporting mechanisms
  • 84 of organisations surveyed have written
    documents outlining organisational values and
  • Most organisations have codes of conduct and
    whistle blowing mechanisms

Explanatory Manual On The Code Of Conduct
  • Serves as guide to employees to understand and
    resolve ethical dilemmas in their daily work
  • Five focus areas
  • serving government
  • serving the public
  • professionalism and integrity
  • conflict of interest
  • working in the service
  • Produced 1 million pocket-sized booklets to be
    distributed to all public servants

Promotion and implementation of Whistle Blowing
  • Guidelines have been produced in easy to use,
    booklet format to serve as reference framework
  • Participatory and learning orientated workshops
    (in conjunction with Open Democracy Centre) are
    being conducted in the provinces
  • to familiarize public servants with the Protected
    Disclosures Act
  • to implement best management practice on whistle
    blowing mechanisms